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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932579

RESUMO

This research examines the entrepreneurship gender gap by offering an additional novel explanation for the higher share of men in entrepreneurial activity focusing on intergenerational parental role. Participants (N = 1288) aged 18-81, including 259 actual entrepreneurs, completed questionnaires about entrepreneurship tendency, personality traits and socioeconomic background. The gender gap in actual entrepreneurship continues a significant difference in entrepreneurial tendency, which is developed in the first and the second stages of the entrepreneurial trajectory. When women reach the third stage of entrepreneurial development, the execution stage, they have already acquired a self-perception of an incapable and incommensurate entrepreneurial personality. The results indicate that role modeling behavioral channel significantly accounts for the gender gap in entrepreneurial personality. The results suggest that both parents contribute to women's' inferior perception of entrepreneurial personality and that their contribution affects all four aspects of the entrepreneurial tendency. It appears that the impact of fathers' role modeling is larger than that of mothers, and furthermore fathers transfer other entrepreneurial role models from their side in the family.


Assuntos
Empreendedorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Pais/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256939, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478454

RESUMO

Social role disruption is a state involving upheaval of social identities, routines and responsibilities. Such disruption is presently occurring at a global scale due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which poses a threat not only to health and security but also to the social roles that underlie people's daily lives. Our collective response to combat the virus entails, for example, parents homeschooling children, friends socializing online, and employees working from home. While these collective efforts serve the greater good, people's social roles now lack continuity from what was authentic to the roles before the pandemic began. This, we argue, takes a psychological toll. Individuals feel inauthentic, or alienated and out-of-touch from their "true" selves, to the extent their social roles undergo change. As evidence, we report survey (Studies 1 & 4) and experimental (Studies 2 & 3) evidence that COVID-19-related role changes indeed increase inauthenticity. This effect occurs independent of (a) how positively/negatively people feel about COVID-19 (Study 2) and (b) how positively/negatively people feel about the role change itself (Studies 3 & 4). Moreover, we identify two moderators of this effect. First, this effect occurs when (and ostensibly because) the social roles undergoing change are central to an individual's sense of self (Study 2). Second, this effect depends on an individual's temporal perspective. People can safeguard their self-authenticity in the face of changing social roles if they stay focused on the here-and-now (the present and immediate future), rather than focusing on the past (pre-COVID-19) or future (post-COVID-19) (Studies 3 & 4). This advantage for present-focused coping is observed in both the U.S.A. (Study 3) and Hong Kong (Study 4). We suggest that the reason people feel more authentically themselves when they maintain a present focus is because doing so makes the discontinuity of their social roles less salient.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0238663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370743

RESUMO

Studies of personality traits in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) indicate that there are five or six constructs-Sociability, Dominance, Neuroticism, Openness, and two related to Conscientiousness. The present study attempted to determine whether our earlier study of laboratory-housed individuals only yielded three-Dominance, Sociability, and Neuroticism-because of a low amount of between-subjects variance. To do so, we increased our sample size from 77 to 128. In addition, we ascertained the reliability and validity of ratings and whether polymorphisms related to the serotonin 1a receptor were associated with personality. We found Sociability, Dominance, and Negative Affect factors that resembled three domains found in previous studies, including ours. We also found an Openness and Impulsiveness factor, the latter of which bore some resemblance to Conscientiousness, and two higher-order factors, Pro-sociality and Boldness. In further analyses, we could not exclude the possibility that Pro-sociality and Boldness represented a higher-level of personality organization. Correlations between personality factors and well-being were consistent with the definitions of the factors. There were no significant associations between personality and genotype. These results suggest that common marmoset personality structure varies as a function of rearing or housing variables that have not yet been investigated systematically.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Callithrix/metabolismo , Callithrix/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237095

RESUMO

Many studies show the importance of adult attachment styles and their impact on social and emotional adaptation in adulthood. However, there is no agreement about whether attachment should be regarded as typological or dimensional, and some authors have proposed reconciling both options, so that adult attachment styles can be assessed more accurately and realistically. In this study we have adopted this comprehensive view and used Factor Mixture Analysis, the most appropriate model for assessing this mixture view. More specifically, we attempted to determine the nature and types (if any) of attachment styles that can be assessed with the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (CAA), using this mixture view. A total of 515 adults from Spain took part, with ages between 18 and 56 years old. In addition to the CAA questionnaire, they completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and the emotional stability subscale of the Overall Personality Assessment Scale. On the basis of the CAA scores, the results show that only two profiles-insecure attachment and normal-range-can be univocally differentiated. Furthermore, the results of a full multiple-group structural model show that each of these profiles has a different pattern of validity relations with the external variables maternal care, maternal overprotection and emotional stability. These differential validity results reinforce the general hypothesis that two differentiated clusters of individuals can be distinguished on the basis of the responses to the CAA items.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280216

RESUMO

Often members of a group benefit from dividing the group's task into separate components, where each member specializes their role so as to accomplish only one of the components. While this division of labor phenomenon has been observed with respect to both manual and cognitive labor, there is no clear understanding of the cognitive mechanisms allowing for its emergence, especially when there are multiple divisions possible and communication is limited. Indeed, maximization of expected utility often does not differentiate between alternative ways in which individuals could divide labor. We developed an iterative two-person game in which there are multiple ways of dividing labor, but in which it is not possible to explicitly negotiate a division. We implemented the game both as a human experimental task and as a computational model. Our results show that the majority of human dyads can finish the game with an efficient division of labor. Moreover, we fitted our computational model to the behavioral data, which allowed us to explain how the perceived similarity between a player's actions and the task's focal points guided the players' choices from one round to the other, thus bridging the group dynamics and its underlying cognitive process. Potential applications of this model outside cognitive science include the improvement of cooperation in human groups, multi-agent systems, as well as human-robot collaboration.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Personalidade/fisiologia , Psicologia Social/tendências
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133450

RESUMO

Childfree individuals choose not to have children, which makes them a distinctive group from parents who have had children, not-yet-parents who plan to have children, and childless indivduals who would have liked to have children. Most research on parental status and psychosocial characteristics has not effectively distinguished childfree individuals from other non-parents or has relied on non-representative samples. In this study, we use a representative sample of 981 Michigan adults to estimate the prevalence of childfree individuals, to examine how childfree individuals differ from parents and other types of non-parents in life satisfaction, political ideology, and personality, and to examine whether childfree individuals are viewed as an outgroup. We find that over a quarter of Michigan adults identified as childfree. After controlling for demographic characteristics, we find no differences in life satisfaction and limited differences in personality traits between childfree individuals and parents, not-yet-parents, or childless individuals. However, childfree individuals were more liberal than parents, and those who have or want(ed) children felt substantially less warm toward childfree individuals than childfree individuals felt toward each other. Given the prevalence of childfree individuals, the risks of their outgroup status, and their potential role in politics as a uniquely liberal group, it is important for demographic research to distinguish the childfree from others and to better understand these individuals.


Assuntos
Personalidade/fisiologia , Coleta de Dados , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 759, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145380

RESUMO

Behavioral phenotypic traits or "animal personalities" drive critical evolutionary processes such as fitness, disease and information spread. Yet the stability of behavioral traits, essential by definition, has rarely been measured over developmentally significant periods of time, limiting our understanding of how behavioral stability interacts with ontogeny. Based on 32 years of social behavioral data for 179 wild bottlenose dolphins, we show that social traits (associate number, time alone and in large groups) are stable from infancy to late adulthood. Multivariate analysis revealed strong relationships between these stable metrics within individuals, suggesting a complex behavioral syndrome comparable to human extraversion. Maternal effects (particularly vertical social learning) and sex-specific reproductive strategies are likely proximate and ultimate drivers for these patterns. We provide rare empirical evidence to demonstrate the persistence of social behavioral traits over decades in a non-human animal.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Animais , Personalidade/fisiologia , Fatores Sociológicos
8.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 160, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with adulthood cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to explore the potential relationship of quality of life (QoL) and personality traits with adolescent MS. METHODS: A total of 1961 participants from Chongqing with an average age of 11.68 years old from a cohort study established in 2014 and followed up through 2019 were included. QoL information, Eysenck's personality questionnaire and MS components were collected. RESULTS: A higher QoL domain score of physical activity ability (PAA) was a protective factor for both MS and MS score (all P < 0.01), which was mainly negatively correlated with the MS components of central obesity, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and triglyceride levels, as well as positively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. The total QoL score was negatively correlated with triglyceride levels and positively correlated with DBP (all P < 0.01). High extraversion personality score was a protective factor against adolescent MS (P = 0.04) and MS score (P < 0.05), which were mainly negatively correlated with the MS components of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and TGs, and positively correlated with HDL-C (all P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: QoL score and extraversion personality score were independent protective factors against both MS prevalence and MS score, suggesting that community intervention to improve the QoL and psychological health of children are essential.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118110, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933596

RESUMO

One-week treatment with escitalopram decreases amygdala responses to fearful facial expressions in depressed patients, but it remains unknown whether it also modulates processing of complex and freely processed emotional stimuli resembling daily life emotional situations. Inter-subject correlation (ISC) offers a means to track brain activity during complex, dynamic stimuli in a model-free manner. Twenty-nine treatment-seeking patients with major depressive disorder were randomized in a double-blind study design to receive either escitalopram or placebo for one week, after which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. During fMRI the participants listened to spoken emotional narratives. Level of ISC between the escitalopram and the placebo group was compared across all the narratives and separately for the episodes with positive and negative valence. Across all the narratives, the escitalopram group had higher ISC in the default mode network of the brain as well as in the fronto-temporal narrative processing regions, whereas lower ISC was seen in the middle temporal cortex, hippocampus and occipital cortex. Escitalopram increased ISC during positive parts of the narratives in the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and fronto-insular cortex, whereas there was no significant synchronization in brain responses to positive vs negative events in the placebo group. Increased ISC may imply improved emotional synchronization with others, particularly during observation of positive events. Further studies are needed to test whether this contributes to the later therapeutic effect of escitalopram.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral , Citalopram/farmacologia , Rede de Modo Padrão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Emoções , Percepção Social , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/administração & dosagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Citalopram/administração & dosagem , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede de Modo Padrão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251097, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010299

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) epidemic was first detected in China in December 2019 and spread to other countries fast. Some studies have found that COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse mental health consequences. Individual differences such as personality could contribute to people's behaviors during a pandemic. In the current study, we examine how personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion (using the Five-Factor Model as our framework) are related to the mental health of Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from an online survey with 1096 responses, this study performed multiple regression analysis to explore how personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion predict the effects of COVID-19 on the mental health of Canadians. The results showed that personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion are associated with the current mental health of Canadians during COVID-19 pandemic, with extroversion positively related to mental health and neuroticism negatively related to it. Results contribute to the management of individual responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and could help public health services provide personality-appropriate mental health services during this pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010358

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant influence on the lives of people around the world and could be a risk factor for mental health diseases. This study aimed to explore the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic by identifying patterns related to post-traumatic symptoms by considering personality and defensive styles. Specifically, it was hypothesized that neuroticism was negatively associated with impact of event, as opposed to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness traits. The mediation role of mature, neurotic, and immature defenses in these relationships was also investigated. This study involved 557 Italian individuals (71.3% women, 28.7% men; Mage = 34.65, SD = 12.05), who completed an online survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Forty Item Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and Ten Item Personality Inventory. Results showed a nonsignificant effect for extraversion and openness on impact of event. The negative influence of neuroticism was instead confirmed in a partial parallel mediation involving significant effects from immature and neurotic defenses in the indirect path. Finally, agreeableness and conscientiousness delineated two protective pathways regarding impact of event, determining two total parallel mediation models in which both these personality traits were negatively associated with immature defensive styles, and conscientiousness was also positively related to mature defenses. These findings provide an exploration post-traumatic symptom patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic, involving the big five personality traits and defense mechanisms. These results may be useful for developing interventions, treatments, and prevention activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Pandemias , Inventário de Personalidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/etiologia
12.
Neuroimage ; 235: 117963, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813007

RESUMO

A major goal of human neuroscience is to relate differences in brain function to differences in behavior across people. Recent work has established that whole-brain functional connectivity patterns are relatively stable within individuals and unique across individuals, and that features of these patterns predict various traits. However, while functional connectivity is most often measured at rest, certain tasks may enhance individual signals and improve sensitivity to behavior differences. Here, we show that compared to the resting state, functional connectivity measured during naturalistic viewing-i.e., movie watching-yields more accurate predictions of trait-like phenotypes in the domains of both cognition and emotion. Traits could be predicted using less than three minutes of data from single video clips, and clips with highly social content gave the most accurate predictions. Results suggest that naturalistic stimuli amplify individual differences in behaviorally relevant brain networks.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Conectoma , Emoções/fisiologia , Filmes Cinematográficos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8612, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883667

RESUMO

Previously, we found that dogs belonging to the herding breed group, selected for human cooperation, synchronise their long-term stress levels with their owners. The aim of the current study was to investigate features that could influence long-term stress levels in ancient dog breeds, genetically closer to wolves, and dogs specifically selected to work independently of their owner. Twenty-four ancient breed dogs and 18 solitary hunting dogs were recruited and hair samples were obtained from both dogs and owners from which hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was analysed. Additionally, the owners completed lifestyle surveys, the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) on human-dog relationship, and both dog and owner personality questionnaires (Dog Personality questionnaire and Big Five Inventory survey). The results from the MDORS indicate that the subscale Perceived cost correlated to the dog HCC of tested breed groups: solitary hunting breeds (χ2 = 4.95, P = 0.026, ß = 0.055), ancient breeds (χ2 = 2.74, P = 0.098, ß = 0.027), and herding dogs included from a previous study (χ2 = 6.82, P = 0.009, ß = - 0.061). The HCC of the solitary hunting dogs was also related to the owner personality traits Agreeableness (χ2 = 12.30, P < 0.001, ß = - 0.060) and Openness (χ2 = 9.56, P = 0.002, ß = 0.048) suggesting a more substantial influence of the owner on the solitary hunting dog's HCC compared to the ancient breeds. No effect of owner HCC on dog HCC was found in either ancient or in solitary hunting breeds. Hence, the long-term stress synchronisation is likely to be a trait in breeds selected for human cooperation. In conclusion, dog HCC is often related to the owners' personality, but is primarily influenced by the owner-dog relationship.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Cães , Feminino , Vínculo Humano-Animal , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/fisiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Neuroimage ; 235: 118049, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848626

RESUMO

Personality traits reflect key aspects of individual variability in different psychological domains. Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to these differences requires an exhaustive investigation of the behaviors associated with such traits, and their underlying neural sources. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying agreeableness, one of the five major dimensions of personality, which has been linked mainly to socio-cognitive functions. In particular, we examined whether individual differences in the neural representations of social information are related to differences in agreeableness of individuals. To this end, we adopted a multivariate representational similarity approach that captured within single individuals the activation pattern similarity of social and non-social content, and tested its relation to the agreeableness trait in a hypothesis-driven manner. The main result confirmed our prediction: processing social and non-social content led to similar patterns of activation in individuals with low agreeableness, while in more agreeable individuals these patterns were more dissimilar. Critically, this association between agreeableness and encoding similarity of social and random content was significant only in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a brain region consistently involved during attributions of mental states. The present finding reveals the link between neural mechanisms underlying social information processing and agreeableness, a personality trait highly related to socio-cognitive abilities, thereby providing a step forward in characterizing its neural determinants. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantage of multivariate pattern analysis approaches in capturing and understanding the neural sources of individual variations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Percepção Social
15.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 623-631, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851414

RESUMO

The effects of framing on risky decision-making have been studied extensively in research using Kahneman and Tversky's (1981) hypothetical scenario about a contagious Asian disease. The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique opportunity to test how message framing affects risky decision-making when millions of real lives are at stake worldwide. In a sample of US adults (N = 294), we investigated the effects of message framing and personality (Dark Triad traits) in relation to risky decision-making during the COVID-19 crisis. We found that both gain- and loss-framing influenced risk choice in response to COVID-19. People were more risk-averse in the loss condition of the current study compared to the benchmark established by Tversky and Kahneman (1981). Among the Dark Triad traits, psychopathy emerged as the significant predictor of risk taking, suggesting that people who score high in psychopathy are more likely to gamble with other people's lives during the COVID-19 crisis. We suggest that both voters and pandemic-related public awareness campaigns should consider the possibility that decision-makers with psychopathic tendencies may take greater risks with other people's lives during a pandemic. In addition, the framing of public-health messages should be tailored to increase the chances of compliance with government restrictions.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 198-198, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism through which basic personality dimensions predict indicators of psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, including subjective well-being and perceived stress. As a personality characteristic highly contextualized in stressful circumstances, resilience was expected to have a mediating role in this relationship. METHOD: A sample of 2,722 Slovene adults, aged from 18 to 82 years filled in the Big Five Inventory, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Mental Health Continuum. A path analysis with the Bootstrap estimation procedure was performed to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience in the relationship between personality and psychological functioning. RESULTS: Resilience fully or partially mediated the relationships between all the Big Five but extraversion with subjective well-being and stress experienced at the beginning of the COVID-19 outburst. Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of less adaptive psychological functioning both directly and through diminished resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Resilience may be a major protective factor required for an adaptive response of an individual in stressful situations such as pandemic and the associated lockdown


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo fue dilucidar el mecanismo subyacente a través del cual las dimensiones básicas de la personalidad predicen indicadores del funcionamiento psicológico durante la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el bienestar subjetivo y el estrés percibido. Como característica de la personalidad altamente contextualizada en circunstancias estresantes, se esperaba que la resiliencia tuviera un papel mediador en esta relación. MÉTODO: Una muestra de 2.722 adultos eslovenos (18-82 años), completó el Big Five Inventory, la Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, la Perceived Stress Scale y el Mental Health Continuum. Se realizó un análisis de ruta con el procedimiento de estimación Bootstrap para evaluar el efecto mediador de la resiliencia en la relación entre la personalidad y el funcionamiento psicológico. RESULTADOS: La resiliencia medió total o parcialmente las relaciones entre los Cinco Grandes, y la extraversión con bienestar subjetivo y el estrés experimentado, al comienzo del estallido de COVID-19. El neuroticismo fue el predictor más fuerte de un funcionamiento psicológico menos adaptativo, tanto directamente como a través de la disminución de la capacidad de resiliencia. CONCLUSIONES: La resiliencia puede ser un factor de protección importante y requerido para una respuesta adaptativa de un individuo en situaciones estresantes como la pandemia y el confinamiento asociado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Resiliência Psicológica , Personalidade/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Neuroticismo/fisiologia
17.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 577-584, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723883

RESUMO

The Italian lockdown following the spread of COVID-19 exposed residents to a long and unexpected period of managing offspring at home. Throughout this time, most parents continued to work remotely. The present research aimed at assessing multiple sociodemographic and psychological variables for parental well-being during the lockdown. An online survey was administered from 6 to 11 April 2020. Respondents were 917 parents aged 23-67 years with up to six children, aged 3-13 years. The measures employed were: 14 demographic questions, the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), the Emotional Symptoms and Hyperactivity-Inattention subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Multiple moderated linear regression analyses were performed. Motherhood, higher levels of education, higher neuroticism, lower extroversion, and more child emotional and hyperactivity-inattention symptoms were found to be significant predictors of parent distress. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between child emotional problems and parent extroversion was found. Overall, parents showed high rates of psychological distress, signalling severe difficulties during the lockdown. Families with a child suffering from emotional and behavioural difficulties should immediately be detected by social services to activate support interventions to prevent chronic and amplified manifestations of these problems.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Personalidade , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Psychosom Res ; 144: 110410, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive empathy might decrease during medical school. Factors associated with its evolution remain poorly understood, as well as whether such factors could moderate the effect of an intervention to preserve cognitive empathy. The aim was to explore the associations between personality traits and both cognitive empathy at baseline and its changes at follow-up. The possible effect of an intervention depended upon personality traits was also examined. METHODS: The cohort consisted of fourth year medical students and the associations between personality traits, using the Short Big Five Inventory, and cognitive empathy changes at 3-month, using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Student version (JSE-S), were examined. A randomization in two groups (Balint groups versus no intervention) allowed examining whether the effect of the intervention depended upon personality traits. Linear regressions were adjusted for gender, anticipated specialty choice, parental education, living status, financial insecurity, randomization group and baseline JSE-S. RESULTS: The cohort included 311 participants from October 2015 to December 2016 at Paris Diderot and Paris Descartes University. At follow-up, there was a JSE-S total score increase of 1.22(SD:9.10) in the intervention group, compared to a decrease of 1.64(SD:10.74) in the other group. Baseline JSE-S was positively associated with Extraversion and Conscientiousness and negatively with Neuroticism. In contrast, we found no associations between baseline personality traits and JSE-S change. There were no interactions between personality traits and randomization group. CONCLUSION: Although personality might be linked with cognitive empathy, medical students may benefit from strategies designed for improving cognitive empathy regardless of their personality.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248368, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690629

RESUMO

Emotional stability-Neuroticism is a complex construct influenced by genetics and environmental factors. Women tend to exhibit higher neuroticism scores than men, which may be associated with an increased risk of suffering from some common mental conditions. Some authors have pointed out the influence of sex hormones, since they induce sexual differentiation of the brain that can lead to sex-specific behaviors. 2D:4D digit ratio is commonly used as a marker of prenatal sex hormones. In this study we analyzed whether there was an association between 2D:4D and personality measured through the BFQ in a homogeneous sample of 101 young women college students. We found a positive association between 2D:4D and emotional stability, as well as with its subdimensions emotion control and impulse control. This association could be quadratic and nonlinear. However, no association was found with the other four dimensions. We also measured anxiety, depression and global life satisfaction, variables related to neuroticism. We observed that emotional stability is positively associated to social desirability and global life satisfaction, and negatively related to anxiety and depression. On the other hand, we did not find any association between 2D:4D and anxiety, depression, and global life satisfaction. These results can be linked to other aspects such as subjective well-being and psychopathological symptoms. This study may help to better understand how these constructs are related and could lead to future projects to elucidated how these variables influence personality.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade/genética , Personalidade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Desejabilidade Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 422, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431948

RESUMO

The long-range temporal correlation (LRTC) in resting-state intrinsic brain activity is known to be associated with temporal behavioral patterns, including decision making based on internal criteria such as self-knowledge. However, the association between the neuronal LRTC and the subjective sense of identity remains to be explored; in other words, whether our subjective sense of consistent self across time relates to the temporal consistency of neural activity. The present study examined the relationship between the LRTC of resting-state scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and a subjective sense of identity measured by the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI). Consistent with our prediction based on previous studies of neuronal-behavioral relationships, the frontocentral alpha LRTC correlated negatively with identity confusion. Moreover, from the descriptive analyses, centroparietal beta LRTC showed negative correlations with identity confusion, and frontal theta LRTC showed positive relationships with identity synthesis. These results suggest that more temporal consistency (reversely, less random noise) in intrinsic brain activity is associated with less confused and better-synthesized identity. Our data provide further evidence that the LRTC of intrinsic brain activity might serve as a noise suppression mechanism at the psychological level.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Confusão/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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