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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780776

RESUMO

Overweight/obese dogs are at increased risk of health issues and it is up to the dog owner to uphold successful weight management. In children, overweight relates to their parent's permissive style of parenting. We predicted that permissive dog-directed parenting likewise associates with a dog being overweight (including obesity). If styles in parenting dogs indeed associate with a dog's overweight, these may provide action points for effective weight management. For 2,303 Dutch dog owners, answers on their dog's (nine-point scale) body condition scores were compared to ways of parenting the dog. We used an adapted version of the 32-item Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire and compared the distributions of dog counts across aggregated body condition score categories of underweight (scores one to three), healthy-weight (scores four and five) and overweight/obese (scores six to nine) with Chi-square tests across the quartiles of a given parenting style. Overweight/obese dogs were overrepresented in the quartile of dog owners with the highest level of permissive parenting, which is in line with findings on parenting styles and overweight/obesity in children. Supplementary logistic regression analyses on the likelihood of dogs being overweight/obese (i.e. having a body condition score of six or higher) confirmed the importance of parenting and identified the risk factors of dogs having little exercise, being of older age, neutered or owned by someone with lower level education. Our results indicate that strategies to promote proper weight management in dogs could benefit from addressing especially a dog owner's permissiveness in parenting his/her dog.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/patologia , Permissividade , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Países Baixos , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (35): 165-193, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139634

RESUMO

Resumo O presente artigo tem como intuito analisar a categoria "consentimento", deslocando o debate dos direitos sexuais para vidas e relacionamentos íntimos. Neste universo dos afetos no âmbito do ordinário, é possível vislumbrar as vicissitudes em que o consentimento é experienciado em meio às diversas negociações de fronteiras simbólicas e morais. O esforço aqui é compreender as limitações na interpretação do consentimento como um exercício da autonomia e da razão frente às torções que a intimidade lhe imprime, possibilitando outras gramáticas do consentir e evidenciando seu caráter poroso, ambivalente e amiudado. Para tal, apresentaremos três etnografias que estão comprometidas com um olhar fenomenológico da vida ordinária: sobre mulheres trans e travestis que buscam relações e casamentos estáveis, sobre mães 'nervosas' e seus 'corpos abertos' em territórios de precariedade social e sobre negociações complicadas na inserção de um familiar condenado por estupro.


Abstract This article analyzes the category "consent" by shifting the debate on sexual rights to lives and intimate relationships. In this scenario of everyday affections, it is possible to glimpse the vicissitudes in which consent is experienced in the midst of the various negotiations of symbolic and moral boundaries. Hence, the efforts to understand the limitations in the interpretation of consent as an exercise in autonomy and reason, lays in the torsions that intimacy imprints on it, enabling other dynamics of consent and highlighting its porose, ambivalent, repetitive character. To this end, we will present three ethnographies that are committed to a phenomenological view of everyday life: trans and transvestite ("travesti") women who seek stable relationships and marriages, 'nervous' mothers and their 'open bodies' in territories of social precariousness, and the complicated negotiations regarding the insertion of a family member convicted of rape.


Resumen Este artículo tiene el objetivo de analizar la categoría "consentimiento" desplazando el debate del ámbito de los derechos sexuales a las vidas y las relaciones íntimas. En este universo de afectos en el cotidiano es posible vislumbrar las vicisitudes en las que se experimenta el consentimiento en medio de diversas negociaciones de límites simbólicos y morales. El esfuerzo aquí es comprender las limitaciones en la interpretación del consentimiento como un ejercicio de autonomía y razón frente a las torsiones que la intimidad le imprime, permitiendo otras gramáticas del consentir y dejando en evidencia su carácter poroso y ambivalente. Con este fin, presentaremos tres etnografías que están comprometidas con una visión fenomenológica de la vida ordinaria sobre mujeres trans y travestis que buscan relaciones y matrimonios estables; madres 'nerviosas' y sus 'cuerpos abiertos' en territorios de precariedad social y negociaciones complicadas en la inserción de un miembro de la familia condenado por violación sexual.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Privacidade , Afeto , Vulnerabilidade Social , Autonomia Pessoal , Emoções , Relações Familiares , Permissividade , Estupro , Casamento , Violência Doméstica , Educação , Iniquidade Social , Pessoas Transgênero , Antropologia Cultural , Relações Mãe-Filho
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1098, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender differences in alcohol use are more substantial among early adolescents in China than in the United States, presumably because of more permissive drinking norms for boys than girls in Chinese culture. This study tested a theory that gender differences in early experimentation with alcohol can be reduced through general parenting practices. Whereas traditional research has identified mediators of gender differences in alcohol use, the current research isolated moderators of gender differences and developed their implications for prevention programs. METHODS: The study analyzed the data from the China Global School-Based Student Health Survey (n = 8805 middle school students in four cities). Youth completed anonymous surveys in classroom settings. The study examined interaction effects between gender and parenting variables using multiple regression with robust standard errors. RESULTS: Early adolescent boys exhibited higher levels of drinking than girls for all drinking outcomes. The gender differences in drinking were negatively associated with the level of perceived parental monitoring, parental involvement in adolescent school performance, and parental empathy in a nonlinear way. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggested that early adolescents' perceptions of general parenting practice nonlinearly moderated gender disparities in alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Permissividade , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Index enferm ; 29(1/2): 69-73, ene.-jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197432

RESUMO

JUSTIFICACIÓN: Se presentan los resultados de la encuesta sobre la sensibilización en materia de género, violencias y salud realizada durante el proyecto "Violencias sexuales según el paradigma de las violencias de género: un proyecto de aprendizaje servicio" llevado a cabo con el alumnado de 1er curso de Enfermería (2017-2018), de la Universitat de Vic. OBJETIVO: Identificar si la participación del alumnado de Enfermería en el proyecto supone una disminución de su tolerancia ante situaciones de violencias de género, que les permita identificar de forma más eficaz actitudes y comportamientos sexistas en su entorno. MÉTODO: Se llevó a cabo un diseño pre-test y post-test con grupo único basado en un muestreo de conveniencia por cuotas en estudiantes del primer curso de Enfermería. Se recogieron un total de 96 respuestas y, sucesivamente, 64. RESULTADOS: Se ha observado una falta de educación en materia de género dentro de los espacios formales de aprendizaje, además, dicha ausencia se relaciona con la percepción que se construye entorno al riesgo. Como resultados se generan y refuerzan estereotipos que no corresponden a la evidencia científica existente. No se destacan diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: El proyecto ha incluido una formación en cuestiones de género, violencias y salud. Dicho aprendizaje-servicio ha aumentado el grado de sensibilización en materia de género evidenciando una importante disminución de la tolerancia ante situaciones de violencias y una mayor identificación de actitudes y comportamientos sexistas en su entorno. Estos elementos se consideran competencias enfermeras fundamentales para detectar y atender situaciones de violencias en Atención Primaria y Urgencias


JUSTIFICATION: The results of the survey on awareness of gender, violence and health carried out with first year students of Nursing (2017-2018) at University of Vic. OBJECTIVE: Identify if the participation of Nursing students in the project involves a decrease in their tolerance of situations of gender violence, which allows them to more effectively identify sexist attitudes and behaviours in their environment. METHOD: A pre-test and post-test design was carried out with a single group based on a sampling of convenience by quotas with the students of Nursing. A total of 96 responses were collected and, successively, 64. RESULTS: A lack of gender education has been observed within formal learning spaces in nursing students and that this absence is related to the perception that is built around risk. These generate and reinforce stereotypes that do not correspond to the scientific evidence we handle.No significant differences between men and women are highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: The project has included training in gender, violence and health issues.This service-learning has increased the degree of gender awareness, showing a significant decrease in tolerance in situations of violence and a greater identification of sexist attitudes and behaviours in their environment. These elements are considered fundamental nursing competencies to detect and attend situations of gender-based violence in primary and emergencies


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência de Gênero , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Permissividade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Enfermagem em Emergência , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 179-185, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore university health science students' intimate partner violence tolerance and sexist attitudes and to examine their trend throughout the academic years. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of students of both sexes of the degrees of medicine, nursing, and psychology from three selected Spanish universities (n = 1,322). Data were collected anonymously using two validated scales: the Dating Violence Questionnaire (DVQ-R) and the Gender Role Attitudes Scale (GRAS). Logistic regressions were used to compare tolerance toward violence and sexist attitudes across the degrees. The evolution of these variables throughout different academic courses was assessed. RESULTS: Of the sample, 62.8% were tolerant towards intimate partner violence. The percentage of tolerant students was significantly higher in Psychology (75.9%) than in Nursing (57.7%) and Medicine Degrees (60.3%). A higher percentage of sexist students was also found in psychology students (80.8%) than in nursing (62.2%) and medicine students (62.7%).compared to the first-year students, female medicine students of the last courses were less tolerant to intimate partner violence (p-trend <0.001), and male medicine students had less sexist attitudes (p-trend = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Tolerance of intimate partner violence and sexist attitudes were very high, especially among psychology students. These indicators were significantly better among medicine students of higher courses, suggesting a positive effect of medical training. Intimate partner violence in the university education of the future health professionals should be addressed


OBJETIVO: Explorar la tolerancia de la violencia en la pareja y las actitudes sexistas en estudiantes universitarios/as de ciencias de la salud, y estudiar su tendencia a lo largo de los cursos. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal en estudiantes de ambos sexos de medicina, enfermería y psicología de tres universidades españolas (n = 1322). Se utilizaron dos escalas validadas y anónimas: Cuestionario de Violencia entre Novios-Revisado (DVQ-R) y Escala de Actitudes de Rol de Género (EARG). Mediante regresiones logísticas se compararon la tolerancia al abuso y las actitudes sexistas entre titulaciones, y se estudió su evolución a lo largo de la formación académica. RESULTADOS: El 62,8% se mostraron tolerantes ante la violencia en la pareja. El porcentaje de estudiantes tolerantes fue significativamente más elevado en psicología (75,9%) que en enfermería (57,7%) y medicina (60,3%). También se encontró un mayor porcentaje de estudiantes sexistas en psicología (80,8%) que en enfermería (62,2%) y medicina (62,7%). En comparación con estudiantes de nuevo acceso, las estudiantes de medicina de los últimos cursos fueron menos tolerantes a la violencia (p <0,001) y los estudiantes de medicina varones tuvieron menos actitudes sexistas (p = 0,002). CONCLUSIONES: La tolerancia de la violencia en la pareja y las actitudes sexistas fueron muy elevadas, especialmente en psicología. Estos indicadores fueron significativamente mejores en estudiantes de medicina de los cursos superiores, lo que sugiere un efecto positivo de la formación médica. Se debería mejorar el abordaje de la violencia en la pareja en la formación universitaria de los/las futuros/as profesionales sanitarios/as


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Permissividade , Violência contra a Mulher , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais
6.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(1): 46-51, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194421

RESUMO

Los estilos de socialización parental (ESP) han sido motivo de estudio debido a las consecuencias que pueden presentar en la vida de una persona. Los estilos pueden variar en función de variables contextuales como la cultura, creencias, educación, tipos de familia o nivel socioeconómico (NSE). El principal objetivo de estudio fue describir los ESP como una aproximación a la forma de crianza utilizada por padres, madres o cuidadores en Chile. Se realizó un estudio no experimental-descriptivo con una muestra de 875 adolescentes entre 11 y 18 años (M = 14.12; DT = 1.82), 51% varones, de cuatro NSE (bajo, medio bajo, medio y medio alto) y de siete ciudades de Chile. Se utilizó un cuestionario sociodemográfico para caracterizar a la muestra y el Cuestionario de Estilos de Socialización Parental en la Adolescencia (ESPA29). Los resultados evidencian diferencias en la configuración de los ESP. En madres, la configuración de los ESP (en orden descendente) fue: democrático, indulgente, negligente y autoritario y en padres: indulgente, negligente, democrático y autoritario, con diferencias según NSE. En el bajo son percibidos por sus hijos como mayoritariamente indulgentes, mientras que, en el medio alto, ambos padres son considerados mayoritariamente democráticos. Hay también diferencias en la configuración de ESP según sexo. Estos resultados permitirían focalizar intervenciones en las comunidades educativas sobre la importancia de la crianza y diferencias o características entre estilos. También puede ser útil como base a otras investigaciones sobre consecuencias parentales en variables como rendimiento académico, problemas conductuales, emocionales o de personalidad


The styles of parental socialization (ESP) have been the subject of different studies in the social sciences and especially in psychology due to the consequences that styles can present in the life of a person. The literature has evidence that styles may vary depending on contextual variables such as culture, beliefs, education, family types or socioeconomic levels (NSE). The main objective of the study was to describe the ESP as an approximation to the form of parenting used by parents, mothers or caregivers (PMC) in Chile. A non-experimental-descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 875 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years (M = 14.12, SD= 1.82), 51% males, of four NSE (low, medium low, medium and medium high) from seven cities in Chile. A sociodemographic survey was used to characterize the sample, and the Styles of Parental Socialization in Adolescence Questionnaire (ESPA29). The results show differences in the configuration of ESP between PMC. In mothers, the configuration of ESP (in descending order) was: democratic, indulgent, negligent and authoritarian and in parents: indulgent, negligent, democratic and authoritarian, there are differences according to NSE. In the low are perceived by their children as mostly forgiving, while in the upper middle, both parents are considered mostly democratic. There are also differences in the ESP configuration according to sex. These results would allow to focus interventions in educational communities on the importance of parenting and differences or characteristics between styles. It can also be useful as a basis for other research on parental consequences in variables such as academic performance, behavioral, emotional and personality problems


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Socialização , Autoritarismo , Permissividade , Chile
7.
Ansiedad estrés ; 25(2): 79-84, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190727

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La tolerancia al estrés se define como la capacidad para experimentar y resistir estados psicológicos negativos. Recientemente ha sido estudiada en relación con diversos aspectos psicopatológicos, pero no de forma suficiente con otras variables no clínicas, entre ellas la edad. La presente investigación surge debido al creciente interés en incluir la variable tolerancia al estrés en la investigación clínica y la escasez de estudios en español al respecto. El objetivo es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de la escala de tolerancia al estrés en muestras mexicanas, evaluar su relación con el estrés percibido y comparar sus puntuaciones por grupos de edad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se compone de 2 muestras de conveniencia, la primera de 225 personas, con edad promedio de 34.1 años (DE = 13.9), el 71.6% mujeres y el 28.4% hombres. La muestra 2 se compone de 384 universitarios, con edad promedio de 19.4 años (DE = 3.1) el 73.2% mujeres y el 26.8% hombres. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron valores adecuados de consistencia interna en ambas muestras. Se confirmó la estructura de 4 factores con uno de segundo orden. Las correlaciones entre la mayoría de las subescalas de tolerancia al estrés fueron significativas en ambas muestras, al igual que las correlaciones (negativas) entre estrés percibido y tolerancia al estrés. Las puntuaciones fueron equivalentes entre los diferentes grupos de edad. CONCLUSIONES: Se concluye que es una escala con adecuadas propiedades psicométricas, y que la versión española es adecuada para ser utilizada en población mexicana y posiblemente latina


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Distress tolerance is defined as the ability to experience and resist negative psychological states. Recently it has been studied in relation to different psychopathological aspects, but not enough in relation to other non-clinical variables, including age. This research arises due to the growing interest in including distress tolerance in clinical research and the scarcity of studies in Spanish in this regard. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Distress Tolerance Scale in a Mexican sample; and to assess their relationship with perceived stress and compare their scores by age groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consists of 2 convenience samples, the first of 225 people, with an average age of 34.1 years (SD = 13.9), 71.6% women and 28.4% men. Sample 2 is composed of 384 university students, with an average age of 19.4 years (SD = 3.1) 73.2% women and 26.8% men. RESULTS: We found adequate values of reliability in both samples. The 4 factor structure with a second order structure was confirmed. The correlations between most of the distress tolerance subscales were significant in both samples, as well as the negative correlation between perceived stress and distress tolerance. The scores were equivalent among the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that this is a scale with adequate psychometric properties and that the Spanish version is suitable to be used in the Mexican population and possibly in the Latin population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Permissividade , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Etários , Psicometria , México
9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(12): 1956-1969, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156007

RESUMO

Background: Past research indicated that future orientation might protect against substance use; however, this potential had not yet been examined in the context of a multiple risk factor model that would include different parenting styles and indicators of the material situation. Additionally, past research draws primarily from a limited set of geographical regions, often using convenience samples of children and adolescents. Objectives: The current study addresses these issues by examining (in)direct relationships between substance use (alcohol, marijuana, hard drugs), future orientation, different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), and family housing conditions, using a representative sample of Slovenian youth. Methods: Correlational and path analyses were used to test the proposed hypotheses. Additionally, possible mediating pathways were examined and evaluated. Results: Findings indicated a negative relation between future orientation and use of all substances. Next, future orientation fully mediated the effect of authoritative parenting on substance use. Finally, housing conditions had a direct and positive effect on authoritative parenting, a direct and an indirect effect on future orientation and only an indirect (through authoritative parenting and future orientation) effect on substance use. Conclusions: Results, besides indicating the relevance of future orientation in understanding substance use among youth, highlight the importance of authoritative parenting (that spans beyond childhood and adolescence) and housing conditions on the development of future orientation. In addition, findings highlight the importance of the material situation when examining antecedents of substance use among youth that might be missed if only direct effects are observed. Results are discussed in the context of the risk factor paradigm.


Assuntos
Habitação , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Autoritarismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Permissividade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Acta Paediatr ; 108(9): 1616-1623, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790352

RESUMO

AIM: Early-life atypical sensory functioning and behavioural profiles are often associated with long-term developmental problems, especially in former preterm infants. We tested whether parenting style is associated with atypical sensory threshold or behavioural outcomes in preterm and term infants assessed during early childhood. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated parenting style for a cohort of term and preterm infants who had previous assessments of sensory development and behaviour. We used standardised tools to evaluate parenting style, sensory neurological threshold at one year, and internalising and externalising behavioural tendencies at two years. Covariates included gestational age, sex and maternal education. RESULTS: For the entire cohort (n = 82), children of more permissive parents were 2.7 times more likely to demonstrate abnormal sensory neurological thresholds compared to children of parents with less permissive styles (CI: 1.4-4.9). More permissive parenting scores were also associated with 2.4 times increased internalising (CI: 1.3-4.2) and 3.0 times increased externalising (CI: 1.6-5.6) tendencies. In the preterm group only, higher authoritative parenting scores were associated with fewer behavioural problems. CONCLUSION: Permissive parenting is associated with worse infant sensory and behavioural outcomes. Authoritative parenting is associated with fewer behavioural problems in preterm children. Modification of parenting style may improve sensory development and behavioural outcomes.


Assuntos
Autoritarismo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Permissividade , Limiar Sensorial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(4): 758-766, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30748022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that parents have a significant influence on emerging adult college students' drinking during the first year of college. Limited research has been conducted to address the question of whether parenting later in college continues to matter in a similar manner. The current study utilized a prospective design to identify associations between parental permissiveness toward alcohol use and monitoring behaviors and student drinking outcomes during the first and fourth years of college. METHODS: Participants (N = 1,429) at 3 large public universities completed surveys during the fall semesters of their first (T1) and fourth years (T2) (84.3% retention). The study employed a saturated autoregressive cross-lag model to examine associations between parental permissiveness of college student alcohol use, parental monitoring, student drinking, and consequences at T1 and T2, controlling for peer norms, sex, and campus. RESULTS: Examination of the association between parenting and student drinking outcomes revealed: (i) parental permissiveness was positively associated with drinking at T1 and again at T2; (ii) parental permissiveness had indirect effects on consequences via the effects on drinking at both times. Specifically, a 1-unit increase in parental permissiveness at T1 resulted in students experiencing 4 to 5 more consequences as a result of their drinking; (iii) parental permissiveness was not directly associated with monitoring at T1 or T2; and (iv) parental monitoring was significantly associated with drinking at T1 but not T2. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide evidence for the continued importance of parenting in the fourth year of college and parents expressing low permissiveness toward student drinking may be beneficial to reducing risky drinking even as students turn 21.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Permissividade , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 125: 241-248, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798149

RESUMO

This paper builds a method to detect the apparent restrictiveness or permissiveness of communities towards drunk-driving. A framework of three mutually interacting community domains is used to motivate a minimum set of DUI patterns to be expected from an appropriately deterrent environment. Based on the (simplified) system dynamics model, an empirical estimation strategy and scoring methodology is outlined. This "macroscopic" approach is demonstrated using results from time-series panel analyses of California's 58 counties for the years 1990 to 2010 (Van Vleck et al., 2017). The process successfully classified three-quarters of California counties, encompassing almost 90% of the state population. The paper demonstrates a potential tool to classify communities' systemic behavior toward drinking-and-driving and other enforcement-sensitive subjects.


Assuntos
Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Permissividade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , California , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 101-112.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595552

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are hematophagous vectors that can acquire human viruses in their intestinal tract. Here, we define a mosquito gut commensal bacterium that promotes permissiveness to arboviruses. Antibiotic depletion of gut bacteria impaired arboviral infection of a lab-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito strain. Reconstitution of individual cultivable gut bacteria in antibiotic-treated mosquitoes identified Serratia marcescens as a commensal bacterium critical for efficient arboviral acquisition. S. marcescens facilitates arboviral infection through a secreted protein named SmEnhancin, which digests membrane-bound mucins on the mosquito gut epithelia, thereby enhancing viral dissemination. Field Aedes mosquitoes positive for S. marcescens were more permissive to dengue virus infection than those free of S. marcescens. Oral introduction of S. marcescens into field mosquitoes that lack this bacterium rendered these mosquitoes highly susceptible to arboviruses. This study defines a commensal-driven mechanism that contributes to vector competence, and extends our understanding of multipartite interactions among hosts, the gut microbiome, and viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Culicidae/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Permissividade , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Aedes/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arbovirus , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Dengue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Interações Microbianas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Serratia marcescens/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 1-2, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629911

RESUMO

Commensal bacteria that colonize the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can influence the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wu et al. (2019) show that Serratia marcescens bacteria secrete enhancin proteins that cleave membrane-bound mucins, thereby facilitating dengue virus infection of midgut epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Arbovirus , Vírus da Dengue , Animais , Permissividade , Serratia marcescens
15.
J Virol ; 93(6)2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602612

RESUMO

Human enteroviruses of species A (EV-A) are the leading cause of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 is frequently implicated in HFMD outbreaks and can also cause severe neurological manifestations. We investigated the molecular epidemiological processes at work and the contribution of genetic recombination to the evolutionary history of EV-A in Madagascar, focusing on the recently described EV-A71 genogroup F in particular. Twenty-three EV-A isolates, collected mostly in 2011 from healthy children living in various districts of Madagascar, were characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Eight different types were identified, highlighting the local circulation and diversity of EV-A. Comparative genome analysis revealed evidence of frequent recent intra- and intertypic genetic exchanges between the noncapsid sequences of Madagascan EV-A isolates. The three EV-A71 isolates had different evolutionary histories in terms of recombination, with one isolate displaying a mosaic genome resulting from recent genetic exchanges with Madagascan coxsackieviruses A7 and possibly A5 and A10 or common ancestors. The engineering and characterization of recombinants generated from progenitors belonging to different EV-A types or EV-A71 genogroups with distantly related nonstructural sequences indicated a high level of permissiveness for intertypic genetic exchange in EV-A. This permissiveness suggests that the primary viral functions associated with the nonstructural sequences have been highly conserved through the diversification and evolution of the EV-A species. No outbreak of disease due to EV-A has yet been reported in Madagascar, but the diversity, circulation, and evolution of these viruses justify surveillance of EV-A circulation and HFMD cases to prevent possible outbreaks due to emerging strains.IMPORTANCE Human enteroviruses of species A (EV-A), including EV-A71, are the leading cause of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and may also cause severe neurological manifestations. We investigated the circulation and molecular evolution of EV-A in Madagascar, focusing particularly on the recently described EV-A71 genogroup F. Eight different types, collected mostly in 2011, were identified, highlighting the local circulation and diversity of EV-A. Comparative genome analysis revealed evidence of frequent genetic exchanges between the different types of isolates. The three EV-A71 isolates had different evolutionary histories in terms of recombination. The engineering and characterization of recombinants involving progenitors belonging to different EV-A types indicated a high degree of permissiveness for genetic exchange in EV-A. No outbreak of disease due to EV-A has yet been reported in Madagascar, but the diversity, circulation, and evolution of these viruses justify the surveillance of EV-A circulation to prevent possible HFMD outbreaks due to emerging strains.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pré-Escolar , Chlorocebus aethiops , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Células HEK293 , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/genética , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Humanos , Madagáscar , Epidemiologia Molecular , Permissividade , Filogenia , Células Vero , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
16.
J Sex Res ; 56(6): 705-717, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746189

RESUMO

Much of the research on sexual attitudes has focused on biological sex as a predictor variable. This work has consistently demonstrated that men are more permissive in attitudes toward casual sex than are women. Less is known, however, about how other individual difference variables may shape sexual attitudes. In this research, we considered whether self-construal (whether one believes that others are or are not part of their self-concept) influences people's attitudes toward casual sex. Specifically, we posited that an independent self-construal is positively related to, and an interdependent self-construal is negatively related to, sexual permissiveness. Two cross-sectional studies (ns = 517 and 212) yielded support for these hypotheses. We further considered autonomy as a potential process variable. A mediation analysis revealed that self-construal was related to autonomy, which in turn positively predicted sexual attitudes and drove this association. We integrate these findings into the literature on sexual attitudes and discuss theoretical insights derived from our findings.


Assuntos
Permissividade , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(1): 78-88, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social Learning Theory suggests how one conceptualizes time will be passed from parent to child (Bandura & Walters, 1963). Through the lens of Behavioral Economics Theory (Vuchinich & Simpson, 1998), impaired control may be characterized as consuming alcohol as a form of immediate gratification as a choice over more distal rewards. Because impaired control reflects a self-regulation failure specific to the drinking situation, it may be directly related to time-perspectives. OBJECTIVES: This investigation explored whether or not the indirect influences of perceived parenting styles on alcohol use and related problems is mediated by both facets of time-perspective (e.g. hedonism, present-fatalism, future, past-positive, past-negative) and impaired control over drinking. METHODS: We examined a structural equation model with 391 (207 women; 184 men) college student drinkers. We used an asymmetric bias-corrected bootstrap technique to conduct mediational analyses (MacKinnon, 2008). RESULTS: Higher levels of past-positive time-perspective were indirectly linked to both less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems through less impaired control. In contrast, higher levels of present-fatalism were indirectly linked to more alcohol use through more impaired control. Higher levels of father permissiveness and mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both more impaired control and alcohol use through more present-fatalism. In addition, higher levels of father authoritarianism were indirectly linked to more alcohol use through more hedonism. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Our results support the notion that drinking beyond one's self-prescribed limits is associated with time-perspectives related to negative aspects of the parent-offspring socialization process, such as fatalism.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Autoritarismo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Permissividade , Aprendizado Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-987054

RESUMO

En el presente artículo se hace un análisis teórico desde el discurso de Freud acerca de las vicisitudes de las posiciones subjetivas del odio insertadas en dinámicas de intolerancia a la alteridad y a la diferencia. El método utilizado fue la revisión teórica documental y la de los textos como apertura de sentido, haciendo un recorrido por la obra de Freud, así como por otros referentes del pensamiento psicoanalítico. El objetivo consiste en analizar las incidencias del odio como problemática de actualidad, enlazando al psicoanálisis con las dimensiones sociales y culturales. Como resultado se puede revelar el papel fundante del odio en las relaciones con la alteridad inserta en el mundo exterior y se vislumbra la ilusoria alteridad amable del narcisismo. Así como se detectan los efectos delirantes del rechazo de la identidad amorosa homosexual. Se concluye el despliegue de la diferencia como riesgo y amenaza al narcisismo de la posición fálica o del amor de sí, mostrando un escenario del odio a las pequeñas diferencias, bajo el moldeamiento de un estado de suspicacia feroz volcado en una postura de intransigencia que se extiende desde el mítico padre primordial hasta el Dios celoso de su unicidad.


The paper displays a theoretical analysis according to Freud's discourse about the vicissitudes of subjective positions in hatred, inserted in dynamics of intolerence to otherness and to difference. The method used for the analysis is the theoretical research and the of the texts with an open sense, taking a journey through through Freud's works, as primary source; as well as the usage of other psychoanalitic secondary references to analyse a current predicament, linking psychoanalysis to the social and cultural dimensión. As result of it, we show the founding role of hatred in relation to the external factor, and it is glimpsed the imaginay kind otherness of narcisism and the delirant effects of rejection of homosexual loving identity. It is concluded that the display of differences is set as a risk and narcisistic threat of the phallic position of love, showing a scenary of hatred thowards the small differences, under the shape of a state of violent suspicion for God and the fundamental father.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ódio , Permissividade , Teoria Freudiana , Narcisismo
19.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 16(1): 76, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient recruitment can be very challenging in paediatric studies, especially in relatively uncommon conditions, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, involving children and young people (CYP) in the design of such trials could promise a more rapid trajectory towards making evidence-based treatments available. Studies involving CYP are advocated in the literature but we are not aware of any early stage feasibility studies that have qualitatively accessed the perspectives of parents and CYP with a long term condition to inform design and conduct of a trial. In the context of a feasibility study to inform the design of a proposed randomised controlled trial of corticosteroid induction regimen in JIA, we explored families' perspectives on the proposed trial and on JIA trials generally. METHODS: We analysed interviews with 27 participants (8 CYP aged 8-16 years and 19 parents) from four UK paediatric rheumatology centres. CYP had recently received corticosteroids to treat JIA. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically, drawing on the Framework Method. RESULTS: Both parents and CYP were capable of engaging with the logic of the proposed trial but pointed to challenges with its design. Treatment preferences influenced willingness to participate in the proposed trial. The preferences of older children and their parents often differed, with CYP being more willing to participate in the proposed trial than parents. Families' current treatment preferences were largely informed by past positive and negative treatment experiences. Some participants also indicated that their treatment preferences were influenced by those of their clinicians. CONCLUSION: Previous research has typically focused on deficits in patients' understandings of trials. We found that both parents and CYP understood trial concepts and were able to identify potential flaws in the proposed trial. We propose recommendations to optimise the design of a planned corticosteroid induction regimen trial in JIA. Accessing both parents' and CYP's perspectives helps to identify and address recruitment challenges, which will ultimately optimise informed consent and future recruitment.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pais , Permissividade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Reino Unido
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 410-419, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-959249

RESUMO

Objective: The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) is used worldwide to assess three styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) and seven dimensions of parenting. In this study, we adapted the short version of the PSDQ for use in Brazil and investigated its validity and reliability. Methods: Participants were 451 mothers of children aged 3 to 18 years, though sample size varied with analyses. The translation and adaptation of the PSDQ followed a rigorous methodological approach. Then, we investigated the content, criterion, and construct validity of the adapted instrument. Results: The scale content validity index (S-CVI) was considered adequate (0.97). There was evidence of internal validity, with the PSDQ dimensions showing strong correlations with their higher-order parenting styles. Confirmatory factor analysis endorsed the three-factor, second-order solution (i.e., three styles consisting of seven dimensions). The PSDQ showed convergent validity with the validated Brazilian version of the Parenting Styles Inventory (Inventário de Estilos Parentais - IEP), as well as external validity, as it was associated with several instruments measuring sociodemographic and behavioral/emotional-problem variables. Conclusion: The PSDQ is an effective and reliable psychometric instrument to assess childrearing strategies according to Baumrind's model of parenting styles.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Poder Familiar , Permissividade , Psicometria , Autoritarismo , Traduções , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
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