Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32.520
Filtrar
1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1239-1256, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994986

RESUMO

Diversos integrantes da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental/LBHM tiveram lugar significativo no processo de difusão e consolidação da psicologia no Brasil. A LBHM tinha como meta contribuir com a transformação do país em nação moderna a exemplo dos países europeus. Alinhados a tal proposta, tinha como principio o ideário da higiene mental e, a partir de 1928, o ideário da eugenia. Neste trabalho temos como objetivo analisar os títulos Tipos vulgares, publicado em 1927, e Psicologia da personalidade, publicado em 1941, de autoria de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), membro atuante da Liga, destacando-se sobremaneira como defensor e publicista da eugenia. Percorrendo estas obras à luz da historicidade dos fatos, observamos que os saberes psicológicos difundidos e apropriados pelo autor, referem-se a uma psicologia tida como científica, reverberada pela fisiologia experimental da psicologia europeia. Nas obras, é marcante o debate acerca do conhecimento e avaliação da personalidade para construção de uma nação forte. É igualmente marcante a concepção biologizante de homem e o caráter secundário das relações sociais na formação humana. As asserções de Kehl lançam luz às contribuições da psicologia naquela época e nos fazem refletir criticamente sobre concepções que ainda imperam no campo científico e profissional da psicologia.(AU)


Several members of the Brazilian League of Mental Hygiene / LBHM had significant place in the process of diffusion and consolidation of psychology in Brazil. The goal of LBHM was to contribute to the transformation of the country into a modern nation, like the European countries. Aligned with this proposal, it had as its principle the idea of​mental hygiene and, from 1928, the ideology of eugenics. In this work, we aim to analyze the works Vulgar Types, published in 1927, and Psychology of Personality, published in 1941, by Renato Kehl (1889-1974), an active member of the League, standing out as a defender and publicist of eugenics. Going through these works in light of the historicity of the facts, we observe that the psychological knowledge diffused and appropriated by the author, refer to a psychology considered as scientific, reverberated by the experimental physiology of European psychology. In the works, it is remarkable the debate about the knowledge and evaluation of the personality for the construction of a strong nation. It is also striking the biological conception of man and the secondary character of social relations in human formation. Kehl's assertions shed light on the contributions of psychology at that time and make us reflect critically on conceptions still prevalent in the scientific and professional field of psychology.(AU)


Diversos integrantes de la Liga Brasileña de Higiene Mental/LBHM tuvieron un lugar significativo en el proceso de difusión y consolidación de la psicología en Brasil. La LBHM tenía como meta contribuir con la transformación del país en una nación moderna siguiendo el ejemplo de los países europeos. En esa línea, se fijaron como principios las ideas de la higiene mental y, a partir de 1928, el ideario de la eugenesia. Nuestro objetivo es analizar dos libros de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), miembro activo de la Liga, que se destacó sobremanera como defensor de la eugenesia. Los títulos de las obras son: Tipos vulgares, publicado en 1927, y Psicología de la personalidad, de 1941.Analizando estos textos a la luz de la historicidad de los hechos, observamos que los saberes psicológicos difundidos y apropiados por el autor, se refieren a una psicología entendida como científica e influenciada por la fisiología experimental de la psicología europea. En las obras es notable el debate acerca del conocimiento y la evaluación de la personalidad para la construcción de una nación fuerte. Es igualmente notable la concepción biologicista del hombre y el papel secundario de las relaciones sociales en la formación humana. Las aseveraciones de Kehl arrojan luz a las contribuciones de la psicología en aquel momento y nos hacen pensar críticamente sobre las concepciones que todavía imperan en el campo científico y profesional de la psicología.(AU)


Assuntos
Psicologia/história , Personalidade , Brasil , Saúde Mental , Eugenia
3.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 71(2): 179-192, mai.-ago 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1015140

RESUMO

O empreendedorismo afirma-se como alternativa de inserção profissional em um contexto de precarização social do trabalho. Por isso, o objetivo geral da investigação foi identificar os fatores de personalidade e experiências acadêmicas capazes de predizer o desenvolvimento do potencial empreendedor estudantil. Foram analisados o potencial empreendedor, a personalidade (Big Five) e as experiências acadêmicas de 323 estudantes universitários. Os fatores conscienciosidade, extroversão, abertura para experiências e amabilidade, conjuntamente às experiências em empresas juniores, se apresentaram como preditores positivos do potencial empreendedor. O fator neuroticismo apresentou relação negativa. Ressalta-se a importância dos fatores de personalidade e das experiências de nível superior no desenvolvimento do potencial empreendedor. Sugerem-se ainda ações para maximizar a autorregulação dos alunos e experiências voltadas às empresas juniores, com o intuito de estimular o potencial empreendedor estudantil


Entrepreneurship is relevant because it is a professional alternative in a precarious labor market. For that, we aimed to explore the impact of psychological and contextual variables to maximize entrepreneurship. We identified the personality factors and academic experiences capable of predicting the development of student entrepreneurial potential. We also analyzed entrepreneurial potential, personality (Big Five) and academic experiences of 323 undergraduate students. Results showed that the factors conscientiousness, extroversion, openness to experiences and amity, with the experiences in junior enterprise, presented positive prediction in entrepreneurial potential. The factor neuroticism presented a negative relation. We evidenced that personality factors and higher education experiences are important to develop entrepreneurial potential. For that, we suggested interventions to maximize self-regulation and academic experiences like junior enterprises to stimulate students' entrepreneurial potential


La iniciativa empresarial se afirma como alternativa de inserción profesional en un contexto de precarización social del trabajo. Por eso, el objetivo general de la investigación fue identificar los factores de personalidad y experiencias académicas capaces de predecir el desarrollo del potencial emprendedor estudiantil. Se analizaron el potencial emprendedor, la personalidad (Big Five) y las experiencias académicas de 323 estudiantes universitarios. Los factores de concienciación, extroversión, apertura para experiencias y amabilidad, conjuntamente a las experiencias en empresas junior, se presentaron como predictores positivos del potencial emprendedor. El factor neuroticismo presentó una relación negativa. Se resalta la importancia de los factores de personalidad y de las experiencias de nivel superior en el desarrollo del potencial emprendedor. Se sugiere además acciones para maximizar la autorregulación de los alumnos y experiencias dirigidas a las empresas junior, con la intención de estimular el potencial emprendedor estudiantil


Assuntos
Humanos , Personalidade , Estudantes , Educação Superior , Inovação
4.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 13(1): 36-44, Ene-Jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006737

RESUMO

La investigación tuvo como objetivo, determinar los rasgos y dimensiones de personalidad dominantes en estudiantes de diferentes carreras pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional Chimborazo (UNACH). Se utilizó una metodología cuantitativa descriptiva, el análisis de datos fue con el paquete de datos estadísticos SPSS versión 23IBM. El instrumento empleado para medir las variables fue el Cuestionario 16PF-5 de Cattell (1993), con el cual se obtuvieron los rasgos y dimensiones globales de personalidad. Para el análisis se prefirió la teoría de los rasgos de la personalidad, incorporando las dimensiones globales: neuroticismo, apertura, afabilidad, extroversión y rectitud. Dentro de los resultados del estudio, se desprende que existen ciertos rasgos dominantes en la muestra como son la inestabilidad emocional y el rasgo de despreocu-pado. En cuanto a las dimensiones, el principal hallazgo fue la ansiedad alta. Estos tres aspectos de la individualidad que se destacan en el estudio por sus características pueden influir en el desempeño integral de los estudiantes.


This research aimed to determine the dominant personality traits and dimensions in students of different schools belonging to the National University Chimborazo (UNACH). A descriptive quantitative methodology was used. The data analysis was carried out using the statistical program SPSS version 23IBM. The Questionnaire 16PF-5 of Cattell (1993) was the instrument applied to measure the variables in order to get the global personality traits and dimensions. The theory of personality traits was preferred for analysis, incorporating the global dimensions: neuroticism, openness, affability, extroversion and rectitude. The results showed that there were certain dominant features in the sample such as: emotional instability and carefree trait. The main finding was high anxiety talking about the dimensions. These three aspects of individuality that are highlighted in the study by their characteristics may influence the overall performance of students.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Personalidade , Testes de Personalidade , Teoria Psicológica , Fenômenos Psicológicos , Disciplinas e Atividades Comportamentais
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(2. Vyp. 2): 42-48, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156240

RESUMO

AIM: To study the influence of psychopathological factors and personality traits on the results of the study of quality of life (QoL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with relapsing MS were included in the study (74.4% female; mean age 33.1 years). SF-36 was used to evaluate QoL. Effects of psychopathological factors, cognitive regulation of emotions and personality traits on QoL were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear model. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A wide number of strategies of cognitive regulation of emotions has conflicting effects on the physical component of QoL; subscales of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal (MASQ), which probably represent depressive and anxiety disorders, decrease the physical component of QoL. The key factors of the mental component of QoL include psychopathological factors (mostly obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and personality traits (the more intense they are the lower is QoL). Strategies of cognitive regulation of emotions have low impact on the mental component of QoL.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(9): 622-629, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217255

RESUMO

AIMS: This is a qualitative study exploring how consultant histopathologists determine diagnostic competence in their trainees. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with consultants and trainees and analysed using the Framework Method. RESULTS: Five major themes emerged from the data: process, person, stage of training, trust and time. Within these major themes, there were multiple subthemes which reflect the complex, longitudinal nature of the judgement, as well as the knowledge, skills and attitudes which are most relevant to diagnostic competence. A conceptual framework is proposed to illustrate the judgement ecology, which is supported by anonymised quotes from interview participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to explore in depth how consultant histopathologists determine diagnostic competence in their trainees. This is particularly important as histopathology is a unique medical specialty for which there is little evidence to support the current assessment strategies during training. The resulting conceptual model and findings from this study may help to form an evidence base to inform future assessment tools in histopathology.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Consultores , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Patologistas/educação , Patologia/educação , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Consultores/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patologistas/psicologia , Personalidade , Papel do Médico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Tempo , Confiança
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 447, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study was to determine the association between Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) and caregiver burden, and the mediating role of coping strategy and personality style of caregivers to patients with dementia (PWD). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 caregivers to PWD in home-based settings. Recruited caregivers were administered questionnaires regarding BPSD which was measured using Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q), caregiver burden using Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Brief COPE for coping strategies and Big-Five Inventory which measured personality traits. RESULTS: Majority of the caregivers were female (71.3%), aged 50 and above (55%), single (46%), married (43.6%), working full time (45%) while the rest work part time (22.3%), unemployed (7.4%) and retiree (25.2%), and majority were parents (58.9%) and spouse (18.3%). The duration of caregiving was less than a year (33.7%) while the rest are more than a year. Results demonstrated that the most frequent types of BPSD exhibited by PWD was irritability, followed by apathy and agitation. All of the types of BPSD showed to be significantly correlated to caregiver burden except for anxiety, elation and appetite. Of personality traits, only conscientiousness was found to mediate the relationship between BPSD and caregiver burden (p < .05). Self-distraction, active coping, planning and acceptance were the coping strategies that demonstrated to have mediation effect on the relationship between BPSD and caregiver burden. CONCLUSION: Presentation of BPSD is correlated to caregiver burden which is partially mediated by coping strategies and personality styles.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Personalidade , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1053-1058, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Creation of modern information systems for supervision of the state of health of the population is impossible without effective monitoring of the state of individual health, the implementation of a comprehensive assessment of risk factors and the development of recommendations for the preservation of the health of individuals. The aim: Determination of the peculiarities of the interaction between the indicators of the psychophysiological adaptation of students during the асademic year and throughout the period of stay in a higher medical education institution in the context of providing effective monitoring of the individual health of young women and young men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A set of psychophysiological functions of the organism of the students was investigated by instrumental techniques and computer diagnostic complex "Effecton Studio", applying of standardized t questionnaires the characteristics of the person were determined, and the prognostic evaluation of the obtained data was carried out with factor analysis procedures. RESULTS: Results: It was determined that the following factors should be noted as the main factor formations during the analysis of the physiologically-determined correlates of processes psychophysiological adaptation: peculiarities of dynamic performance, balance of nervous processes and mobility of nerve processes, and mentally-determined correlates of processes psychophysiological adaptation: peculiarities of temperament and anxiety, character properties, level of subjective control of personality, aggressive manifestations of personality and emotional burnout. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: In the study were determined the most peculiarities of the interaction of the indicators of psychophysiological adaptation of modern students in the context of providing efficient monitoring of individual health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Estudantes , Adaptação Fisiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Universidades
9.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(1): 230-238, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-989082

RESUMO

Resumen La calidad de vida laboral (CVL) y la personalidad constituyen dos de los tópicos de mayor interés en la investigación del comportamiento humano en la organización. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar si es posible predecir la CVL a partir de algunas dimensiones de personalidad. Para su desarrollo, se utilizó un diseño descriptivo correlacional con una muestra conformada por 145 trabajadores de cinco empresas del sector privado de la ciudad de Bogotá. La personalidad se evaluó por medio de la prueba PPG-IPG, de Gordon (1993), y para la calidad de vida se utilizó el PCVL, de Gómez-Rada (2010). Se analizaron los resultados por medio estadísticos descriptivos y de carácter correlacional entre las variables con los coeficientes producto momento de Pearson y los rangos de Spearman. Los resultados muestran que la valoración de la CVL se encuentra relacionada positivamente con el hecho de que el trabajador muestre una personalidad más positiva, en términos de mayor autoestima, cautela, originalidad, comprensión y vitalidad.


Resumo A qualidade de vida profissional (QVP) e a personalidade constituem dois dos tópicos de maior interesse na pesquisa do comportamento humano na organização. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar se é possível predizer a QVP a partir de algumas dimensões de personalidade. Para seu desenvolvimento, foi utilizado um desenho descritivo correlacional com uma amostra conformada por 145 trabalhadores de cinco empresas do setor privado da cidade de Bogotá, Colômbia. A personalidade foi avaliada por meio do teste PPG-IPG, de Gordon (1993), e para a qualidade de vida foi utilizado o PCVL, de Gómez-Rada e Ponce de León (2010). Foram analisados os resultados por meios estatísticos descritivos e de caráter correlacional entre as variáveis com os coeficientes produto momento de Pearson e as categorias de Spearman. Os resultados mostram que a avaliação da QVP se encontra relacionada positivamente com o fato de o trabalhador mostrar uma personalidade mais positiva, em termos de mais autoestima, cautela, originalidade, compreensão e vitalidade.


Abstract Labor life quality (CVL, for its Spanish acronym) and personality conform two of the most interesting topics in human behavior research within the organization. The aim of this research was to identify whether it was possible to predict CVL as of some personality dimensions. To do so a correlational descriptive design was used. The sampling was made up of 145 workers at 5 private sector companies in the city of Bogotá. Personality was evaluated through the Gordon PPG-IPG test, and for life quality, Gómez PCVL (2010) was used. The results were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and the relation between variables was analyzed through Pearson moment-product coefficients and Spearman ranges. Results show that CVL valuation is positively related to the fact that the worker shows a more positive personality in terms of greater self-steem, caution, originality, understanding, and vitality.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Personalidade , Testes Psicológicos , Qualidade de Vida , Emprego
10.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(1): 248-260, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-989083

RESUMO

Resumen En los últimos años se han desarrollado medidas breves de los cinco factores de personalidad, sin embargo, la ganancia práctica de tiempo provista por las formas breves puede implicar propiedades psicométricas más débiles de los instrumentos. En la construcción de escalas breves, para mantener propiedades psicométricas adecuadas se debe emplear criterios teóricos y empíricos en la selección de los ítems y minimizar los sesgos de respuesta, como el de la aquiescencia (AC), que hace referencia a la tendencia de las personas a estar de acuerdo con afirmaciones positivas independientemente del contenido de la afirmación. Teniendo esto en cuenta, el objetivo principal del presente estudio fue desarrollar un instrumento breve (30 ítems), de dominio público, para medir los cinco factores de personalidad en población latina, controlando el sesgo de respuesta AC. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 910 participantes, 543 de sexo femenino (59.6 %) y 367 de sexo masculino (40.3 %), con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y los 80 años (M = 29.52; DT = 12.25), pertenecientes a la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina. Para el proceso de validación se propuso realizar un estudio de convergencia con las cinco escalas del NEO-FFI, un análisis de diferencia de grupos según el sexo y la edad de los participantes, y un estudio de validez predictiva respecto a algunas actividades recreacionales (uso de drogas, irresponsabilidad, amistad, erudición/creatividad y comunicación). Los resultados indican que el IPIP-R-30 presenta una estructura factorial de cinco factores, índices de confiabilidad adecuados tanto de consistencia interna como de estabilidad temporal, evidencia de validez convergente con las escalas del NEO-FFI, evidencia de diferencia de grupos según sexo y edad, y validez predictiva de la frecuencia de diferentes categorías de actividades específicas. De esta manera, se puede concluir que el IPIP-R-30 constituye una herramienta válida de evaluación de los rasgos de personalidad en nuestro medio, con puntuaciones libres del sesgo de AC.


Resumo Nos últimos anos, têm sido desenvolvidas medidas breves dos cinco fatores de personalidade; contudo, o ganho prático de tempo previsto pelas formas breves pode implicar propriedades psicométricas mais fracas dos instrumentos. Na construção de escalas breves, para manter propriedades psicométricas adequadas, devem ser empregados critérios teóricos e empíricos na seleção dos itens, e devem ser minimizados os vieses de resposta, como o da aquiescência (AC). Esse conceito faz referência à tendência das pessoas que estão de acordo com afirmações positivas, independentemente do conteúdo da afirmação. Nesse sentido, o objetivo principal deste estudo foi desenvolver um instrumento breve (30 itens), de domínio público, para medir os cinco fatores de personalidade em população latina, controlando o viés de resposta AC. A amostra esteve composta por 910 participantes, 543 de sexo feminino (59.6 %) e 367 de sexo masculino (40.3 %), entre 15 e 80 anos de idade (M = 29.52; DP = 12.25), pertencentes à cidade de Córdoba, Argentina. Para o processo de validação, foi proposto realizar um estudo de convergência com as cinco escalas do NEO-FFI, uma análise de diferença de grupos segundo o sexo e idade dos participantes, e um estudo de validade preditiva a respeito de atividades recreativas (uso de drogas, irresponsabilidade, amizade, erudição/ criatividade e comunicação). Os resultados indicam que o IPIP-R-30 apresenta uma estrutura fatorial de cinco fatores, índices de confiabilidade adequados tanto de consistência interna quanto de estabilidade temporal, evidência de validade convergente com as escalas do NEO-FFI, evidência de diferença de grupos segundo sexo e idade, e validade preditiva da frequência de diferentes categorias de atividades específicas. Dessa maneira, pode-se concluir que o IPIP-R-30 constitui uma ferramenta válida de avaliação dos traços de personalidade em nosso meio, com pontuações livros do viés de AC.


Abstract In recent years, brief measures of the five personality factors have been developed; however, the practical gain of time provided by the brief versions may imply weaker psychometric properties of the instruments. To maintain adequate psychometric properties in the construction of brief scales, theoretical and empirical criteria should be used in the selection of items, and response biases such as acquiescence (AC) should be minimized. The term AC refers to people's tendency to agree with positive statements, regardless of their content. The main purpose of the present study is to develop a brief public domain instrument (30 items) to measure the five personality factors in the Latin American population, controlling the AC response bias. The sample consisted of 910 participants, 543 women (59.6 %) and 367 men (40.3 %), age range 15-80 years (M = 29.52; DT = 12.25) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. For the validation process, a convergence study with the five NEO-FFI scales, an analysis of group differences according to the participants' sex and age, and a predictive validity study regarding recreational activities (drug use, irresponsibility, friendship, erudition/creativity, and communication) were performed. The results indicate that the IPIP-R-30 presents a five-factor factorial structure, adequate reliability indices of both internal consistency and temporal stability, evidence of convergent validity with the NEO-FFI scales, evidence of group differences as regards sex and age, and frequency predictive validity of different categories of specific activities. Thus, it can be concluded that the IPP-R-30 is a valid tool for assessing personality factors in our environment, with scores free of AC bias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Personalidade , Testes Psicológicos , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(4): 420-429, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094546

RESUMO

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; 5th ed.) reassignment of gambling disorder as an addictive disorder alongside the substance-related addictive disorders encourages research into their shared etiologies. The aims of this study were to examine: (a) the associations of Big Five personality dimensions with alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and gambling disorders, (b) the comorbidity between these disorders, (c) the extent to which common personality underpinnings explain comorbidity, (d) whether results differed for men and women, and (e) the magnitude of personality differences corresponding to the 4 disorders. Participants were 3,785 twins and siblings (1,365 men, 2,420 women; Mage = 32 years, range = 21-46 years) from the Australian Twin Registry who completed psychiatric interviews and Big Five personality inventories. The personality profile of high neuroticism, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness was associated with all 4 addictive disorders. All but 1 of the pairwise associations between the disorders were significant. After accounting for Big Five traits, the associations were attenuated to varying degrees but remained significant. The results were generally similar for men and women. The results suggest that the Big Five traits of neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are associated with the general propensity to develop an addictive disorder and may in part explain their co-occurrence; however, they may be more broadly associated with the propensity for any psychiatric disorder. The effect sizes of the personality associations suggest that the diagnosis of gambling disorder as operationalized by the DSM may be more severe than the other addictive disorders. Calibration of the diagnosis of gambling disorder to the other addictive disorders may be warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Personalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(4): 443-449, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the direct relationship between personality (PN) and sub-health status (SHS) and their indirect association mediated by frustration quotient (FQ) and stress event (SE). METHODS: A multiple-stage stratified sampling method was used to choose the participants, and a total of 4517 eligible urban residents were selected.ANCOVA was used to analyze the independent association between personality and SHS after adjusting the demographic characteristics and lifestyle.A structural equation model was used to analyze the associations among personality, FQ, SE and SHS.Bootstrap method was used to test the direct and indirect association between personality and SHS. RESULTS: Personality was independently associated with total sub-health (F=75.913, P < 0.001), physical sub-health (F=23.618, P < 0.001), mental sub-health (F=101.993, P < 0.001) and social sub-health (F=48.757, P < 0.001).The urban residents with the personalities characterized by anger suppression, anxiety and irritability, and impatience and competitiveness had significantly lower health scores than those with a mature and steady personality (P < 0.05).Personality was associated with FQ and SE, and the indirect association between personality and physical sub-health was mainly mediated by FQ and SE (ß=-0.110).Personality showed more a direct association (ß=-0.172) with mental sub-health and a slightly less indirect association (ß=-0.126) with mental sub-health.Personality showed a more indirect association (ß=-0.113) with social SHS and slightly less direct association (ß=-0.082) with social sub-health. CONCLUSIONS: A mature and steady personality may help to promote the general health level, while the personalities of anger suppression, anxiety and irritability, impatience and competitiveness can be associated with the occurrence of sub-health.Building a mature and steady personality has positive effects on the health in general of an individual.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Personalidade , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089096

RESUMO

AIM: To search for genetic variants associated with premorbid personality in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 272 men diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on premorbid personality difficulties: mild (group 1, n=110), moderate (group 2, n=113), marked (group 3, n=49). The following polymorphisms were genotyped: 5-HTR2A (T102C), 5-HTTLPR, BDNF (Val66Met), CRP (-717A>G). RESULTS: A significant increase in the frequency of the CC (5-HTR2A T102C), LL (5-HTTLPR) and Met/Met (BDNF Val66Met) genotypes was identified in group 3 compared to group 1. Frequencies of CC and LL genotypes were significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1 as well. The differences between group 2 and group 3 were found only for the Met/Met genotype. There were no between-group differences in the frequencies of CRP (-717A>G) genotypes. CONCLUSION: 5-HTR2A (T102C), 5-HTTLPR, BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphisms previously reported to modify schizophrenia course are also associated with premorbid personality in schizophrenic patients.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Serina Peptidase 2 de Requerimento de Alta Temperatura A , Personalidade , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Genótipo , Serina Peptidase 2 de Requerimento de Alta Temperatura A/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina , Esquizofrenia/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética
14.
Wiad Lek ; 72(4): 579-583, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The article considers social-psychological features of value orientations of patients with alcohol dependence. The state of the problem under consideration in the psychological literature has been studied. The analysis of empirical research of value orientations of patients with alcohol dependence has been conducted. The aim: The aim of the paper is to identify social-psychological features of value orientations of patients with al cohol dependence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The research has been conducted at full-time treatment department of Transcarpathian Oblast Narcological Dispensary (Uzhhorod, Ukraine). The experiment involved 42 respondents (29 men and 13 women) of different age, the department patients, suffering on alcoholism. The techniques have been performed individually with each patient. The following methods have been used: 1. Method of «Valuable Orientation¼ by M. Rokich. 2. Questionnaire on Terminal Values (QTV) by I.G.Senin. 3. Purpose-life orientation test (method of PLO) by D.A. Leontiev. RESULTS: Results: It has been found out that the group hierarchy of values in cases with chronic alcoholism is characterised by an explicit orientation to specific vital values. There is a characteristic reverse development of the value sphere of an individual in cases with chronic alcoholism, which is displayed in the formation of orientations on the lower levels of the value system. The results of empirical research have shown that among the patients with alcohol dependence the preference is given to terminal values, values - goals. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: It has been generalised that value orientations are the component of the structure of an individual, which reflects the life experience gained by an individual in the individual development, and represents the core of consciousness, taking into account how personality makes decisions on important vital issues.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/psicologia , Valores Sociais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia
15.
Behav Processes ; 164: 123-132, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059765

RESUMO

Behaviour plays a crucial role in a species' ability to cope with environmental challenges. However, this ability may be affected by repeatable individual differences in behaviour, a pattern described as animal personality. The consideration of animal personality is therefore essential when understanding how a species copes with its environmental stressors. For sand bubbler crabs, feeding is often disrupted by environmental interference, in the forms of predatory events and human recreational activities. How these crabs deal with such disruption is, however, not well documented. Here, we characterised the foraging and risk-taking behaviours of Dotilla wichmanni when responding to induced disruption. Whether these are personality traits and if they form part of a behavioural syndrome were also examined. We quantify both behaviours by taking four measures (two per behaviour). All behavioural measures were consistently different among individuals, suggesting that D. wichmanni exhibits personality. Results further suggest that they could cope with some environmental interference, although this is limited. Crabs did not vary the time spent hiding in burrows with each repeated disruption nor did behavioural plasticity differ between individuals. Notwithstanding these, the absence of support for a foraging-risk propensity behavioural syndrome points to possible complexity in the crabs' coping ability.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento Apetitivo , Braquiúros , Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Individualidade
16.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(6): 423-427, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135182

RESUMO

A web-based experiment (n = 960) examined how debunking of publicly shared news on social media affects viewers' attitudes toward the source who shared the fake news, their agreement with the news position, and perceived credibility of social media as a news platform. Exposure to debunking information did not lower participants' agreement with the news position, but led them to derogate (1) the source who shared the misinformation and (2) social media as a news platform. However, participants who initially favored the source were less likely to attribute the sharing of fake news to the source's dispositions, rather than situational factors, thereby maintaining their positive attitudes toward the source.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comunicação , Decepção , Mídias Sociais , Credenciamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Personalidade
17.
Health Psychol ; 38(7): 648-657, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Illness behaviors-or responses to bodily symptoms-predict individuals' recovery and functioning; however, there has been little research on the early life personality antecedents of illness behavior. This study's primary aims were to evaluate (a) childhood temperament traits (i.e., emotionality and sociability) as predictors of adult illness behaviors, independent of objective health; and (b) adult temperament traits for mediation of childhood temperament's associations. METHOD: Participants included 714 (53% male; 350 adoptive family and 364 control family) children and siblings from the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP; Plomin & DeFries, 1983). Structural regression analyses evaluated paths from childhood temperament to illness behavior (i.e., somatic complaints, sick days, and medication use) at two adulthood assessments (CAP years 21 and 30). Analyses controlled for participant age, sex, family type (adoptive or control), adopted status, parent education/occupation, and middle childhood illnesses, doctor visits, and life events stress. RESULTS: Latent illness behavior factors were established across 2 adulthood assessments. Multilevel path analyses revealed that higher emotionality (fearfulness) in adulthood-but not childhood temperament-predicted higher levels of illness behavior at both assessments. Lastly, lower emotionality-fearfulness partially mediated the effect of higher childhood sociability on adult illness behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the importance of childhood illness experiences and adult emotionality (fearfulness) in shaping illness behavior in early adulthood. They also suggest a small, protective role of childhood sociability on reduced trait fearfulness in adulthood. These findings broaden our understanding of the prospective links between temperament and illness behavior development, suggesting distinct associations from early life illness experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Comportamento de Doença , Temperamento , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento de Doença/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 179: 272-281, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059994

RESUMO

The majority of ecotoxicological studies performed measure average responses from individuals which do not account for the inter-individual variation in the responses of animals to environmental stimuli (i.e. the personality of individuals). Thus, these designs assume that all individuals will respond to contaminant exposure in a similar manner. Additionally, commonly used constant, static exposure regime designs neglect to recognize the spatial and temporal variation in contaminant plume structures as they move throughout fluid environments. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of the structural characteristics (concentration, duration, and frequency) of temporally and spatially variant contaminant plumes on the personality of individuals. This experimental design aimed to construct a sensitive definition of exposure by connecting sublethal effects of toxicants and realistic exposure regimes. This study used escape response of Faxonius virilis crayfish from the predatory odor of Micropterus salmoides prior to and following exposure to the herbicide, atrazine. Atrazine was delivered in pulses to flow through exposure arenas for a total of 47 h while manipulating the concentration, frequency, and duration of the herbicide pulses. Escape response of crayfish prior to exposure was used to categorize animals into bold and shy personalities. The change in escape response was analyzed and resulted in a personality-dependent behavioral sensitivity to the polluted environment. Individuals classified as bold showed increased change in response to predatory odor relative to shy animals. Bold animals exhibited decreased activity after exposure where no change was presented in shy individuals. Shifts in individual behavior have impacts on the population level (e.g. resource acquisition/value; interspecies competition) and the ecosystem level (e.g. food web dynamics; trophic cascades). This study demonstrates the importance of sensitive measures in ecological risk assessment methods.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrazina/toxicidade , Reação de Fuga/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Personalidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Bass/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cadeia Alimentar , Odorantes/análise , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Psychol Aging ; 34(3): 362-373, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070400

RESUMO

Personality traits, such as Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, are associated with cognitive outcomes across the life span, including cognitive function in young adulthood and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in old age. Research on personality and age-related cognition has focused primarily on memory-related tasks and outcomes. The purpose of this research is to address the relation between Five Factor Model personality traits and another critical marker of cognitive function that has received less attention-verbal fluency. We examine this relation across adulthood in 10 cohorts (11 samples) that totaled more than 90,000 participants (age range 16-101). Participants in all samples reported on their personality traits and completed at least one fluency task (semantic and/or letter). A meta-analysis of semantic fluency (N = 86,044) indicated that participants who scored lower in Neuroticism, and higher in Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, retrieved more words, independent of age, gender, and education. These associations generally replicated for the letter fluency task (3 samples; N = 11,551). Moderation analysis indicated that the associations between personality and semantic fluency were stronger in older samples (except for Openness) and among individuals with lower education. This pattern suggests that these associations are stronger in groups vulnerable to severe cognitive impairment. Personality traits have pervasive associations with fluency tasks that are replicable across samples and age groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 27, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a relationship between delirium and depressive symptoms after cardiac surgery with distress personalities linking to negative surgical outcomes. The aim of the present study is to further investigate the association between patients with Type D (distressed) personality with regards to delirium after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a consecutive-sample observational cohort pilot study with an estimated 142 patients needed. Enrollment criteria included patients aged ≥18 years who were undergoing planned cardiovascular, thoracic and abdominal artery surgery between October 2015 to August 2016 at the University of Tsukuba Hospital, Japan. All patients were screened by Type-D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) the day before surgery. Following surgery, daily data was collected during recovery and included severity of organ dysfunction, sedative/analgesic exposure and other relevant information. We then evaluated the association between Type D personality and delirium/coma days (DCDs) during the 7-day study period. We applied regression and mediation modeling for this study. RESULTS: A total of 142 patients were enrolled in the present study and the total prevalence of delirium was found to be 34% and 26% of the patients were Type D. Non-Type D personality patients experienced an average of 1.3 DCDs during the week after surgery while Type D patients experienced 2.1 days over the week after surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that Type D personality was significantly associated with increased DCDs (OR:2.8, 95%CI:1.3-6.1) after adjustment for depressive symptoms and clinical variables. Additionally, there was a significant Type D x depression interaction effect (OR:1.7, 95% CI:1.2-2.2), and depressive symptoms were associated with DCDs in Type D patients, but not in non-Type D patients. Mediation modeling showed that depressive symptoms partially mediated the association of Type D personality with DCDs (Aroian test =0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Type D personality is a prognostic predictor for prolonged acute brain dysfunction (delirium/coma) in cardiovascular patients independent from depressive symptoms and Type D personality-associated depressive symptoms increase the magnitude of acute brain dysfunction.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/psicologia , Coma/etiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Personalidade Tipo D , Idoso , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Delírio/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA