Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34.844
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072561

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has had a strong psychological impact on the Italian population. Italy was heavily affected by the virus before other countries in Europe, experiencing the highest number of deaths. Unknown symptoms in the early stages of the pandemic and the absence of clear transmission links affected people's wellbeing. Individual personality differences played a key role in perceived psychological wellbeing during the pandemic. The present exploratory study sought to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on psychological health and identify how psychological wellbeing is influenced by personality traits. A total of 2103 participants (64% female and 36% male) completed an online survey that included the Psychological General Wellbeing Index (PGWBI), the Italian Short Personality Inventory (ITAPI), and a general questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regressions were performed using SPSS 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) (The findings showed poor psychological wellbeing in the Italian population. Young people reported the lowest scores. Vulnerability traits negatively influenced some PGWBI domains, such as the total score (ß = -0.62), anxiety (ß = -0.55), depression (ß = -0.46), positivity and wellbeing (ß = -0.51), vitality (ß = -0.45), general health (ß = -0.12), and self-control (ß = -0.52). On the other hand, dynamism traits positively affected vitality (ß = 0.12) and positivity and wellbeing (ß = 0.14). In other words, personality factors related to vulnerability in particular created risk, whereas dynamism offered protection. The results highlight how COVID-19 helped to trigger anxious and depressive states. People feel helpless and vulnerable when facing new, unexpected conditions caused by the virus. These findings may assist mental healthcare professionals in safeguarding psychological wellbeing during emergencies such as the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Personalidade , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 74, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapist's emotional reactions toward patients in clinical facilities are a key concept in the treatment of personality disorders. Considering only clinical settings specialized in treatment of personality pathology the present paper aimed at: (1) assessing any direct relationship between patient symptom severity and therapist emotional response; (2) exploring patients' functioning configurations that can be associated with specific therapist reactions (3) investigating whether these relationships remains significant when accounting for other setting variables related to patients or therapist. METHODS: The present study included 43 outpatients with personality disorders who underwent a psychotherapy treatment in two Italian facilities dedicated to outpatients with personality disorders and their 19 psychotherapists. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) was used to explore clinical severity condition. Psychotherapists completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ) to identify pattern of therapists' response and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) in order to assess personality traits of the patients. RESULTS: No significant relationship between the clinical severity of the symptoms and the therapist' responses was found. Even when controlled for clinical severity condition, duration of the treatment, age and educational level of the patient or years of therapist experience, most of SWAP-200 traits appeared to be significant predictors of therapist' emotional responses. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the value of therapists' emotional response as a useful tool in understanding psychological processes related to clinical practice highlighting its context-dependent dimension.


Assuntos
Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapeutas , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Psicoterapia
3.
Behav Processes ; 188: 104418, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971250

RESUMO

In animals, behavioural personality traits have been well-documented in a wide array of species. However, these traits, different between individuals, are not completely stable in individuals. They show behavioural plasticity like many other phenotypic traits. This plasticity is able to overcome some weak aspects of personality trait behavioural strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between motor personality traits and behavioural plasticity in the common vole (Microtus arvalis) using a PhenoTyper (PT) box (Noldus). During a three-day test, four behavioural motor activity parameters were monitored in 47 voles: distance moved, (loco)motion duration, motion change frequency, sprint duration. Consistency repeatability (RC) of the parameters from the PT test was very high, with all values ≥ 0.91. To select the best linear mixed-effect models (LMMs), several predictors (test day, sex, body weight) were tested. Only test day had a significant effect on the dependent variables and other predictors did not improve the LMMs. Further, we found significant effects of random intercepts (motor personality traits) and slopes (behavioural plasticity), as well as significant negative correlations between them for all behavioural parameters. Our results indicate that motor personality traits were connected with behavioural plasticity. Moreover, we revealed a significant positive correlation between the random slopes of (loco)motion duration and motion change frequency. This relationship could indicate some central plasticity of motor personality traits. In conclusion, negative correlations between the motor personality traits and the behavioural plasticity demonstrate expression of convergent tendency from both opposite trait values. This corresponds with different ideas on ability to compensate personality effects or to prepare for potential future conditions. In the laboratory, plasticity of personality traits take place whenever an animal is placed e. g. in a breeding box for the first time or is left for a long time in an experimental apparatus.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Comportamento Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Personalidade , Fenótipo
4.
Clin Ter ; 172(3): 236-240, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956044

RESUMO

Abstract: The article describes some psychological peculiarities of the work with the emotional state of patients and one of the possible ways to correct it using art therapy - felt therapy, (the use of non-spun wool in an art therapy process). In the article are described the possibilities of this material and the effects of its use. The main tasks of the work are the formation of a conscious attitude to the disease, the recognition of the "secondary benefits" of having a "symptom", the actualization, awareness and replenishment of the spectrum of internal resources, the evolution of the ability to gain the access to them, as well as the integration, acceptance of the "symptom" and the suffering part of the personality, the acceptance of the diversity of one's own "I". The art therapeutic exercise described in the article also aims to reinforce a new positively colored creative experience, the formation of positive thinking. All of these helps the patient to feel a holistic personality, more harmonious and happy.


Assuntos
Terapia pela Arte/métodos , , Animais , Atitude , Emoções , Humanos , Personalidade
5.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 96, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European population of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) is declining. It is therefore essential to optimise conservation initiatives such as the rehabilitation of sick, injured and orphaned hedgehogs. Wild animals placed in captivity may be prone to chronic stress, potentially causing negative health effects. Therefore, the effects of these rehabilitation efforts should consequently be evaluated. Furthermore, hand-raising orphaned hedgehogs is a laborious and costly task, and it is therefore relevant to document whether they have equal post release survival rates compared to their wild conspecifics. The objectives of this research were therefore to conduct an exploratory study of glucocorticoid levels in hedgehogs from different backgrounds and compare the post release survival of translocated, rehabilitated and wild, juvenile hedgehogs as well as the possible effect on survival of differences in shy or bold behaviour (personality) exhibited by individuals. RESULTS: We measured glucocorticoid levels in 43 wild-caught (n = 18) and rehabilitated (n = 25) hedgehogs and compared the post release survival and spatial behaviour of 18 translocated juvenile hedgehogs (eight hand-raised and ten wild) until hibernation. The possible effect on survival of differences in shy or bold behaviour (personality) exhibited by 17 juvenile individuals (seven hand-raised and ten wild) was also examined. Rehabilitated individuals and females had higher levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites compared to wild individuals and males, respectively. Rehabilitated individuals showed higher levels of saliva corticosterone than wild. The personality tests labelled 13 individuals as shy and 11 as bold. Post release survival was 57% for rehabilitated and 50% for wild individuals. Neither background nor personality affected post release survival. Home range measures were 3.54 and 4.85 ha. Mean dispersal length from the release sites was 217 ± 100 m. CONCLUSION: The higher levels of corticosterone observed in rehabilitated compared to wild hedgehogs calls for consideration of the duration of admission to wildlife rehabilitation centres to reduce stress levels in the patients. Hand-raised juveniles appear to have the same prospects as wild, and personality does not seem to affect post release survival in hedgehogs, indicating that hand-raising of orphaned juvenile hedgehogs is a relevant contribution to the conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Ouriços-Cacheiros , Animais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946437

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (Dm1) is a chronic endocrine and metabolic disease that affects the whole person and requires active, decisive treatment. However, personality traits may influence a patient's adherence to treatment guidelines. The objective of this work is firstly to identify the 3 Asendorpf personality prototypes (resilient, undercontrolled and overcontrolled) in a sample of Dm1 individuals and determine whether there are any differences in comparison with a control sample; and, secondly, to study their association with adherence to self-care guidelines using both physiological indicators (HbA1C) and self-report measures. To achieve these objectives, a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample comprised 294 participants, of whom 104 were people with Dm1 and 190 were controls. The participants, aged between 14 and 34 years, were classified by their scores in NEO-FFI-R, according to the personality characteristics inherent to Asendorpf's prototypes. Asendorpf's 3 prototypical personality patterns were found both in the group of people with Dm1 and in the control sample. These patterns showed different degrees of association with adherence to self-care guidelines for this disease and with psychological health factors. Importance should therefore be attached to the personality traits and Asendorpf prototypes of people with Dm1 when proposing interventions to address medical, psychological, and behavioral aspects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 353, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a multifactorial condition with a partly unknown etiology. This condition can be mentally and physically compromising both during and after pregnancy. To provide all-around preventive measures to improve the recovery from PGP, it is a necessity for obstetricians and orthopaedists to develop predictive studies about the worse prognosis for this condition. Therefore, this study aims to determine whether personality traits can predict the consequences of long-term pregnancy-related PGP. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted from January 2015 to August 2018. A total of 387 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. According to whether they had experienced PGP during the past 4 weeks, the subjects were classified into no PGP and PGP groups. Persistent PGP after the pregnancy was defined as a recurrent or continuous visual analog score (VAS) pain rating of ≥3 for more than 1 week. The Quick Big Five Personality Test (QBFPT) was used to assess personality traits. Data were obtained by mail or in the clinic. The authors collected data including age, BMI, educational level, annual household income, cesarean delivery, breastfeeding, unexpected sex of the baby, parity, sick leave, no or rare ability to take rest breaks at work, and PGP in the previous pregnancy. RESULTS: Of 387 included women, 264 subjects experienced PGP during the pregnancy with a mean age of 26.3 ± 4.5 years. A total of 80 of 264 (30.3%) women experienced persistent PGP after the pregnancy. Persistent PGP after the pregnancy was associated with higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 2.12, P = 0.001). Comparing women with persistent PGP, those who reported higher levels of extraversion and conscientiousness were more likely to recover from this condition (OR = 0.65, P = 0.001; OR = 0.78, P = 0.010, respectively). Besides, neuroticism was positively associated with higher pain scores (r = 0.52, P = 0.005). However, extraversion and conscientiousness domains showed negative correlations with pain score (r = - 0.48, P = 0.003; r = - 0.36, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Personality traits were significantly associated with the outcomes of PGP.


Assuntos
Dor da Cintura Pélvica/psicologia , Personalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Testes de Personalidade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 198-198, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism through which basic personality dimensions predict indicators of psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, including subjective well-being and perceived stress. As a personality characteristic highly contextualized in stressful circumstances, resilience was expected to have a mediating role in this relationship. METHOD: A sample of 2,722 Slovene adults, aged from 18 to 82 years filled in the Big Five Inventory, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Mental Health Continuum. A path analysis with the Bootstrap estimation procedure was performed to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience in the relationship between personality and psychological functioning. RESULTS: Resilience fully or partially mediated the relationships between all the Big Five but extraversion with subjective well-being and stress experienced at the beginning of the COVID-19 outburst. Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of less adaptive psychological functioning both directly and through diminished resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Resilience may be a major protective factor required for an adaptive response of an individual in stressful situations such as pandemic and the associated lockdown


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo fue dilucidar el mecanismo subyacente a través del cual las dimensiones básicas de la personalidad predicen indicadores del funcionamiento psicológico durante la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el bienestar subjetivo y el estrés percibido. Como característica de la personalidad altamente contextualizada en circunstancias estresantes, se esperaba que la resiliencia tuviera un papel mediador en esta relación. MÉTODO: Una muestra de 2.722 adultos eslovenos (18-82 años), completó el Big Five Inventory, la Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, la Perceived Stress Scale y el Mental Health Continuum. Se realizó un análisis de ruta con el procedimiento de estimación Bootstrap para evaluar el efecto mediador de la resiliencia en la relación entre la personalidad y el funcionamiento psicológico. RESULTADOS: La resiliencia medió total o parcialmente las relaciones entre los Cinco Grandes, y la extraversión con bienestar subjetivo y el estrés experimentado, al comienzo del estallido de COVID-19. El neuroticismo fue el predictor más fuerte de un funcionamiento psicológico menos adaptativo, tanto directamente como a través de la disminución de la capacidad de resiliencia. CONCLUSIONES: La resiliencia puede ser un factor de protección importante y requerido para una respuesta adaptativa de un individuo en situaciones estresantes como la pandemia y el confinamiento asociado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Resiliência Psicológica , Personalidade/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Neuroticismo/fisiologia
9.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 363-367, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended behavioral measures to slow the spread of COVID-19, such as social distancing and wearing masks. Although many individuals comply with these recommendations, compliance has been far from universal. Identifying predictors of compliance is crucial for improving health behavior messaging and thereby reducing disease spread and fatalities. METHODS: We report preregistered analyses from a longitudinal study that investigated personality predictors of compliance with behavioral recommendations in diverse US adults across five waves from March to August 2020 (n = 596) and cross-sectionally in August 2020 (n = 405). RESULTS: Agreeableness-characterized by compassion-was the most consistent predictor of compliance, above and beyond other traits, and sociodemographic predictors (sample A, ß = 0.25; sample B, ß = 0.12). The effect of agreeableness was robust across two diverse samples and sensitivity analyses. In addition, openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion were also associated with greater compliance, but effects were less consistent across sensitivity analyses and were smaller in sample A. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who are less agreeable are at higher risk for noncompliance with behavioral mandates, suggesting that health messaging can be meaningfully improved with approaches that address these individuals in particular. These findings highlight the strong theoretical and practical utility of testing long-standing psychological theories during real-world crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade , Distanciamento Físico , Estados Unidos
10.
Oecologia ; 196(1): 65-76, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796927

RESUMO

Animal space use is affected by spatio-temporal variation in food availability and/or population density and varies among individuals. This inter-individual variation in spacing behaviour can be further influenced by sex, body condition, social dominance, and by the animal's personality. We used capture-mark-recapture and radio-tracking to examine the relationship between space use and personality in Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in three conifer forests in the Italian Alps. We further explored to what extent this was influenced by changes in food abundance and/or population density. Measures of an individual's trappability and trap diversity had high repeatability and were used in a Principal Component Analysis to obtain a single personality score representing a boldness-exploration tendency. Males increased home-range size with low food abundance and low female density, independent of their personality. However, bolder males used larger core-areas that overlapped less with other males than shy ones, suggesting different resource (food, partners) utilization strategies among personality types. For females, space use-personality relationships varied with food abundance, and bolder females used larger home ranges than shy ones at low female density, but the trend was opposite at high female density. Females' intrasexual core-area overlap was negatively related to body mass, with no effect of personality. We conclude that relationships between personality traits and space use in free-ranging squirrels varied with sex, and were further influenced by spatio-temporal fluctuations in food availability. Moreover, different personality types (bold-explorative vs. shy) seemed to adopt different space-use strategies to increase access to food and/or partners.


Assuntos
Sciuridae , Árvores , Animais , Feminino , Alimentos , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Masculino , Personalidade
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 203, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being discussed in the psychiatric literature for decades, very little is known about personality features associated with trichotillomania and skin picking disorder (known as body focused repetitive behavior disorders, BFRBs); and the contribution of personality traits to their clinical presentations. AIM: The present study assessed personality traits in a large and well-characterized sample of adults with either trichotillomania or skin picking disorder or both. METHODS: Adults (n = 98, aged 18-65 years), with trichotillomania (n = 37), skin picking disorder (n = 32), both trichotillomania and skin picking disorder (n = 10), and controls (n = 19) were enrolled. Participants completed self-report questionnaires to quantify personality (NEO Personality Inventory), as well as extent/severity of picking/pulling symptoms, mood and anxiety, impulsive and perfectionistic tendencies, and neurocognitive functioning. Group differences were characterized and correlations with other measures were examined. RESULTS: In comparison to controls, BFRBs had elevated neuroticism scores (p < 0.001), lower extraversion scores (p = 0.023), and lower conscientiousness scores (p = 0.007). Neuroticism was significantly related to both hair pulling (r = 0.24, p < 0.001) and skin picking severity (r = 0.48, p < 0.001), as well as elevated perceived stress, worse anxiety and depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life. Introversion (i.e. lower extraversion) was significantly associated with worse picking severity, higher perceived stress, and higher depression. Lack of conscientiousness was significantly associated with more depression, impulsivity, and perceived stress. DISCUSSION: Personality traits of neuroticism, introversion, and lack of conscientiousness are heightened in individuals with BFRBs and show strong associations with a number of clinically relevant features of illness. The holistic understanding and treatment of these disorders is likely to require consideration of dimensional traits such as these.


Assuntos
Tricotilomania , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Tricotilomania/complicações , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It seems that personality traits affect engagement and the quality of professional life, which is mediated by the emotional and affective states of nursing personnel. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to analyze the relationships between the components of empathy, affect, personality, and engagement, find personality profiles, identify the variables with the most explanatory value, and analyze the mediating role of the variables susceptible to intervention in the relationship between personality and the components of engagement. METHODS: A sample of 1268 nurses completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, 10-item Big Five Inventory, Basic Empathy Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. RESULTS: Empathy, affect, and personality influence engagement factors in nurses. The vigor and absorption factors of engagement showed a positive relationship with empathy, positive affect, and all of the Big Five personality factors except neuroticism with which the relationship was negative. Personality affected the vigor, dedication, and absorption factors of engagement, and cognitive empathy mediated this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the need to continue investigating the factors that affect and mediate in engagement of nursing professionals.


Assuntos
Empatia , Personalidade , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Engajamento no Trabalho
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924649

RESUMO

The main aim of this manuscript was to present a preliminary verification of the relations between the Dark Triad of personality traits and health-oriented behaviors in university students. The study involved 143 healthy students (94 female and 49 male) from the Silesian Voivodeship (Poland). The diagnosis of the elements of the Dark Triad of personality was carried out using a psychological examination based on the following tests: TriPM-41, Mach IV, NPI. The intensity of the health behaviors was examined using the Health Behavior Inventory developed by Z. Juczynski. The Health Behavior Inventory is positively correlated with narcissism and its self-sufficiency component and negatively with psychopathic disinhibition. For the Health Behavior Inventory's subscales, a positive relationship was observed between Positive Mental Attitude and narcissism, most of its components, and psychopathic boldness. The analysis of correlations with the division of the subjects into the Dark Triad traits ≤Me and >Me revealed that a significant positive correlation between the general intensity of the health behaviors and the intensity of narcissism mainly concerns university students with a lower level of this trait and its components. Therefore, it can be presumed that narcissism, although considered as a socially aversive trait, is associated with pro-health behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Maquiavelismo , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Polônia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923124

RESUMO

This article reports the results of a survey of 455 Polish primary school sixth-graders experiencing changes in the education system. The goal of the study was to identify the relationships between the Big Five personality traits, measured with the picture-based personality survey for children (PBPS-C) and locus of control, determined using the locus of control questionnaire (LOCQ). The results lead to the conclusion that primary school students do not have an established locus of control of either success or failure. There are also no significant differences between boys and girls in the way they interpret the causes of situations and events that happen to them. Boys, compared to girls, scored significantly higher on traits related to seeking and enjoying the company of others. On the other hand, girls exhibited significantly higher levels of traits responsible for increased anxiety than boys. The personality traits that correlated the strongest with locus of control were Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness. A regression model showed that locus of control of success was significantly affected by two traits: Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Locus of control of failure was significantly predicted by Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness (positively), and Neuroticism (negatively). Regression model with gender as a moderator of relationships between personality traits and locus of control turned out to be insignificant.


Assuntos
Controle Interno-Externo , Personalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917749

RESUMO

Organizations maintain social media accounts and upload posts to show their activities and communicate with the public, as individual users do. Thus, organizations' social media accounts can be examined from the same perspective of that of individual users' accounts, with personality being one of the perspectives. In line with previous studies that analyzed the personality of non-human objects such as products, stores, brands, and websites, this study analyzed the personality of Instagram accounts of public health organizations. It also extracted features at content and pixel levels from the photos uploaded on the organizations' accounts and examined how they were related to the personality traits of the accounts. The results suggested that the personality of public health organizations can be summarized as being high in openness and agreeableness but lower in extraversion and neuroticism. Openness and agreeableness were the personality traits associated the most with the content-level features, while extraversion and neuroticism were the ones associated the most with the pixel-level features. In addition, for each of the two traits associated the most with either the content- or pixel- level features, their associations tended to be in opposite directions with one another. The personality traits, except for neuroticism, were predicted from the photo features with an acceptable level of accuracy.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Saúde Pública , Extroversão Psicológica , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918577

RESUMO

The Dark Triad of personality has been associated with aggression against others as a reaction to perceived provocations. However, previous work has also shown that such responsive aggression even occurs if it means harming oneself. The first of two laboratory studies aimed to investigate whether this relation between the Dark Triad and self-harming behavior also occurs in situations where no others are affected but self-harm is likely. The second laboratory study considered two different settings in a within-participants design in order to analyze the stability of self-harming behavior and to what extent the Dark Triad constructs influence this behavior. The sample for study 1 consisted of 151 students (45.7% female) with a mean age of 21.40 years (SD = 2.19); the sample for study 2 consisted of 251 students (76.0% female) with a mean age of 22.21 years (SD = 3.90). Aside from the Dark Triad's common core, depending on how self-harm was triggered (ego-threat (mainly narcissism), being alone with one's own thoughts (mainly psychopathy), or reward condition (mainly Machiavellianism)), the Dark Triad traits differed in their responsiveness but were stable over the last two conditions, thereby suggesting a vulnerable side of the Dark Triad.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Maquiavelismo , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narcisismo , Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918737

RESUMO

Gambling disorder and gaming disorder have recently been recognized as behavioral addictions in the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition). The association between behavioral addictions and personality has been examined before, yet there is a lack of studies on maladaptive traits and their relationship to specific outcome expectancies. In study 1, we recruited a community sample (n = 365); in study 2 a sample of treatment-seekers was enrolled (n = 208). Maladaptive personality traits were assessed by the brief form of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition). Internet-related outcome expectancies were measured by the Virtual Expectancy Questionnaire. In the clinical sample, the Global Assessment of Functioning was additionally administered. Behavioral Addictions were closely associated with maladaptive traits that in turn were related to a poorer level of psychosocial functioning. There is evidence for an exacerbated risk of internet-related disorders when specific outcome expectancies and maladaptive traits interact. Implications for phenomenology and treatment are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Jogo de Azar , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Internet , Personalidade
18.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800789

RESUMO

The consumption of phenol-rich foods is limited by their prominent bitterness and astringency. This issue has been addressed by adding sweet tastes, which suppress bitterness, but this is not a complete solution since individuals also differ in their preference for sweetness. In this study, we aimed at identifying groups of consumers differing in sweetness optima and sensory-liking patterns. To this end, increasing concentrations of sucrose were added to a chocolate pudding base. This allowed us to (1) investigate if individual differences in sensory responses are associated with different sweet liking optima in a product context, (2) define the psychological and oro-sensory profile of sweet liker phenotypes derived using a product context, and (3) assess if individuals differing in sweet liking optima differ also in consumption and liking of phenol-rich foods and beverages as a function of their sensory properties (e.g., sweeter vs. more bitter and astringent products). Individuals (1208; 58.4% women, 18-69 years) were characterised for demographics, responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), personality traits and attitudes toward foods. Three clusters were identified based on correlations between sensory responses (sweetness, bitterness and astringency) and liking of the samples: liking was positively related to sweetness and negatively to bitterness and astringency in High and Moderate Sweet Likers, and the opposite in Inverted U-Shaped. Differences between clusters were found in age, gender and personality. Furthermore, the Inverted-U Shaped cluster was found to have overall healthier food behaviours and preferences, with higher liking and consumption of phenol-rich vegetables and beverages without added sugar. These findings point out the importance of identifying the individual sensory-liking patterns in order to develop more effective strategies to promote the acceptability of healthy phenol-rich foods.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Fenol , Edulcorantes/análise , Limiar Gustativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Propiltiouracila , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926113

RESUMO

Economic globalization and the internet economy have resulted in a dramatic increase in freight transportation. Traffic crashes involving trucks usually result in severe losses and casualties. The fatality and injury rates for heavy truck accidents have been 10 times higher than for sedans in Taiwan in recent years. Thus, understanding driving behavior and risk are important for freight carriers. Since personality traits may result in different driving behaviors, the main objective of this study is to apply artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and the risk level of each driver according to drivers' personality traits. In this case study, relevant information on truck drivers' personality traits and their tendency to engage in aberrant driving behavior are collected by using respectively a questionnaire and a fleet surveillance system from a truck company. A relative risk level evaluation mechanism is developed considering the frequency and distribution of aberrant driving behavior. The Jenks natural breaks optimization method and the elbow method are adopted to optimally classify 40 truck drivers into 4 aberrant driving behavior levels and 5 driving risk levels. It was found that 5% of drivers were at the highest aberrant driving behavior level, and 7.5% of drivers were at the highest driving risk level. Based on the results, the proposed models show good and stable predictive performance, especially for the class of drivers with excessive rotation speed, hard acceleration, excessive rotation speed, hard deceleration, and driving risk. With the proposed models, the predictive class for aberrant driving behavior and driving risk can be determined by plugging in a driver's personality traits before or after employment. Based on the prediction results, the manager of a transportation company could plan the training program for each driver to reduce the aberrant driving behavior occurrence.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Veículos Automotores , Personalidade , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 137: 498-505, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies have suggested that subjective wellbeing and personality traits link to risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is unclear if these associations are causal. METHODS: We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization to assess potential causality. Genetic associations were obtained from the largest genome-wide association studies in Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (N = 298,420), Genetics of Personality Consortium (N = 81,036), and four independent consortia of AD (N = 455,258). We run the inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach as one primary analysis. A Bonferroni-corrected threshold of p < 8.33 × 10-3 was considered significant, and p values between 8.33 × 10-3 and 0.05 were considered to be suggestive of an association. RESULTS: The suggestive association with decreased risk of AD was noted for a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in subjective wellbeing (odds ratio = 0.963, 95% confidence interval = 0.930-0.997; p = 0.032). Genetically predicted greater neuroticism was significantly associated with lower subjective wellbeing (ß = -0.077; p = 0.004). No putative personality traits were significantly associated with AD risk after correction for multiple tests, including agreeableness (ß = -0.0010; p = 0.477), conscientiousness (ß = 0.0018; p = 0.270), openness (ß = 0.0004; p = 0.738), neuroticism (ß = -0.0098; p = 0.262), or extraversion (ß = 0.0120; p = 0.262). CONCLUSIONS: Subjective wellbeing may independently reduce the risk of AD. Residual confounding is likely to be responsible for the previous observational relationships between personality traits and AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neuroticismo , Personalidade/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...