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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124595, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445330

RESUMO

Earthworms are often used as test subjects in toxicological studies, due to their ubiquitousness and sensitivity to contaminant exposure. Such testing is typically conducted using Eisenia fetida as the test subject, but continued use of E. fetida (eco) toxicology is questionable. Therefore, in this study three earthworm species, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea trapezoides and E. fetida, were exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) nitrate in artificial soil for 7, 14 and 28 days. A biomarker of genotoxicity (TUNEL assay), biochemical markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)], weight loss, lethal toxicity (LC50) and subcellular partitioning were assessed. Cadmium and Pb caused significant inhibition in TAC and growth and significant increases in DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in the earthworms. Acute toxicity rank (14 days) for both Cd and Pb were E. fetida > A. trapezoides > A. rosea. Subcellular partitioning of Cd and Pb in the earthworms were cytosol > debris > granules and debris > granules > cytosol, respectively. Comparison of biomarker responses between study species showed that E. fetida proved to be less susceptible to Cd and Pb exposure than A. rosea and A. trapezoides. Therefore, this study confirms that A. rosea and A. trapezoides are more suitable as subjects than E. fetida for the soil toxicity tests, because of both their greater susceptibility to toxicants and in their abundance in the field.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/classificação , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125454, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505413

RESUMO

The effects of the (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-gelatin biofilm treatment (EGT) on microbial composition and quality of tilapia fillets stored at low temperatures were evaluated. The changes in mechanical properties, microbial reproduction, as well as lipid and protein oxidation during fillets storage were determined. The results showed that EGT reduced the microbial count and the relative abundance of the fillets. And EGT delayed the rate of lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in fillets. Compared with the control group, EGT samples had lower K values (74% on 18 d) and biogenic amines (39 mg/kg for putrescine and 50 mg/kg for cadaverine on 21 d). According to sensory evaluation, the shelf life of tilapia fillets was extended by 6 d in the EGT group. Therefore, EGT improved the quality of cryopreserved tilapia fillets and could be considered as a potential method for fish fillet preservation.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Gelatina/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desnaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/química , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Food Chem ; 305: 125483, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610420

RESUMO

Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Jinkui) were treated with 0.1 mmol/L methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to investigate the effects on disease resistance to soft rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. The results showed that MeJA treatment significantly reduced the diameter of lesions after inoculation with B. dothidea. This treatment significantly enhanced the activities of related antioxidant protective enzymes, defence-related enzymes including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), chitinase (CHI), ß-1,3 glucanase (GLU) and increased the accumulation of total phenolic content, while the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation was reduced. MeJA treatment effectively enhanced gene expression of AcPOD, AcSOD, AcCHI and AcGLU. The results from this research suggest that MeJA treatment is a promising and safe strategy for controlling postharvest rot soft of kiwifruit.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Actinidia/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Actinidia/química , Actinidia/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 307: 125515, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648177

RESUMO

This study evaluated the polyphenol profile and the antioxidative properties of Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel fruits. Folin-Ciocalteau and pH-jumping methods indicated that these berries are a major source of antioxidant polyphenols (1201.05 mg GAE/100 g FW), particularly anthocyanins. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified cyanidine glycosides as the main components. Flavon-3-ols and hydrolysable-tannins were also found. CAA assay showed that extracts of P. trunciflora fruits prevent lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells with higher efficacy than other colourful fruits (CAA50 935.25 mg FW/mL cell medium). Moreover, our results suggested that the observed antioxidant protection involve both redox active properties of P. trunciflora components, as measured by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, and upregulation of the genes coding for the antioxidant enzymes MnSOD and GPx, as evaluated by qRT-PCR. Collectively, our data provided evidence on the potential of P. trunciflora fruit as a very rich source of natural antioxidant molecules.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Myrtaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180975, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721920

RESUMO

This study investigated the ability of formulation containing Zingiber officinale (ginger) to reverse health changes promoted by unhealthy diet in Wistar rats. Five compounds from the gingerol family and three from the shogaol family were identified in the chromatographic analyzes of the extract. The animals were fed a combination of unhealthy foods, the cafeteria diet, which promoted increases in body weight, hepatocyte nucleus area, total hepatocyte area and liver fat accumulation, as well as reduced hepatic glutathione S-transferase concentration, compared to the control group, which received commercial chow. The treatment with ginger improved all these results, highlighting the reduction of 10% of body weight and 66% of the total area of lipid droplets deposited, compared to the group that received the cafeteria diet. Ginger treatments also attenuated lipid peroxidation, with a mean reduction of 41% in malondialdehyde levels and a mean increase of 222% in glutathione S-transferase activity in the liver. The cafeteria diet and ginger extract did not promote significant changes in glycemic and lipid profile, liver weight and liver enzymes compared to the control group. We suggest that ginger can have beneficial effects on health complications associated with unhealthy diet, such as excessive adiposity, oxidative stress and hepatic injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/etnologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/lesões , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Life Sci ; 237: 116893, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606381

RESUMO

AIM: Gastric cancer (GC) is a common human malignancy tumor of digestive tract in worldwide. Physcion 8-O-ß-glucopyranoside (PG) exhibits anti-tumor effects in various cancer cells. This study aimed to explore the biological behavior effects of PG on GC cells, and determine its underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of PG treatment on the ferroptotic GC cell death was detected by ROS level, intracellular Fe2+ level and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation in vitro. The mRNA expression was detected by RT-qPCR. The interaction between miR-103a-3p and glutaminase 2 (GLS2) were verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Cell proliferation, invasion and migration were examined by CCK-8 and Transwell assay. Western blot was used to examine the expression of GLS2, SLC1A5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related proteins. We also evaluated the influence of PG on the tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. RESULTS: PG-induced ferroptosis in GC cells through upregulating ROS level, intracellular Fe2+ level and MDA generation. Besides, PG also significantly enhanced the protein level of GLS2, which was an important transporter of glutamine to glutamate. Importantly, miR-103a-3p directly interacted with GLS2 and suppressed its expression. Mechanistically, PG treatment significantly promoted ferroptosis and anti-tumorigenesis by downregulating inhibitory effect of miR-103a-3p on GLS2 expression. CONCLUSION: Our studies confirmed that PG exerts pro-ferroptosis and anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo through regulating miR-103a-3p/GLS2 axis, thereby highlighting its therapeutic potential in GC.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Emodina/farmacologia , Feminino , Glutaminase/genética , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Inflammopharmacology ; 27(5): 941-948, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482259

RESUMO

Metformin (MET), a biguanide oral hypoglycaemic agent, recently has been shown to be effective in various conditions other than type-2 diabetes including cancer, stroke, weight reduction, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, to name a few. MET has also possessed antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties by activation of AMPK . This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of MET on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and behavioural changes. The study consisted of six groups, where three selected doses of MET (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) were employed in male Swiss albino mice, with one group of imipramine (IMI), saline, and LPS each. Systemic inflammation was induced by injecting LPS (1.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal route. A battery of behavioural tests including open field, forced swim, and tail suspension tests were employed to assess the impact of systemic inflammation on exploratory behaviour and learned helplessness. LPS induced significant immobility with profound symptoms of sickness behaviour. Furthermore, LPS led to significant increase in serum and brain proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6; and also increased lipid peroxidation with reduced glutathione levels. Pretreatment of the animals with 100 and 200 mg/kg of MET significantly reduced both systemic and central inflammatory markers along with protecting against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The higher dose, 300 mg/kg of MET was not effective against most of LPS-induced biochemical changes. Our preliminary results from this study suggest the antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MET in LPS-induced model of sickness behaviour and neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 313: 108821, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525342

RESUMO

Decrease in the bioavailability of vasoactive nitric oxide (NO), derived from the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), underlines vascular endothelial damage. Our expanding knowledge on mature red blood cells (RBCs) makes it supposable that RBCs might contribute to vascular function and integrity via their active NO synthetizing system (RBC-NOS3). This "rescue" mechanism of RBCs could be especially important during pregnancy with smoking habit, when smoking acts as an additional stressor and causes active change in the redox status. In this study RBC populations of 82 non-smoking (RBC-NS) and 75 smoking (RBC-S) pregnant women were examined. Morphological variants were followed by confocal microscopy and quantified by a microscopy based intelligent analysis software. Fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to examine the translational and posttranslational regulation of RBC-NOS, Arginase-1 and the formation of the major product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. To survey the rheological parameters of RBCs like elasticity and plasticity atomic force microscopy-based measurement was applied. Significant morphological and functional differences of RBCs were found between the non-smoking and smoking groups. The phenotypic variations in RBC-S population, even the characteristic biconcave disc-shaped cells, could be connected to impaired NOS3 activation and are compromised in their physiological properties. Membrane lipid studies reveal an elevated lipid oxidation state well paralleled with the changed elastic and plastic activities. These features can form a basic tool in the prenatal health screening conditions; hence the compensatory mechanism of RBC-S population completely fails to sense and rescue the acute oxidative stress conditions.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Gravidez
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109542, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401333

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals with strong negative effects on the plant growth and functions. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule which confers tolerance to metal toxicities but little is known about the mechanisms of SA-mediated alleviation of Hg stress. Here, physiochemical and molecular responses of Hg-stressed lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) to exogenous SA were investigated to reveal SA-induced tolerance mechanisms. The CHLG gene of lemon balm which encodes chlorophyll synthase was also partly isolated and sequenced for the first time. Hg stress markedly decreased growth, relative water content (RWC) and photosynthetic pigments of the plant. However, exogenous SA significantly mitigated the toxic effects of mercury on the growth and RWC and enabled plant to maintain chlorophylls to the similar levels of unstressed plants. Hg-induced oxidative damage was also reduced following treatment with SA and treated plants showed the lower extent of lipid peroxidation which was accompanied with the higher free proline and phenolics contents and elevation of the antioxidant capacity as evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assays. Moreover, SA treatment resulted in up-regulation of CHLG and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes as key components of chlorophyll and phenylpropanoid routes, respectively. Our results collectively indicate the ameliorative effects of exogenous SA in mercury toxicity through coordinated alternations in plant metabolic processes which provide insights to better understand mechanisms of Hg tolerance in lemon balm plant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Melissa/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Carbono-Oxigênio Ligases/genética , Carbono-Oxigênio Ligases/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melissa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melissa/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109467, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374384

RESUMO

Mancozeb (MZ) is a widely used ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide in agriculture causing hepatoxic and genotoxic effects in rats. Curcumin (CUR) has various pharmacological effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the efficacy of CUR in mitigating MZ-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into four equal groups; group I (control) was given carboxymethyl cellulose, group II was orally administered CUR (100 mg/kg b.wt), group III was gavaged with MZ (750 mg/kg b.wt), and group IV was co-treated with MZ and CUR at the same doses daily for 10 weeks. As a result, the concurrent treatment with CUR and MZ minimized the increased levels of liver function markers in serum, lipid peroxidation, pro-inflammatory mediators and DNA damage parameters in liver. In addition, CUR administration improved the depleted markers of hepatic antioxidant status in MZ-treated rats. Moreover, CUR protected the liver against the histological alterations elicited by MZ exposure and also, reduced the immunopositive reactivity of pro-apoptotic p53 in cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The present findings suggest that CUR exerts a significant protective effect against MZ-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Curcumina/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Maneb/toxicidade , Zineb/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105258, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374405

RESUMO

A vast variety of substances currently reaches the aquatic environment, including newly developed chemicals and products. Lack of appropriate analytical methods for trace determinations in aquatic ecosystem compartments and lack of information regarding their toxicity explains existing regulation gaps. However, suspicion of their toxicity assigned them as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs). Among CECs are Pharmaceuticals including Salicylic Acid (SA), which is the active metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of SA on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. For this, organisms were exposed for 28 days to different concentrations of SA (0.005; 0.05; 0.5 and 5 mg/L), resembling low to highly polluted sites, after which different physiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated to assess organism's respiration rate, neurotoxic, metabolic and oxidative stress status. Our results clearly showed that SA strongly reduced the respiration capacity of mussels. Also, SA inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, but increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), which prevented the occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Nevertheless, oxidative stress was confirmed by the strong decrease of the ratio between reduce glutathione (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in contaminated mussels. Moreover, neurotoxicity was observed in mussels exposed to SA. Overall, this study demonstrates the metabolic, neurotoxic and oxidative stress impacts of SA in M. galloprovincialis, which may result in negative consequences at the population level.


Assuntos
Mytilus/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/efeitos adversos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Catalase/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Respiração , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378349

RESUMO

Triflumizole is one of imidazole fungicides that works by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, and is widely used for the control of powdery mildew and scabs on various fruits and crops. Triflumizole residue has been frequently detected in soil and aquatic ecosystems. While many studies have focused on its toxic effect on terrestrial and aquatic animals, little attention has been paid to aquatic algae, the primary producers of aquatic environments. Therefore, we evaluated the acute (96 h) toxicity effects of triflumizole on the freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris, by examining growth, cell morphology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress. The results showed that the 96 h median inhibition concentration (96 h-EC50) was 0.82 mg/L (95% confidential interval 0.70-0.98 mg/L).The growth of algal cells was conspicuously inhibited by triflumizole exposure, and the cell surfaces appeared to be shrunkThe chlorophyll content (including Chl-a, Chl-b and T-Chl) dramatically decreased at triflumizole concentrations of 0.2 and 1.0 mg/L. In addition, the transcript abundance of photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbC and rbcL) showed obvious decreases in above treatments after 96 h of exposure to triflumizole. Moreover, the algal growth inhibition was accompanied by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content, as well as increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicating oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Our findings reveal that triflumizole has potential toxicity to the primary producers (freshwater algae) in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 149-155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378351

RESUMO

Induced resistance is an effective measure for controlling plant diseases by utilizing the natural defense of the host and meets the strategic needs of pesticide application and safety for agricultural products worldwide. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the main active molecule of G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, there are few reports of the use of GLP for the prevention and control of plant diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of GLP and its mechanism of inducing plant resistance. In this study, we found that GLP spray and irrigation root treatments can promote growth in cotton. After soaking in GLP, theseedling height and cotton fusarium wilt resistance both increased to some extent, effects that were dose dependent. After treatment of cotton with GLP, the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves increased significantly, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. In addition, QRT-PCR results showed significantly increased relative expression of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway in cotton. Therefore, we speculate that GLP can induce plant resistance by stimulating the jasmonate pathway.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 25-31, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378357

RESUMO

Sodium pheophorbide a (SPA) is a natural photosensitizer. To explore its antifungal activity and mechanism, we studied its inhibitory effects on spore germination and mycelial growth of Pestalotiopsis neglecta. We used sorbitol, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and electron microscopy to determine its effects on cell wall integrity, cell membrane lipid peroxidation and mycelial morphology. Finally, the effects of SPA on enzyme activity in mycelia were determined. The results showed that SPA effectively inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth of P. neglecta under light conditions (4000 lx, 24 h). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SPA treatment resulted in a roughened, twisted and knotted mycelial surface and abnormal mycelial growth. SPA influenced cell wall integrity, and the content of MDA, a cell membrane lipid peroxidation product was significantly increased (P < 0.05). SPA also significantly inhibited SOD, POD and PG activity, but enhanced PPO activity (P < 0.05). In conclusion, SPA may have potential to become a biological pesticide.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Clorofila/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Micélio/ultraestrutura
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 215: 105271, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470337

RESUMO

Microcystis blooms and their associated microcystins pose a significant health risk to humans. Microcystis normally occurs as colonies in eutrophic water bodies, and its physiological tolerance to algaecides is dissimilar to that of unicellular forms. However, the differences of physiological response to algaecides between unicellular and colonial Microcystis have been poorly explored. The current study investigated the effects of hexane extract of Acorus calamus rhizome (HEACR) on the physiological and photosynthetic mechanisms of unicellular and colonial M. aeruginosa in the laboratory. We analyzed the cell density, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, photosynthetic pigments, capsular polysaccharide (CPS), and photosystem (PS II) parameters of the two morphological forms of Microcystis. Our results show that HEACR suppresses the growth of both unicellular and colonial M. aeruginosa, increases the intracellular ROS level and cause lipid peroxidation, as well as exerting a detrimental effect on chlorophyll a (chl a) content and photosynthetic efficiency. Almost 100% inhibition was observed for unicellular and colonial M. aeruginosa after 3 d exposure to 50 and 100 mg L-1 HEACR, respectively. The ROS level increase, MDA accumulation, the chl a decrease and carotenoid increase in unicellular M. aeruginosa were all more obvious than that in colonial cells. The fall in photosynthetic efficiency of unicellular M. aeruginosa were also more significant than that of colonial cells. After 3d exposure, the maximum quantum yield of PS II photochemistry (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield of PS II photochemistry (Fv'/Fm') and effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in PS II (YII) of unicellular M. aeruginosa was almost totally inhibited by 20 mg L-1 HEACR, while the Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm' and YII of colonial M. aeruginosa decreased by 43%, 26% and 66% for 100 mg L-1 of HEACR, respectively. Comparing the two morphological forms of Microcystis, colonies show a greater increase in CPS level to more effectively resist the stress of HEACR and to mitigate ROS generation thereby better defending against oxidative damage. Furthermore, colonial M. aeruginosa shows better photoprotection ability than the unicellular form when exposed to HEACR. The colonies also sustain their maximum electron transport rate, increase their tolerance to strong light, and maintain a higher ability to disperse excess energy. These results demonstrated that HEACR can significantly interfere with the growth and physiological processes of both unicellular and colonial M. aeruginosa, but that colonial M. aeruginosa has a greater ability to adjust physiological tolerance to resist the stresses of HEACR.


Assuntos
Acorus/química , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcystis/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Luz , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27148-27167, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321719

RESUMO

Extensive use of aluminum (Al) in industry, cooking utensils, and wrapping or freezing the food items, due to its cheapness and abundance in the environment, has become a major concern. Growing evidence supports that environmental pollutant Al promotes the aggregation of amyloid beta (Aß) in the brain, which is the main pathological marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Further, AD- and Al-induced neurotoxic effects are more common among women following reproductive senescence due to decline in estrogen. Though clinically Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been exploited as a memory enhancer, its role in Al-induced neurotoxicity in reproductive senescent female rats needs to be evaluated. Animals were exposed to intraperitoneal dose (10 mg/kg b.wt) of Al and oral dose (100 mg/kg b.wt.) of GBE daily for 6 weeks. A significant decline in the Al-induced Aß aggregates was observed in hippocampal and cortical regions of the brain with GBE supplementation, as confirmed by thioflavin (ThT) and Congo red staining. GBE administration significantly decreased the reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and citrulline levels in comparison to Al-treated rats. On the contrary, a significant increase in the reduced glutathione, GSH/GSSG ratio as well as in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed with GBE administration. Based on the above results, GBE prevented the neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex, hence caused significant improvement in the learning and memory of the animals in terms of AChE activity, serotonin levels, Morris water maze, and active and passive avoidance tests. In conclusion, GBE has alleviated the behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations due to Al toxicity in rats. However, molecular studies are going on to better understand the mechanism of GBE protection against the environmental toxicant Al exposure. Graphical abstract .


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactatos/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fatores Etários , Alumínio/toxicidade , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Feminino , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25844-25854, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267406

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are noble metal nanoparticles, due to their good physicochemical properties, which have been exploited in biological applications. Nanotechnological applications advance very quickly while few literatures assessed the effects of natural products on the risks of nanoparticles in vivo. Thirty male adult rats were enrolled equally into: control, AgNPs (50 mg/kg b.w i.p 3 times/week) and GBE (100 mg/kg b.w daily per os)+AgNPs. After 30 days, the assessment of liver function, antioxidative status, mitochondrial biogenesis, and histopathological analyses were performed. AgNP exposure enhanced the hepatic lipid peroxidation (+ 281.7%) along with a decline in the reduced glutathione (- 58.3%) levels. The apparent hepatic oxidative damage was associated with obvious hepatic dysfunction that was ascertained by alteration of serum liver enzymatic biomarkers, lipid profile, and pathological hepatic lesions. Following AgNP exposure, hepatic silver and calcium contents were increased without changes in the trace element concentrations. Finally, the mRNA transcripts of hepatic PGC-1α, mtTFA, and Nrf2 were downregulated after AgNP exposure. Interestingly, GBE has the ability to alleviate AgNP-induced hepatic damage assessed by augmentation of reduced glutathione level and mitochondrial biogenesis. This study explored the potential protective role of GBE on AgNPs-induced hepatotoxicity via attenuation of oxidative stress, substantial enhancement of cell viability with concomitant mitigating DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ginkgo biloba , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Biogênese de Organelas , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109407, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279280

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 poses the greatest risk among the mycotoxins to target-organisms particularly human, however, no studies addressed the neurotoxicity of chronic exposure of aflatoxin. The oral dose level 1/600th of LD50 for 30, 60, and 90 days was used for three aflatoxin groups, respective to negative and vehicle control groups. Activity levels of brain antioxidants viz: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase significantly decreased in the three experimental durations in time-dependent trend, in contrast, lipid peroxidation showed a significant increase compared to controls. Significantly, chronic-dependent increase trend was noticed in the AF60 and AF90 group for acid phosphatase (16.1%, 35.2%), alkaline phosphatase (32.1%, 50.8%), aspartate aminotransferase (38.7%, 120.0%) and lactate dehydrogenase (30.6%, 42.1%) activities, respectively. However, a significant 23.7% decrease in the brain creatine kinase activity following 90 days of AFB1administration. Chronic administration of aflatoxin also causes alterations in activities of protein carbonyl with a maximum increase (twofold) after 90 days. Further, histopathological and immunohistochemical results confirmed time-related vasodilation, necrosis and astrocytes gliosis by high glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining in response to AFB1. These findings infer that long-term exposure to AFB1 results in several pathophysiological circumstances in a duration-dependent manner concerning neurodegeneration especially Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astrócitos/imunologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/biossíntese , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2091-2100, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313325

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been generally considered as one trigger of organism imbalance, resulting in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein oxidation, which could be relieved by antioxidant supplement or endogenous antioxidant system. In present study, 1-monocaffeoyl glycerol (1-MCG), an amphipathic caffeic acid natural derivative, was enzymatically synthesized by Lipozyme 435, and its antioxidant profile in both lipophilic and lipophobic media was evaluated. The 1-MCG was identified by HPLC-UV, HPLC-ESI-MS, and 1 H/13 C-NMR. Subsequently, antioxidant assays in lipophilic (DPPH assay) and lipophobic (ABTS, ORAC, erythrocyte hemolysis, ROS, MDA, and GPx assays) systems were explored. The better and lasting DPPH· and ABTS+· inhibitions of 1-MCG than caffeic acid (CA) were related to its better solubilities in ethanol/water media and electron transfer ability. ORAC results suggested the radical scavenging activities of 1-MCG (5 to 40 µM) were higher than Trolox. Furthermore, the effectiveness of 1-MCG against AAPH-induced erythrocytes oxidation indicated that 1-MCG can effectively inhibit hemolysis. ESEM was also applied to verify the hemolysis inhibition and morphology preservation abilities of 1-MCG. Besides, results showed 1-MCG was able to prevent ROS from invasion, reduce production of MDA, up-regulated GPx activity, terminate lipid peroxidation, and maintain the integrity of the structure and function of erythrocytes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: As an amphiphilic caffeic acid derivative, 1-monocaffeoyl glycerol was synthesized, purified, and identified. 1-Monocaffeoyl glycerol could significantly eliminate radicals including DPPH·, ABTS+· , and AAPH in ethanol, water, and PBS system, respectively. 1-Monocaffeoyl glycerol could protect erythrocyte from AAPH induced hemolysis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerol/química , Glicerol/metabolismo , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
20.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 73-79, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317944

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to establish the effectiveness of remaxol in the correction of endogenous intoxication in patients with acute peritonitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The work is based on the results of clinical and laboratory studies. The clinic examined 55 patients with acute moderate peritonitis as complication of various diseases (acute appendicitis, perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer, acute intestinal obstruction, acute destructive cholecystitis). Before surgical operation and in the early postoperative period we evaluated the severity of endogenous intoxication by the level of hydrophilic and hydrophobic toxic products. The content of molecular products of lipids peroxidation - oxidative stress, phospholipase activity were determined in the blood plasma. In the study group (n = 28) in the postoperative therapy additionally included remaxol (400 ml intravenous fluids). RESULTS: Research established that the occurrence of endogenous intoxication syndrome in patients with acute peritonitis associated with the activation of oxidative stress and phospholipases, high intensity of which is maintained even after elimination of the source of peritonitis with manifestation on the 1st day after surgery. Remaxol include leads to a significant reduction in the severity of intoxication syndrome in patients with acute peritonitis. Positive effect of the drug on the correction of endogenous intoxication is largely determined by its ability to significantly reduce oxidative stress and the activity of phospholipases, as the most important membrane destabilizing agents. The greatest detoxication effect of the drug is recorded when it is applied already at the preoperative stage of patients when its ability to reduce the activity of trigger agents of catabolic processes implemented to the greatest extent. CONCLUSION: In acute moderate peritonitis, remaxol use before surgery or in the early postoperative period in complex therapy leads to a significant correction of factors contributing to the development and preservation of the intensification of catabolic processes - one of the sources of endogenous intoxication.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Succinatos/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Peritonite/etiologia , Peritonite/metabolismo , Peritonite/cirurgia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Succinatos/farmacologia
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