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1.
Compr Psychiatry ; 116: 152327, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency service workers are often exposed to fatalities during accidents or disasters. Therefore, they may be more prone to experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. It has been shown that these comorbid disorders are related to personality traits and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: We hypothesized that mental disorders, such as symptoms of PTSD and depression, mediate the relationship between personality traits, as measured on the 10-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), and QOL, as measured on the MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: Participants were aged 23-61 years. Questionnaires were sent to 373 participants, 220 of whom returned responses. A direct effect was found between two subscales of the TIPI (Extraversion and Emotional stability) and mental component summary scores of the SF-36 (Extraversion: ß = 0.154, p < .001; Emotional stability: ß = 0.179, p < .001), which indicated partial mediation. A significant indirect effect was revealed between two personality traits and mental health summary scores (Extraversion: ß = 0.058, p < .001; Emotional stability: ß = 0.087, p < .001). We also found a direct effect of extraversion scores of the TIPI on role/social component summary scores of the SF-36 (ß = 0.084, p < .05). However, none of the 95% confidential intervals was significant, which indicated full mediation, and the indirect effect was significant (ß = 0.023, p < .01). Sensitivity analysis indicated that a direct effect between extraversion scores of the TIPI and role/social component summary scores of the SF-36 was significant, which indicated partial mediation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of direct and indirect effects highlight the importance of identifying effective methods for protecting individuals from developing symptoms of PTSD and depression; moreover, they may help improve QOL. The capacity of dealing with incidents among emergency service workers may vary depending on their personality traits. Therefore, the screening of mental health states that includes a personality trait inventory may be valuable.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269700, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704645

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resilience is defined as the ability to face adversities with positive outcomes. Various scales have been utilized, including 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), to evaluate resilience among populations. Resilience research is scarce, particularly in Lebanon as no such scales have been validated. Thus, in the present work, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of CD-RISC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at the Women's Health Center at the American University of Beirut Medical Center among Lebanese women presenting to the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Internal validity of the Arabic CD-RISC was examined. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the scores of the Arabic version of CD-RISC and the other related constructs (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dispositional Hope Scale, Life Orientation Test, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) were assessed to evaluate its divergent and convergent validity. We collected responses from a total of 63 Lebanese women. RESULTS: The studied scale displayed a high internal consistency. Adequate correlation coefficients were manifested by the significant positive moderate to strong and negative moderate correlations between the Arabic CD-RISC and the other related constructs. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to validate the Arabic version of the CD-RISC in a sample of Lebanese women. The findings of this study provide evidence that the Arabic version of CD-RISC is a reliable and valid tool for the evaluation of resilience among Lebanese women.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Personalidade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Curr Biol ; 32(11): R528-R530, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671728

RESUMO

Consistent individual differences in behavior, or personality, may buffer populations against environmental changes. A long-term study of Galápagos sea lions reveals foraging polymorphisms with different levels of reproductive resilience as ocean temperatures increase.


Assuntos
Leões-Marinhos , Vibrissas , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Personalidade
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9361, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672428

RESUMO

Stable inter-individual differences in behaviour and personality have been studied for several decades now. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability of behaviour of the Long Evans strain of laboratory rats in order to assess their inter-individual differences. Male laboratory rats (n = 36) were tested in a series of tasks (Open field test, Elevated plus maze test, and modified T-maze test) repeated over time to assess their personality traits. To evaluate the temporal stability of the behaviour, we calculated repeatability estimates of the examined traits. We also checked for a link in behavioural traits across these experiments, which would suggest the existence of a behavioural syndrome. We found stable inter-individual differences in behaviour. Interestingly, no link emerged between the tasks we studied and therefore we did not find support for a behavioural syndrome. The lack of behavioural correlations between these experiments suggests that the results derived from these tasks should be interpreted carefully, as these experiments may measure various behavioural axes. Moreover, the animals habituate to the apparatus. Consequently, behaviour in the Open field test and Elevated plus maze test is not fully consistent and repeatable across subsequent trials.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Individualidade , Animais , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Personalidade , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20220431, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703048

RESUMO

High levels of within-population behavioural variation can have drastic demographic consequences, thus changing the evolutionary fate of populations. A major source of within-population heterogeneity is personality. Nonetheless, it is still relatively rarely accounted for in social learning studies that constitute the most basic process of cultural transmission. Here, we performed in female mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) a social learning experiment in the context of mate choice, a situation called mate copying (MC), and for which there is strong evidence that it can lead to the emergence of persistent traditions of preferring a given male phenotype. When accounting for the global tendency of females to prefer larger males but ignoring differences in personality, we detected no evidence for MC. However, when accounting for the bold-shy dichotomy, we found that bold females did not show any evidence for MC, while shy females showed significant amounts of MC. This illustrates how the presence of variation in personality can hamper our capacity to detect MC. We conclude that MC may be more widespread than we thought because many studies ignored the presence of within-population heterogeneities.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Personalidade , Reprodução
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269496, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714078

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that both personality traits (PT) and emotion regulation (ER) strategies play an important role in the way people cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was two folded. First, to longitudinally investigate the psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress levels) taking in consideration PT and ER strategies in 3 different moments: during the first lockdown period (April/20), at the first deconfinement (May/20) and 1-month after the first deconfinement (Jun/20)-Experiment I. Second, to cross-sectionally evaluate the impact of the pandemic in psychological distress and the correlates with PT and ER 6-months after the first deconfinement November/20 to February/21 -Experiment II. A total of 722 volunteers (Experiment I = 180; Experiment II = 542) aged 18 years or older participated in this online survey. The findings from Experiment I show that psychological distress decreased after the lockdown period, however, neuroticism traits predicted higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, while difficulties in ER strategies were identified as a risk factor for depression and stress. For experiment II, neuroticism traits and being infected with COVID-19 were associated to higher levels of symptomatology, while unemployment and the use of emotional suppression strategies to cope with emotional situations were associated to depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak decreased over time in our sample, the current findings suggest that difficulties in emotional regulation and high levels of neuroticism traits might be potential risk factors for psychiatric symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, people with difficulties in ER and neuroticism traits would benefit from psychological interventions that provide personality-appropriate support and promote emotion regulation skills during stressful events, such as the case of the global pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Regulação Emocional , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , Personalidade , Portugal/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10347, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725744

RESUMO

There has been little research exploring the relationship between personality traits, self-esteem, and stigmatizing attitudes toward those with mental disorders. Furthermore, the mechanisms through which the beholder's personality influence mental illness stigma have not been tested. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between Big Five personality traits, self-esteem, familiarity, being a healthcare professional, and stigmatization. Moreover, this study aims to explore the mediating effect of perceived dangerousness on the relationship between personality traits and desire for social distance. We conducted a vignette-based representative population survey (N = 2207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Multiple regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between personality traits, self-esteem, familiarity, and being a healthcare professional with the desire for social distance and perceived dangerousness. The mediation analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro by Hayes. Analyses showed associations between personality traits and stigmatization towards mental illness. Those who scored higher on openness to experience (ß = - 0.13, p < 0.001), (ß = - 0.14, p < 0.001), and those who scored higher on agreeableness (ß = - 0.15, p < 0.001), (ß = - 0.12, p < 0.001) showed a lower desire for social distance and lower perceived dangerousness, respectively. Neuroticism (ß = - 0.06, p = 0.012) was inversely associated with perceived dangerousness. Additionally, high self-esteem was associated with increased stigmatization. Personal contact or familiarity with people having mental disorders was associated with decreased stigmatization. Contrarily, healthcare professionals showed higher perceived dangerousness (ß = 0.04, p = 0.040). Finally, perceived dangerousness partially mediated the association between openness to experience (indirect effect = -  .57, 95% CI [- .71, - 0.43]) as well as agreeableness (indirect effect = - 0.57, 95% CI [- 0.74, - 0.39]) and desire for social distance. Although the explained variance in all analyses is < 10%, the current findings highlight the role of personality traits and self-esteem in areas of stigma. Therefore, future stigma research and anti-stigma campaigns should take individual differences into consideration. Moreover, the current study suggests that perceived dangerousness mediates the relationship between personality traits and desire for social distance. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of such relationship. Finally, our results once more underline the necessity of increasing familiarity with mentally ill people and of improving the attitude of healthcare professionals towards persons with mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estereotipagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Personalidade , Distância Psicológica
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268992, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731719

RESUMO

Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy are socially aversive personality traits that are strongly linked to the propensity of violence. A central determinate of aggression and violence is parental rearing. Interestingly, while the origin of the development of Dark Triad is not yet entirely understood, next to genetic and environmental factors, literature points towards an influence of parenting styles to the development of dark traits. Therefore, in a sample of 1366 9th grade students (mean age 14.89,), we assessed the interplay between parental rearing, dark triad traits, observation of violence among peers and their propensity for violence. The sample has a good representativeness on school types. Results reveal a positive association between the experience of parental rejection by both parents and punishment as well as parental control and overprotection and Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy. Parental emotional warmth was associated negatively with Machiavellianism and psychopathy while no significant association with narcissism was seen. In a path model, parental rearing, dark triad traits and observation of violence among peers significantly contributed to the propensity of violence. However, differences between the experienced parenting behaviour of mothers and fathers should be noted. Both rejection and overly harsh punishments by fathers and emotional warmth by mothers have no significant influence on the dark triad. It is interesting that the effects regarding maternal parenting behaviour are stronger overall than the effects regarding paternal parenting behaviour. These results underline the importance of parental rearing on the development of Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy and suggest a significant role of parental rearing and the dark triad traits on propensity for violence in adolescents. Parenting trainings and family interventions may be a promising starting point to prevent antisocial behavior linked to the dark triad and to prevent violent behavior in future generations.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Humanos , Pais , Personalidade , Violência
9.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731743

RESUMO

Although grit is predictive of wellbeing, educational achievement, and success in life, it has been conceptualized as largely distinct from cognitive ability. The present study investigated the link between grit and executive functions since regulation abilities might underlie the expression of grit. A hundred thirty-four people were administered personality questionnaires (grit, impulsiveness, and mindfulness) and four experimental tasks tapping into Miyake's and Braver's models of executive functioning (including measures of flexibility, inhibition, working memory, and control mode dimensions). Multivariate analyses showed that two composite scores (trait and executive functioning) were reliably predictive of grit, although it was the trait composite (characterized by low impulsivity and high mindfulness) that explained more variance. Importantly, gritty participants did not demonstrate enhanced executive functioning. Instead, they exhibited a different pattern of performance that might be reflecting a cautious profile of control, characterized by paying attention to all available information, less reliance on previous contextual cues but sensitive to conflicting information of the current context. These findings converge with Duckworth's idea that high grit people do not necessarily have a greater cognitive capacity. Rather, they use it in a different way.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Função Executiva , Logro , Cognição , Humanos , Personalidade/fisiologia
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e054485, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We propose that a dimensional, multilayered perspective is well suited to study maladaptive personality development in youth. Such a perspective can help understand pathways to personality pathology and contribute to its early detection. The research project 'APOLO' (a Dutch language acronym for Adolescents and their Personality Development: a Longitudinal Study) is designed based on McAdams' integrative three-layered model of personality development and assesses the interaction between dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, the narrative identity and functioning. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: APOLO is a longitudinal research project that takes place in two outpatient mental healthcare centres. Participants are youth between 12 years and 23 years and their parents. Data collection is set up to build a data set for scientific research, as well as to use the data for diagnostic assessment and systematic treatment evaluation of individual patients. Measurements are conducted half-yearly for a period of 3 years and consist of self-report and informant-report questionnaires and a semistructured interview. The included constructs fit the dimensional model of personality development: maladaptive personality traits (dispositional traits), social relations, stressful life events (characteristic adaptations), a turning point (narrative identity) and functioning (eg, achievement of youth specific milestones). Primary research questions will be analysed using structural equation modelling. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results will contribute to our understanding of (the development of) personality pathology as a complex phenomenon in which both structural personality characteristics as well as unique individual adaptations and experiences play a role. Furthermore, results will give directions for early detection and timely interventions. This study has been approved by the ethical review committee of the Utrecht University Faculty for Social and Behavioural Sciences (FETC17-092). Data distribution will be anonymous and results will be disseminated via communication canals appropriate for diverse audiences. This includes both clinical and scientific conferences, papers published in national and international peer-reviewed journals and (social) media platforms.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268928, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a very critical phenomenon, and to prepare for it, most nurses undertake simulation training, during which learners' stress levels should be managed. This study aims to evaluate nurses' stress levels during CPR simulation training using heart rate variability (HRV) measured with a smartwatch and to determine the correlation between individual personality traits and stress levels. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted from July 2020 to December 2021. For nurses participating in advanced life support training with more than six months of clinical experience, their stress levels while performing as a CPR team leader were measured. Regarding stress levels, heart rate data measured with a smartwatch were processed using Kubios HRV Standard software to generate HRV parameters. The personality of participants was evaluated using the Big Five personality test. The degree of stress according to personality was determined using HRV parameters. Consequently, the correlation between personality and stress according to the clinical experience of cardiac arrest was analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 132 participants, 91.7% were female, and the median age of the sample was 27 years. Agreeable personality had the highest score (32.84±3.83). LF power (r = 0.18, p = 0.04) and HF power (r = 0.20, p = 0.02) showed a significant positive correlation with the agreeableness trait. In subgroup analysis according to the cardiac arrest experience, the agreeableness trait had a positive correlation with a standard deviation of NN intervals (r = 0.24, p = 0.01), root-mean-square of successive differences (r = 0.23, p = 0.02), LF Power (r = 0.26, p = 0.01), and HF power (r = 0.23, p = 0.02), but a negative correlation with mean HR (r = -0.22, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The clinical experience in cardiac arrest and agreeableness were related to acute stress during training. In the future, it is necessary to apply a scenario of a level suitable for individual personality and experience, and evaluate the level and achievement of students.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268896, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675342

RESUMO

Most research examining individuals who follow different diets has combined vegetarians and vegans into a single group. To investigate whether this consolidation is justified, we analyzed possible differences between vegetarians and vegans for the Big Five personality traits in two studies. In our pre-study, we used data from a German convenience sample of 400 vegetarians and 749 vegans and found that vegans reported slightly higher scores in Openness compared to vegetarians (d = 0.22). In the preregistered main study, we used data provided by 1203 vegetarians and 128 vegans from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study; we found that vegetarians reported slightly higher scores in Neuroticism compared to vegans (d = 0.18) but did not differ in Openness. We found no differences in Conscientiousness, Extraversion, or Agreeableness in either study. Controlling for the socio-demographic variables of age, gender, and socio-economic status did not alter the pattern of results. Overall, these results suggest that there are no or only small differences in Openness or Neuroticism between vegetarians and vegans. Further studies utilizing very large, representative samples are needed to better understand the relationship between personality and diet groups.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Veganos , Dieta Vegana , Humanos , Personalidade , Vegetarianos
13.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(3): 483-489, 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of smoking status to family health and personality traits in residents aged over 18 years in China by binary Logistic regression analysis, to identify the psychosocial factors that influence tobacco use, and to provide evidence to predict smoking susceptibility based on personality traits and prevent smoking at individual and family levels. METHODS: Residents aged over 18 years in China were selected from "the Survey of Chinese Family Health Index (2021)". General characteristic questionnaire, short-form of family health scale, 10-item big five inventory were used to collect sociodemographic information, family health function and personality traits. And the relation of smoking status to family health and personality traits were analyzed by binary Logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Totally 10 315 adults were collected, of whom there were 2 171 smokers. The smoking rate was 21.05%, 41.76% of the residents were male, 3.69% female, 20.03% urban, 23.77% rural, 12.60% aged between 18 and 35 years, 27.11% aged between 36 and 59 years, 34.35% aged over 60 years, and the smoking rate varied in gender, location, age, education, marital status, family types, and average household monthly income (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the scores of family health, family social and emotional health processes, family healthy lifestyle, family health resources, family external social support, agreeableness, openness, and neuroticism among smokers were lower than those of the non-smokers (P < 0.05). The results of binary Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents over 35 years old, with low educational level and divorced were the risk factors to smoking (P < 0.05), while female, unmarried, nuclear family, high scores of family social and emotional health processes and family health resources, openness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were the protective factors to smoking (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Besides gender, age, location, education, marital status, family types and average household monthly income, family health, and personality traits were also important factors influencing smoking status. Tobacco control based on personality traits and family health is essential, and more convincing research is necessary to determine the relation of tobacco use, tobacco dependence and smoking cessation to family health and personality traits.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4867630, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694595

RESUMO

This work suggests a method to identify personality traits regarding the targeted film clips in real-time. Such film clips elicit feelings in people while capturing their brain impulses using the electroencephalogram (EEG) devices and examining personality traits. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) paradigm for determining personality is employed in this study. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) approach is used for feature extraction, and we have used hybrid genetic programming (HGP) for EEG data classification. We used a single-channel NeuroSky MindWave 2 dry electrode unit to obtain the EEG data. In order to collect the data, thirty Hindi and English video clips were placed in a conventional database. Fifty people volunteered to participate in this study and willingly provided brain signals. Using this dataset, we have generated four two-class HGP classifiers (HGP1, HGP2, HGP3, and HGP4), one for each group of MBTI traits overall classification accuracy of the HGP classifier as 82.25% for 10-fold cross-validation partition.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Personalidade , Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Personalidade/genética , Inventário de Personalidade
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8072824, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647180

RESUMO

Awareness of the psychological issues of different groups of society can help in the management of sports programs and thus improve their athletic performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the big five personality traits and the sports performance of disabled athletes in team sports. Three hundred and seventy-six team athletes participated in the study. Subjects completed a questionnaire of five major personality factors, and based on the information available on the provincial boards and the Veterans and Disabled Federation, the positions obtained by each athlete were considered as a criterion for sports performance. There was a significant relationship between the flexibility factor for men and women (r = 0.123, p = 0.017), neuroticism (r = 0.114, p = 0.027), adaptation (r = 0.171, p = 0.001), extraversion (r = 0.157, p = 0.002), duty orientation (r = 0.104, p = 0.045), and sports performance at a national level. There was a significant relationship between neuroticism (r = 0.142, p = 0.006), adaptation (r = 0.133, p = 0.010), extraversion (r = 0.163, p = 0.002), and duty orientation (r = 0.130, p = 0.011) with sports performance at a provincial level. There was a significant relationship between neuroticism (r = 0.156, p = 0.002), extraversion (r = 0.168, p = 0.001), duty orientation (r = 0.182, p = 0.001), and sports performance at international level. Disabled athletes seem to have above-average performance scores in most personality factors, which can improve their physical health and increase their success in sports.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Personalidade , Atletas/psicologia , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo
16.
J Pers Disord ; 36(3): 296-319, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647769

RESUMO

The authors analyze and compare the factor convergence and predictive power of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ/SF) with respect to the Five-Factor Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (FFiCD). A total of 803 White Spanish subjects were analyzed. All the personality domains had significant predictive power with regard to the FFiCD except NEO Openness. The explained variance of the personality domains with respect to FFiCD Negative Affectivity (71% and 77%) and Detachment (56% and 56%) were similar for NEO-PI-R and ZKA-PQ/SF, respectively, but the NEO-PI-R accounted for greater variance for FFiCD Anankastia, Dissociality, and Disinhibition. The FFiCD facets of Rashness, Thrill- Seeking (Disinhibition), and Unassertiveness (Detachment) were located in factors other than those theoretically expected. The authors conclude that normal personality measured by the NEO-PI-R and the ZKA-PQ/SF contribute, in a differential but complementary way, to knowledge of the maladaptive personality measured by the FFiCD.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria
17.
J Pers Disord ; 36(3): 320-338, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647774

RESUMO

Emotional and behavioral variability are unifying characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Ambulatory assessment (AA) has been used to quantify this variability in terms of the categorical BPD diagnosis, but evidence suggests that BPD instead reflects general personality pathology. This study aimed to clarify the conceptualization of BPD by mapping indices of variability in affect, interpersonal behavior, and perceptions of others onto general and specific dimensions of personality pathology. A sample of participants who met diagnostic criteria for BPD (n = 129) and healthy controls (n = 47) reported on their daily interactions during a 21-day AA protocol. Multilevel SEM was used to examine associations between shared and specific variance in maladaptive traits with dynamic patterns of functioning. The authors found that variability is an indicator of shared trait variance and Negative Affectivity, not any other specific traits, reinforcing the idea that BPD is best understood as general personality pathology.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos , Personalidade
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9156, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650223

RESUMO

The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the five major personality traits and fatigue. Participants were adults aged 16-104 years old (N > 40,000 at baseline) from the Health and Retirement Study, the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study graduate and sibling samples, the National Health and Aging Trends Survey, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Personality traits, fatigue, demographic factors, and other covariates were assessed at baseline, and fatigue was assessed again 5-20 years later. Across all samples, higher neuroticism was related to a higher risk of concurrent (meta-analytic OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.62-1.86) and incident (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.29-1.48) fatigue. Higher extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with a lower likelihood of concurrent (meta-analytic OR range 0.67-0.86) and incident (meta-analytic OR range 0.80-0.92) fatigue. Self-rated health and physical inactivity partially accounted for these associations. There was little evidence that age or gender moderated these associations. This study provides consistent evidence that personality is related to fatigue. Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are risk factors for fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 274, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672378

RESUMO

Generic emotion prediction models based on physiological data developed in the field of affective computing apparently are not robust enough. To improve their effectiveness, one needs to personalize them to specific individuals and incorporate broader contextual information. To address the lack of relevant datasets, we propose the 2nd Study in Bio-Reactions and Faces for Emotion-based Personalization for AI Systems (BIRAFFE2) dataset. In addition to the classical procedure in the stimulus-appraisal paradigm, it also contains data from an affective gaming session in which a range of contextual data was collected from the game environment. This is complemented by accelerometer, ECG and EDA signals, participants' facial expression data, together with personality and game engagement questionnaires. The dataset was collected on 102 participants. Its potential usefulness is presented by validating the correctness of the contextual data and indicating the relationships between personality and participants' emotions and between personality and physiological signals.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Personalidade
20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269707, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679247

RESUMO

A large literature at the crossroads of biology and cognitive psychology has shown that individuals hold generally positive expectations about future events. Despite this evidence, to date it remains unclear whether optimism has positive or negative implications for entrepreneurial activities. We examine this question in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, which provides a unique way to study the role of optimism on the (in)ability of firms to overcome exogenous shocks. Using a large-scale longitudinal survey covering 1,632 UK firms, we find that entrepreneurs who score high on optimism were more likely to innovate and make organizational changes to their firms during the Covid-19 outbreak. Moreover, optimistic entrepreneurs experienced higher revenue growth during the pandemic. Collectively, our study sheds light on one of the psychological factors explaining why some firms can prosper and some others struggle in the wake of an external shock.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Otimismo/psicologia , Personalidade
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