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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12164-12171, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600067

RESUMO

Plant biostimulants (PBS) increase crop productivity and induce beneficial processes in plants. Although PBS can stimulate plant tolerance to some abiotic stresses, their effect in improving crop resistance to herbicide injuries has barely been investigated. Therefore, a study on the effect of a biostimulant (Megafol) on maize (Zea mays L.) tolerance to a chloro-acetanilide herbicide (metolachlor) was carried out. We found that Megafol reduced the negative effects of metolachlor on maize. Indeed, biostimulated samples showed increases in germination, biomass production, Vigor index, and EC50 (effective concentration causing 50% reductions to roots and aerial biomass) with respect to the samples treated with metolachlor alone. Furthermore, plants treated with the herbicide in combination with Megafol showed lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes, namely, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT), were assayed in samples treated with metolachlor alone or in combination with Megafol, and higher enzymes activities were found in biostimulated plants. The results of this study open the perspective of using Megafol, as well as other suitable plant biostimulants, in improving the crop's capacity to cope with injuries and unwanted effects that herbicide could cause to these species.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378349

RESUMO

Triflumizole is one of imidazole fungicides that works by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, and is widely used for the control of powdery mildew and scabs on various fruits and crops. Triflumizole residue has been frequently detected in soil and aquatic ecosystems. While many studies have focused on its toxic effect on terrestrial and aquatic animals, little attention has been paid to aquatic algae, the primary producers of aquatic environments. Therefore, we evaluated the acute (96 h) toxicity effects of triflumizole on the freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris, by examining growth, cell morphology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress. The results showed that the 96 h median inhibition concentration (96 h-EC50) was 0.82 mg/L (95% confidential interval 0.70-0.98 mg/L).The growth of algal cells was conspicuously inhibited by triflumizole exposure, and the cell surfaces appeared to be shrunkThe chlorophyll content (including Chl-a, Chl-b and T-Chl) dramatically decreased at triflumizole concentrations of 0.2 and 1.0 mg/L. In addition, the transcript abundance of photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbC and rbcL) showed obvious decreases in above treatments after 96 h of exposure to triflumizole. Moreover, the algal growth inhibition was accompanied by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content, as well as increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicating oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Our findings reveal that triflumizole has potential toxicity to the primary producers (freshwater algae) in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 118-126, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400773

RESUMO

In the plant-insect arms race, plants synthesize toxic compounds to defend against herbivorous insects, whereas insects employ cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) to detoxify these phytotoxins. As ubiquitous environmental contaminants, heavy metals can be easily absorbed by plants and further accumulated in herbivorous insects through the food chains, resulting in tangible consequences for plant-insect interactions. However, whether heavy metals can influence P450 activities and thereby cause further effects on larval tolerance to phytotoxins remains unknown. In this study, we shown that prior exposure to copper (Cu) enhanced larval tolerance to xanthotoxin in Spodoptera litura, a major polyphagous pest of agriculture. P450 activities were induced in larvae exposed to Cu or xanthotoxin, and a midgut specific expressed P450 gene, CYP6B50 was cross-induced after exposure to these two toxic xenobiotics. Knocking down CYP6B50 by RNA interference (RNAi) rendered the larvae more sensitive to xanthotoxin. As defense against oxidative stress following metal exposure has been demonstrated to affect insecticide resistance, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed. Cu exposure caused the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in larval midgut. In addition, two antioxidant response elements (AREs) were identified from the CYP6B50 promoter, indicating that Cu-induced CYP6B50 expression may be related to the ROS burst. Application of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively suppressed CYP6B50 expression, inhibited P450 activities and impaired larval tolerance to xanthotoxin that had been induced by Cu. These results indicate that the increase in CYP6B50 expression regulated by Cu-induced H2O2 generation contributed to the enhancement of larval tolerance to xanthotoxin in S. litura. Ingestion of heavy metals from their host plants can inadvertently boost the counter-defense system of herbivorous insects to protect themselves against plant defensive toxins.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metoxaleno/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/genética , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108739, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288001

RESUMO

Phenol red (PR) is the standard pH indicator in various cell and tissue culture media, as it provides a quick check for the health of the culture. PR has also been used in multiple protocols to detect cellular hydrogen peroxide as well as peroxidase activity from human peroxidase enzymes. The majority of promyelocytic leukemia cell lines (e.g. HL-60 cells) express myeloperoxidase (MPO), which may react with PR, especially as the latter is present in cell culture media at sufficient concentrations (~15 µM) to partake in redox reactions. Moreover, phenolic molecules are often efficient donor substrates for peroxidase enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that MPO metabolism of PR via MPO-expressing HL-60 cells could result in PR metabolite(s) that could modulate cell viability. We used purified human MPO for UV-visible spectrophotometry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and LC-MS analyses to investigate PR peroxidation. 2-chloro-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (monochloro-dimedone, MCD) was used to assess the effect of PR on MPO-catalyzed chlorination activity, and we assessed PR uptake by HL-60 cells using LC-MS analysis. Lastly, we investigated the impact of PR metabolism by intracellular MPO on cell viability (ATP, using CellTiter-Glo®), cytotoxicity (using trypan blue), and on reduced and oxidized glutathione (using GSH/GSSG-Glo™). Our results demonstrate that PR undergoes oxidative halogenation via MPO, resulting in its UV-vis spectral changes due to the formation of mono- and di-halogenated products. Moreover, a significant increase in MPO-catalyzed chlorination of MCD and an increase in glutathionyl radical detection (using EPR) were observed in the presence of PR. Our in-vitro studies revealed that PR is readily taken up by HL-60 cells and its metabolism by intracellular MPO leads to a significant decrease in cellular glutathione as well as a significant increase in glutathione disulphide formation. In spite of the latter, PR had no considerable effect on HL-60 cell viability. These results provide evidence that while no overt decrease in cell viability may be observed, PR does impart redox activity, which investigators should be wary of in experimental protocols.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenolsulfonaftaleína/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Halogenação , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/patologia , Oxirredução , Fenolsulfonaftaleína/química , Fenolsulfonaftaleína/metabolismo , Fenolsulfonaftaleína/farmacocinética , Espectrofotometria
5.
Life Sci ; 232: 116634, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279782

RESUMO

AIM: Here, we evaluated the possible protective effects of oleuropein, the major phenolic constituent in virgin olive oil against glycerol-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. MAIN METHODS: Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were allocated equally into four groups as follows: control group, oleuropein group (50 mg/kg body weight), AKI group and the oleuropein + AKI group. AKI was induced by injecting 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg body weight) intramuscularly. KEY FINDINGS: Glycerol injection increased the kidney relative weight as well as rhabdomyolysis (RM)- and AKI-related index levels, including the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, urea, and Kim-1 expression. Additionally, alteration in oxidative conditions in renal tissue was recorded, as confirmed by the elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and the decreased glutathione content. Concomitantly, the protein and mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were suppressed. Moreover, Nfe2l2 and Hmox1 mRNA expression was also downregulated. Glycerol triggered inflammatory reactions in renal tissue, as evidenced by the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and Ccl2 protein and mRNA expression, whereas myeloperoxidase activity was increased. Furthermore, glycerol injection enhanced apoptotic events in renal tissue by increasing the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins and decreasing that of anti-apoptotic. However, oleuropein administration reversed the molecular, biochemical, and histological alterations resulting from glycerol injection. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that oleuropein has potential as an alternative therapy to prevent or minimize RM incidence and subsequent development of AKI, possibly due to its potent anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides/farmacologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicerol/efeitos adversos , Glicerol/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Iridoides/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rabdomiólise/complicações
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121692, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265963

RESUMO

Pleurotus sapidus monokaryotic strains (Mk) were screened as a novel source of mycelia to valorize rice straw (RS), rice husks (RH) and sunflower seed hulls (SSH) into value-added products through solid-state fermentation (SSF). P. sapidus Dk3174 basidiospores were cultured in the presence of Remazol Brillant Blue R for strain selection, revealing the ligninolytic ability of emerging colonies. Further screening demonstrated the intraspecific variability in dye degradation and enzyme production of 63 strains. Growth rate, biomass and enzyme production in plates containing RS, RH or SSH pointed at MkP6 as a suitable strain for pilot-scale SSF. MkP6 presented a similar laccase profile as the parental Dk3174, being greater in pasteurized substrates (300-1200 U/Kg) than in sterilized substrates (30-250 U/Kg). Peroxidase represented 25% of the total ligninolytic activity measured. The SSH fermented biomass with MkP6 obtained good yields of nanocellulose (67%) and the saccharide release for ethanol production increased by 3-4 times.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Helianthus/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Lacase/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327190

RESUMO

Objective:The aim of this study is to explore the expression of ECP in the neutrophils and its impact on the evaluation of nasal inflammation.Method:Neutrophils and eosinophils in nasal secretions were collected and stained with ECP immunohistochemistry to observe the staining of ECP in different cells. The concentration of ECP and MPO in nasal secretion were detected of 32 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR group), 29 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps and allergic rhinitis (CRSsNP group), and 21 healthy people (control group). The percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were calculated and analyzed as well.Result:ECP could be found in both eosinophils and neutrophils with immunohistochemical staining. The expression of ECP is much stronger in eosinophils than that in neutrophils. The ECP and MPO concentration in the nasal secretions of AR group and CRSsNP group were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.000 1), and the ECP concentration in AR group and CRSsNP group had no difference. The expression of ECP in the AR group was not different from that in CRSsNP group, but the expression of MPO was significantly lower than that in CRSsNP group(P<0.000 1).Conclusion:ECP is expressed in neutrophils, and which is likely to have influence on the objective evaluation to nasal inflammation. Combining with the expression of ECP and MPO, we can make a more accurate judgment of local inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteína Catiônica de Eosinófilo/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/fisiopatologia , Rinosporidiose , Sinusite/fisiopatologia
8.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(4): 1063-1072, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353880

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a disease with high incidence and no effective therapeutic treatments. miR- 145-5p has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in lung injury tissues, suggesting a potential role in the progression and development of ALI. To validate this hypothesis and explore the underlying mechanism, a mouse model of ALI was established using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hematoxylin and eosin (Hand E) staining verified the successful establishment of mouse model with ALI. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL- 6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. Mouse type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT II) were isolated and treated with LPS. miR-145-5p was significantly down-regulated both in mice with acute lung injury and LPS-induced AT II cells. Dual luciferase assays confirmed miR-145-5p could target and regulate Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). Further analysis showed that miR-145-5p overexpression decreased the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced AT II cells. miR-145-5p overexpression also blocked the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in AT II cells. Finally, in ALI mouse model, miR-145-5p overexpression alleviated lung tissue injury, decreased the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α and reduced MPO activity. In conclusion, miR-145-5p participated in the progression and development of ALI by decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibiting NF-κB pathway and suppressing ROS accumulation, shedding light on miR-145-5p as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 315, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abaxially anthocyanic leaves of deeply-shaded understorey plants play important ecological significance for the environmental adaption. In contrast to the transient pigmentation in other plants, anthocyanins are permanently presented in these abaxially red leaves, however, the mechanism for the pigment maintenance remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated phenolic metabolites that may affect pigment stability and degradation in Excoecaria cochinchinensis (a bush of permanently abaxial-red leaves), via a comparison with Osmanthus fragrans (a bush of transiently red leaves). RESULTS: High levels of galloylated anthocyanins were identified in the Excoecaria but not in the Osmanthus plants. The galloylated anthocyanin showed slightly higher stability than two non-galloylated anthocyanins, while all the 3 pigments were rapidly degraded by peroxidase (POD) in vitro. High levels of hydrolysable tannins [mainly galloylglucoses/ellagitannins (GGs/ETs)] were identified in Excoecaria but none in Osmanthus. GGs/ETs showed inhibition effect on POD, with IC50 ranged from 35.55 to 83.27 µM, correlated to the markedly lower POD activities detected in Excoecaria than in Osmanthus. Strong copigmentation was observed for GGs/ETs and anthocyanins, with more than 30% increase in the red intensity of non-galloylated anthocyanin solutions. In the leaf tissue, the hydrolysable tannins were observed to be co-localized with anthocyanins at the abaxial layer of the Excoecaria leaves, correlated to the low POD activity, more acidity and increased red intensity of the tissue. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the Excoecaria leaves accumulate a distinct group of phenolic metabolites, mainly GGs/ETs, at the abaxial layer, which prevent anthocyanin degradation and increase the pigment stability, and consequently lead to the permanent maintenance of the red leaves.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/metabolismo , Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/enzimologia , Oleaceae/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 219: 240-250, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151522

RESUMO

In this study, Schiff bases of chitosan (CS) were synthesized using citronellal, citral, and their derivatives containing selenium and sulfur. Organoselenium and organosulfur compounds show attractive biological and pharmaceutical activities, which can be beneficial to CS-based materials. From the characterization analyses, it was found that the CS-derivatives containing organoselenium and organosulfur compounds exhibited the highest conversion degrees (23 and 28%). Biological assays were conducted using films prepared by the blending of CS-derivatives and poly(vinyl alcohol). The antimicrobial evaluation indicated that the film prepared with the sulfur-containing CS was the most active against the tested pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans) since it reduced considerably their counts (42.5%, 17.4%, and 18.7%). Finally, in vivo assays revealed that this film attenuates atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in mice by suppressing the increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and reactive species (RS) levels induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). In summary, CS-derivatives containing chalcogens, mainly organosulfur, are potential candidates for biomedical applications such as for the treatment of chronic skin diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Quitosana , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Animais , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcogênios/farmacologia , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dinitroclorobenzeno/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Oncology ; 97(3): 135-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have developed a Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-targeting dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine combined with standard chemotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). METHODS: We evaluated predictive markers of overall survival (OS) in PDA patients treated with multiple major histocompatibility complex class I/II-restricted, WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccinations (DC/WT1-I/II) in combination with chemotherapy. Throughout the entire period of immunochemotherapy, the plasma levels of soluble factors derived from granulocytes of 7 eligible PDA patients were examined. Moreover, systemic inflammatory response markers (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [MLR], and granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [GLR]) were assessed. In addition, cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells was examined. RESULTS: Compared to the 4 non-super-responders (OS <1 year), the remaining 3 super-responders (OS ≥1 year) showed significantly decreased low plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels throughout long-term therapy. The NLR, MLR, and GLR after 5 DC/WT1-I/II vaccinations and 3 cycles of gemcitabine were significantly lower in the super-responders than in the non-super-responders. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic WT1 expression in the PDA cells of super-responders was relatively weak compared to that in the PDA cells of non-super-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged low levels of a granulocyte-related systemic inflammatory response after the early period of therapy and low cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells may be markers predictive of OS in PDA patients receiving WT1-targeting immunochemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteínas WT1/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Proteínas WT1/genética
12.
Food Chem ; 295: 607-612, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174802

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment after harvest on the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the phenylpropanoid pathway of blueberries. Blueberry fruits were dipped in 1.0 mmol/L SNP solution for 10 min and stored at 4 °C. Fruits treated with distilled water were used as the control. The results indicated that SNP significantly inhibited the increase of weight loss and enhanced the ascorbic acid content of blueberry fruit. Moreover, SNP increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and hydrogen peroxide in blueberry fruit. The accumulation of lignin and anthocyanin in the fruit was also stimulated by the SNP treatment. These results demonstrate that SNP treatment could maintain the antioxidant ability of blueberries by regulating the phenylpropanoid pathway and antioxidant enzymes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110539, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158404

RESUMO

The chemical characterization and protective role against ethanol-induced gastric ulcerated rats of a polysaccharide fraction from Bletilla striata (BSP) collected by ultrafiltration membrane approach were evaluated. This BSP faction was consisted of mannose and glucose at a molar ratio of 2.4:1 approximately, with a molecular weight of 146 KDa. FT-IR, NMR and XRD spectra indicated that BSP faction contained α-Man and ß-Glc residues with low overall crystallinity. The polysaccharide exhibited significant scavenging activities of ABTS and FRAP, as well as non-toxicity against human gastric epithelial GES-1 cells. Oral administration with 100 mg/kg of BSP for 3 days continuously could significantly prevent the formation of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion. It could also reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-18, and MPO activity in gastric tissue. Additionally, the BSP faction exhibited antioxidant activity, increased the content of PEG2 as a defensive factor, and suppressed MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in gastric tissue. These results indicated that the gastroprotective activity of BSP faction could be attributed to the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress and the inhibition of MAPK/NF-κB pathways. Our results provided substantial evidence that BSP could be a promising phytomedicine for gastric ulcer prevention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Orchidaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Etanol , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/toxicidade , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/toxicidade , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24748-24757, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240656

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity has detrimental effects on plant metabolism and yield formation. This study examined the effects of Cd stress in rice and the possible role of calcium (Ca) in mitigating oxidative damage caused by Cd in two fragrant rice cultivars, i.e., Guixiangzhan and Meixiangzhan 2. The experimental treatments were composed of various Ca and Cd levels as individual, i.e., Ca at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg soil (Ca1 and Ca2, respectively), Cd at 50 and 100 mg/kg soil (Cd50 and Cd100, respectively), and combined, i.e., Ca1+Cd50, Ca1+Cd100, Ca2+Cd50, and Ca2+Cd100. Plants without Ca and Cd application were taken as control (CK). Results showed that Cd stress led to a substantial decline in the photosynthetic pigments, i.e., Chl a, Chl b, and carotenoids, while enhanced oxidative damage in terms of increased levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both rice cultivars. Moreover, Cd stress hampered the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), with lowest antioxidant activities were recorded at Cd100. The overall trend (lowest to highest) for antioxidant activities across treatments was recorded as Cd100 < Ca2+Cd100 < Cd50 < Ca1+Cd100 < CK < Ca1 < Ca1+Cd50 < Ca2+Cd50 < Ca2. Similarly, Ca amendment improved the proline, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents in both rice cultivars under Cd stress condition. Comparing Ca2 with CK, the yield and related components, i.e., number of panicles, spikelets per panicle, seed setting rate, 1000 grain weight, and grain yield, were found to increase by 13.08, 2.39, 4.03, 5.86, and 27.53% for Guixiangzhan and 16.48, 5.19, 6.87, 15.44, and 51.16% for Meixiangzhan, respectively. Furthermore, Cd contents in roots, stems, leaves, and grains increased with increased Cd concentration applied and reduced with Ca amendment. The Cd contents in grains for all Ca+Cd levels are statistically at par with each other and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those for individual Cd application. Hence, Ca amendment can be an appropriate approach to ameliorate the toxic effects of Cd in crops grown under Cd-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/química , Cálcio/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Solo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(1): 124-133, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free jejunal flaps are among the most commonly used flaps for esophageal reconstruction. However, ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by warm ischemia seen during transfer limits their use. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue, has been shown to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs. The authors investigated tissue damage in jejunal flaps with iloprost and ischemic preconditioning and compared the effectiveness of these two modalities. METHODS: Thirty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (control), ischemic preconditioning, iloprost, and ischemic preconditioning plus iloprost. All flaps, except those in the sham group, underwent ischemia for 60 minutes and reperfusion for 2 hours. Flap perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. Histologic sections were scored using the Chiu scoring system. Superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase levels were measured spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Animals that were administered iloprost and/or underwent ischemic preconditioning had better postischemic recovery of mesenteric perfusion (ischemic preconditioning, 78 percent; iloprost, 83 percent; ischemic preconditioning plus iloprost, 90 percent; versus ischemia-reperfusion, 50 percent; p < 0.05). All intervention groups showed improved histology of jejunal flaps following ischemia-reperfusion injury (ischemic preconditioning, 3; iloprost, 2.3; ischemic preconditioning plus iloprost, 3.2; versus ischemia-reperfusion, 4.7; p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.05, respectively). Superoxide dismutase levels were higher in ischemic preconditioning, iloprost plus ischemic preconditioning, and iloprost groups (ischemic preconditioning, 2.7 ± 0.2; ischemic preconditioning plus iloprost, 2.5 ± 0.3; versus ischemia-reperfusion, 1.2 ± 0.1; p < 0.01; iloprost, 2.4 ± 1.1; versus ischemia-reperfusion, 1.2 ± 0.1; p < 0.05). Myeloperoxidase, a marker for neutrophil infiltration, was lower in the iloprost group (iloprost, 222 ± 5; versus ischemia-reperfusion, 291 ± 25; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that both iloprost and ischemic preconditioning reduced reperfusion injury in jejunal flaps. Based on histologic results, iloprost may be a novel treatment alternative to ischemic preconditioning.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Iloprosta/farmacologia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Jejuno/transplante , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esôfago/cirurgia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/métodos , Masculino , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2399, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160585

RESUMO

Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) functions as a tumor suppressor; however, once tumorigenesis occurs, clinical data suggest MnSOD levels correlate with more aggressive human tumors, implying a potential dual function of MnSOD in the regulation of metabolism. Here we show, using in vitro transformation and xenograft growth assays that the MnSOD-K68 acetylation (Ac) mimic mutant (MnSODK68Q) functions as a tumor promoter. Interestingly, in various breast cancer and primary cell types the expression of MnSODK68Q is accompanied with a change of MnSOD's stoichiometry from a known homotetramer complex to a monomeric form. Biochemical experiments using the MnSOD-K68Q Ac-mimic, or physically K68-Ac (MnSOD-K68-Ac), suggest that these monomers function as a peroxidase, distinct from the established MnSOD superoxide dismutase activity. MnSODK68Q expressing cells exhibit resistance to tamoxifen (Tam) and cells selected for Tam resistance exhibited increased K68-Ac and monomeric MnSOD. These results suggest a MnSOD-K68-Ac metabolic pathway for Tam resistance, carcinogenesis and tumor progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Acetilação , Animais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lisina/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Mutação , Transplante de Neoplasias , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
17.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3): 745-752, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184101

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effect of Sca-1+ bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) on lung ischemia reperfusion injury in mice. Five healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were selected to isolate and purify their Sca-1+ BMSCs using a Sca-1+ magnetic sorting kit in conjunction with whole bone marrow culture. In addition, 21 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups (7 mice in each group), namely sham group (group A), I/R group (group B) and BMSCs group (group C). A pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury model was established by ligating the left pulmonary portal vessel for 60 min and reperfusion for 240 min, after which the right pulmonary portal vessel was blocked to measure arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). Subsequently, the mice were sacrificed to determine their superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissue. The histological changes were observed by light microscopy, while an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the changes in plasma expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the mice. In addition, plasma expressions of TNF-α and B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) in the mice were detected by immunohistochemistry, while the apoptosis of transplanted lung cells was detected by a TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) method. Compared with group A, group B showed a decreased level of PaO2 and SOD activity but an increased level of MDA content and MPO activity (P less than 0.01), indicating that group B had significant ischemia reperfusion injury compared to group A. In conclusion, BMSCs significantly reduced lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and improved lung function through their anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis properties.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Apoptose , Interleucina-10/sangue , Pulmão , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 225-230, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185367

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating adventitious root (AR) growth, lignification and related enzymatic changes in the hypocotyls of Vigna radiata. To meet the objectives, the changes in AR growth, lignin content, and the activities of enzymes-peroxidases, polyphenol oxidases, and phenylalanine ammonia lyases- with NO donor and its scavenger were monitored. Hypocotyls were cultivated in aqueous solution supplemented with different concentrations of SNP (sodium nitroprusside, NO donor compound) and its scavenging compound (2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide; cPTIO). Specifically, at low concentrations, SNP induced AR growth, increased the total lignin content and altered the activities of related oxidoreductases- peroxidases, polyphenol oxidases and phenylalanine ammonia lyases- which are involved in lignin biosynthesis pathway. At higher concentrations, a decline in AR growth and lignification was noticed. We analysed the function of NO in AR formation by depleting the endogenous NO using scavenging compound cPTIO. Hypocotyls grown in a medium supplemented with scavenger cPTIO exhibited significant decline in AR growth and the activities of lignin synthesizing enzymes. Application of NO scavenger showed that stimulatory properties on root lignification may be owing to NO itself. In addition, changes in AR growth were significantly correlated with these modified biochemical activities. Our analysis revealed that NO supplementation induces prominent alterations in lignin level during AR formation and this might be due to an alteration in the activity of lignin biosynthetic enzymes, which further affected the polymerization of monolignols and AR growth.


Assuntos
Hipocótilo/enzimologia , Lignina/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/enzimologia , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia
19.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(1-2): 93-101, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228373

RESUMO

76 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent aortocoronary bypass surgery were examined to study the role of paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase, arginase, asymmetric dimethylarginine and nitric oxide in the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPCS). Patients were divided into two groups: the 1st - patients with coronary artery disease, who did not have PPCS as a result of clinical studies; the 2nd- patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD who were diagnosed with PPCS. The results showed that the postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with inhibition of paraoxonase, activation of myeloperoxidase, increased activity of arginase, nitrite/nitrate level and asymmetric dimethylarginine, and may be accompanied by the development of endothelial dysfunction and increased systemic inflammatory response. In the present work, inverse correlation relationships between the arylesterase activity of paraoxonase and myeloperoxidase activity in plasma, as well as between the aryl esterase activity of paraoxonase in the blood plasma and the activity of arginase in erythrocytes of the patients of the two studied groups were established. tests were developed on basis of ratio of the enzymes activities to predict the development of post-pericardicotomy syndrome.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Peroxidase , Arildialquilfosfatase/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Líquido Pericárdico , Peroxidase/metabolismo
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7421-7434, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178179

RESUMO

It is generally accepted that intracellular killing of microorganisms by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the phagosome of the neutrophil is an important arm of innate defense. High-producing dairy cows are prone to periparturient metabolic and infectious diseases. Both myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ROS production decrease the day of parturition. Several studies have demonstrated changes in the expression of genes involved in, for example, metabolism and defense in the circulating neutrophil during peripartum. In this study, we wanted to further characterize the periparturient neutrophil in terms of its oxidative killing capacity by analyzing the oxidative burst at 3 levels. First, the ROS phenotype was evaluated using chemiluminescence. The cows (sampled within 24 h after parturition and at 135 d in milk) showed a significantly slower production of ROS at parturition. Both primiparous (n = 13) and multiparous (n = 12) cows were included in this study, but parity did not affect the kinetics of ROS production. Second, the expression of 11 genes involved in ROS production was measured in the same cows: cytochrome b-245 α and ß chain (CYBA, CYBB; coding for membrane-bound constituents of NADPH oxidase); neutrophil cytosolic factors 1, 2, and 4 (NCF1, NCF2, and NCF4); Rac family small GTPase 1 and 2 (RAC1 and RAC2; coding for regulatory proteins of NADPH oxidase); superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2); catalase (CAT); myeloperoxidase (MPO; coding for enzymes involved in metabolizing downstream ROS); and spleen-associated tyrosine kinase (SYK; involved in signaling). During peripartum, a shift in expression in the oxidative killing pathway was observed, characterized by a downregulation of MPO and a simultaneous upregulation of the genes coding for NADPH oxidase. Third, as total DNA methylation is known to change during pregnancy, we investigated whether the observed differences were due to different methylation patterns. Promotor regions initiate transcription of particular genes; therefore, we analyzed the methylation status in annotated CpG islands of MPO and SOD2, 2 genes with a significant difference in expression between both lactation stages. The differences in methylation of these CpG islands were nonsignificant. High-throughput techniques may be necessary to obtain more detailed information on the total DNA methylation dynamics in bovine neutrophils and increase our understanding of how gene expression is controlled in neutrophils.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Peroxidase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Animais , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Paridade , Período Periparto , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Gravidez , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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