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Trials ; 24(1): 54, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694242


BACKGROUND: Children < 5 years old in contact with TB cases are at high risk for developing severe and fatal forms of TB. Contact investigation, BCG vaccination, and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are the most effective strategies to prevent TB among children. However, the implementation of IPT faces challenges at several stages of the cascade of care of TB infection among children, particularly those less than 5 years old. In Peru, a large proportion of children do not complete IPT, which highlights the need to design effective interventions that enhance preventive therapy adherence and completion. Although the body of evidence for such interventions has grown, interventions in medium TB incidence settings are lacking. This study aims to test the effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of an intervention package to increase information and motivation to complete IPT among children < 5 who have been prescribed IPT. METHODS: An open-label, cluster-randomized superiority trial will be conducted in two districts in South Lima, Peru. Thirty health facilities will be randomized as clusters, 10 to the intervention and 20 to control (standard of care). We aim to recruit 10 children from different households in each cluster. Participants will be caretakers of children aged < 5 years old who initiated IPT. The intervention consists of educational material, and short message services (SMS) reminders and motivators. The primary outcomes will be the proportion of children who picked up > 90% of the 24 weeks of IPT (22 pick-ups) and the proportion of children who picked up the 24 weeks of IPT. The standard of care is a weekly pick-up with monthly check-ups in a health facility. Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention will be assessed through an interview with the caretaker. DISCUSSION: Unfavorable outcomes of TB in young children, high effectiveness of IPT, and low rates of IPT completion highlight the need to enhance adherence and completion of IPT among children < 5 years old. Testing of a context-adapted intervention is needed to improve IPT completion rates and therefore TB prevention in young children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03881228. Registered on March 19, 2019.

Isoniazida , Tuberculose , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Busca de Comunicante , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Peru/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673776


AIM: In dental practice there is a high risk of contact with fluids that may contain SARS-CoV-2. Salivary secretions in the form of droplets are the main route of infection. The present study aimed to evaluate factors associated with epidemiological, preventive and health care knowledge of dentists from the north of the Peruvian capital about COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analytical, observational, cross-sectional and prospective study evaluated 142 dental professionals from the Directorate of Integrated Health Networks (DIRIS) in the north of the Peruvian capital during June to August 2022. A validated questionnaire of 20 closed multiple-choice questions was used to measure the level of epidemiological, preventive and health care knowledge about COVID-19. A logit model was used to evaluate the influence of the following variables: age, sex, marital status, children, origin, university of origin, academic degree, work modality, work status and number of training courses. In addition, a predictive model was constructed with the causal variables considering a significance level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: Epidemiological, preventive and health care knowledge about COVID-19 was fair in 17.6%, 34.5% and 57.7%, respectively. Likewise, all the variables analyzed were influential factors. It was observed that being single (OR = 0.05, CI: 0.01-0.26), having studied at a private university (OR = 0.09, CI: 0.023-0.38) and having received four to six trainings on COVID-19 related topics (OR = 0.02, CI: 0.002-0.238) were protective factors against fair knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the dentists surveyed had fair knowledge about COVID-19. The factors that favored a good level of overall knowledge were: being single, having studied at a private university and having received 4 to 6 training courses on COVID-19-related topics. It is advisable that the competent authorities continue to educate dental professionals with training programs about infection control practices in accordance with the health care work they perform in their specialty. It will also be of utmost importance for the professional to be updated with reliable information accredited by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as well as the WHO.

COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Odontólogos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674168


The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the altitude of residence and the low birth weight (LBW) of the children of pregnant Peruvian women using a nationally representative database. An analysis of individual-level data from the last 13 years (from 2009 to 2021) of the Demographic and Family Health Survey was performed. The outcome variable was LBW, defined as birth weight less than 2500 g, while the independent variable was the altitude of residence in meters above sea level (masl). To estimate the association between the two variables, the crude and adjusted generalized linear model of the Poisson family with a log link was used along with crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, which were estimated with their respective 95% confidence interval. A total of 151,873 women aged 15-49 years were included between 2009 and 2021. The pooled proportion of LBW was 7.0%. As the main finding, the children of mothers residing at an altitude from 2500 to 3499 masl and ≥3500 masl had a higher probability of LBW. It was found that the children of mothers residing at an altitude above 2500 masl were more likely to have LBW. Our results will help to strengthen the cultural practice of maternal health care and increase its coverage in women residing in high-altitude regions.

Altitude , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Peru/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Mães
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 23(1): 9-17, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633562


Background: Bartonella species are fastidious gram-negative vector-borne bacteria with a wide range of mammalian reservoirs. While it is understood that some species of Bartonella are human pathogens, the extent of human exposure to Bartonella species (both pathogenic and nonpathogenic) is yet to be fully understood. Materials and Methods: To this end, residual sera from participants enrolled in undifferentiated fever studies in Cambodia, Ghana, Laos, and Peru were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae, using the FOCUS diagnostics Dual Spot- Bartonella IgG Immunofluorescence assay. Forty-eight patients with suspected or confirmed Bartonella bacilliformis exposure or infection in Peru were screened to assess cross-reactivity of the FOCUS assay for IgG against other Bartonella species. Results: Ten of 13 patients with confirmed B. bacilliformis infection were Bartonella-specific IgG positive, and overall, 36/48 of the samples were positive. In addition, 79/206, 44/200, 101/180, and 57/100 of the samples from Peru, Laos, Cambodia, and Ghana, respectively, were Bartonella-specific IgG positive. Furthermore, ectoparasite pools from Cambodia, Laos, and Peru were tested using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Of the sand fly pools collected in Peru, 0/196 were qPCR positive; 15/140 flea pools collected in Cambodia were qPCR positive; while 0/105 ticks, 0/22 fleas, and 0/3 louse pools collected in Laos tested positive for Bartonella DNA. Conclusion: Evidence of Bartonella in fleas from Cambodia supports the possibility that humans are exposed to Bartonella through this traditional vector. However, Bartonella species were not found in fleas, ticks, or lice from Laos, or sand flies from Peru. This could account for the lower positive serology among the population in Laos and the strictly localized nature of B. bacilliformis infections in Peru. Human exposure to the Bartonella species and Bartonella as a human pathogen warrants further investigation.

Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Carrapatos , Humanos , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Peru/epidemiologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Gana , Infestações por Pulgas/microbiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Mamíferos
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(1): 181-186, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509047


Class 1 and Class 2 integrons are mobilizable elements able to carry a variety of antibiotic resistance determinants. In the present study, Class 1 and 2 integrons present in 355 pathogenic Escherichia coli (285 diarrheagenic, of these 129 were enteropathogenic, 90 enteroaggregative, 66 enterotoxigenic, and 70 bacteremic) isolated from healthy and ill children under age 5 from periurban areas of Lima, Peru, were characterized. The presence of integrase 1 and 2 was established by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and variable regions were grouped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and subsequent sequencing. Antimicrobial resistance was established by disk diffusion. Ninety-seven isolates (27.3%) presented integrase 1, and 16 (4.5%) presented integrase 2 (P < 0.0001); in addition, seven (2.0%) isolates, six diarrheagenic and one bacteremic, presented both integrase genes. The presence of integrase 1 was more frequent among bacteremic isolates (P = 0.0004). Variable regions were amplified in 76/120 (63.3%) isolates with up to 14 gene arrangements. The most prevalent gene cassettes were those encoding dihydrofolate reductases as well as aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Of note, Class 1 integrons tended to be associated with the presence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs). A variety of Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected in diarrheagenic and bacteremic E. coli, demonstrating the heterogeneity of variable regions circulating in the area. The association of integrons with ESBLs is worrisome and has an impact on the development of multidrug resistance.

Bacteriemia , Diarreia , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Integrons , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/genética , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Integrases/genética , Integrons/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peru/epidemiologia
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(1): 187-194, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509044


The objective of the study was to determine the factors associated with the presence of Escherichia coli contamination in water supplies for human consumption in Peru. A secondary analysis of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance by Life Stages survey (VIANEV) of 2017-2018 was performed. The presence of E. coli contamination in the water samples for human consumption of the households evaluated was defined as a dependent variable. A supply was considered contaminated when there was at least 1 colony-forming unit of E. coli in 100 mL of water for human consumption. Data from 886 participants were analyzed. It was found that 25.2% of household water supply sources for human consumption had E. coli at the time of sampling. Water reservoirs such as buckets or other containers (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.93), households belonging to a poor wealth quintile (aPR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.01-3.25), residing in a rural area (aPR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.01-1.83), and having a low human development index (aPR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15-3.91) were more likely to contain E. coli in water supplies for human consumption. However, households with chlorine concentrations of 0.5 mg/L or more in water (aPR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.11-0.33) and with household members with a higher education (aPR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45-0.99) were less likely to contain E. coli in drinking-water supplies. From 2017 to 2018, one in four Peruvians had contamination by E. coli in the water supply to their homes, which was associated with sociodemographic factors, management, and water treatment.

Água Potável , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Prevalência
Vaccine ; 41(2): 564-572, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509638


OBJECTIVE: To identify the associated factors and assess the inequalities of full vaccination coverage (FVC) among Peruvian infants aged 12-23 months during the COVID-19 pandemic in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: We carried out a population-based cross-sectional study based on a secondary data analysis using the 2021 Peruvian Demographic Health Survey (DHS) in infants aged 12 to 23 months. The sampling design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified, and independent at both departmental and area of residence levels. FVC was defined according to the WHO definition. We performed generalized linear models (GLM) Poisson family log link function to estimate crude (aPR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR). Also, for inequality assessment, we calculated the concentration curve (CC), concentration index (CI), and Erreygers normalized concentration index (ECI). RESULTS: We included 4,189 infants in our analysis. Nationwide, the prevalence of FVC was 66.19% (95% CI: 64.33-68). Being younger, having a mother with no education or primary education, belonging to a large family, having no access to mass media, having had six or fewer ANC visits, and having a mother whose age was under 20 at first delivery were inversely associated with FVC. Meanwhile, living in the Highlands or on the rest of the coast, and living in rural areas were directly associated with FVC. We found a pro-rich inequality in FVC based on wealth-ranked households (CI: 0.0066; ECI: 0.0175). CONCLUSION: FVC has dropped among Peruvian infants aged between 12 and 23 months. There were several factors associated with FVC. It was more concentrated among the better-off infants, although in low magnitude.

COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Peru/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP443-NP465, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343294


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a higher risk of contracting HIV and developing worse HIV outcomes. This cross-sectional, mixed methods study presents data on IPV using the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2-S) among 180 persons with HIV in Lima, Peru, as well as qualitative interviews with 7 of them and 18 of their community caregivers. This study used data collected for a randomized controlled trial (RCT), CASAommunity Based Accompaniment with Supervised Antiretrovirals (CASA) Community-based Accompaniment with Supervised Antiretrovirals (CASA). Physical or sexual IPV was self-reported in 82 (45.6%) of participants reporting having been in a relationship in the last year and 59,8% of those were involved in bidirectional violence. Coping subscales, social support, and stigma were associated with IPV. Intimate partner violence negatively impacted patient adherence to medication and care, particularly during times of severe conflict. In conclusion, profound psychosocial vulnerability-including low social support, substance use as coping, and HIV stigma-contextualize IPV among people with HIV. Bidirectional violence often evolved over time as victims negotiated inter-personal strategies for survival, including retaliation. Interventions should focus on a deeper understanding IPV and facilitating of coping mechanisms to help people with HIV stay in care.

Infecções por HIV , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Peru/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Prevalência
Cult. cuid ; 26(64): 1-14, 3º Cuatrimestre 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213739


This research seeks to analyze the experiences of psychosocial coping in the context ofObligatory Social Isolation, brough about by COVID-19, in heads of families of Metropolitan Lima,Peru. In order to do this, we developed a qualitative research with a phenomenological design;semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 participants, heads of their families, from districts with high and low income. The results show that, on the one hand, participants experiencestyles focused on the problem, which encompass active coping, planning, restructuring their activities and routines, as well as displacement and change of priorities. On the other hand, we have thestyles centered on emotions, such as acceptance and agency, search for emotional support, positivereinterpretation and the release of emotions. Likewise, there are differences in the ways in whichpeople cope, both regarding their belonging to districts with higher or lower income, or in relationto whether they are men, women or non-binary people. We conclude that the coping experiencesvary according to the different socioeconomic and gender characteristics of the participants, requiring an intersectional perspective in the analysis. (AU)

La presente investigación busca analizar las experiencias de afrontamiento psicosocial enel contexto de Aislamiento Social Obligatorio, producto del COVID-19, en jefes de familia de Limametropolitana. Para ello se realizó una investigación cualitativa de diseño fenomenológico, así serealizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a 17 participantes, quienes son jefes defamilia, provenientes de distritos con altos y bajos ingresos económicos. Los resultados evidencianque se experimentan, por un lado, los estilos centrados en el problema, desde el cual se refiere elafrontamiento activo, la planificación, la reestructuración de actividades y rutinas, así como el desplazamiento y cambio de prioridades. De otro lado, se encuentran los estilos centrados en las emociones, tales como la aceptación y agencia, la búsqueda de apoyo emocional, la reinterpretación positiva y la liberación de emociones. Asimismo, existen diferencias en la experimentación del afrontamiento, ya sea por la pertenencia a distritos con mayores o menores ingresos económicos, o conrelación a si se trata de hombres, mujeres o personas de género no binario. Se concluye que lasexperiencias de afrontamiento varían de acuerdo con las diferentes características socioeconómicasy de género de los participantes, siendo necesaria una mirada interseccional en el análisis. (AU)

Esta pesquisa busca analisar as experiências de enfrentamento psicossocial nocontexto do Isolamento Social Obrigatório, produto do COVID-19, em chefes de famíliana região metropolitana de Lima. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa de delineamento fenomenológico, para isso foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas emprofundidade com 17 participantes, chefes de família, de bairros de alta e baixa renda. Osresultados mostram que, por um lado, são vivenciados estilos voltados para o problema,dos quais se referem o enfrentamento ativo e o planejamento. Por outro lado, existem osestilos centrados nas emoções, como as estratégias de busca de apoio, aceitação, reinterpretação positiva e liberação de emoções. Por fim, expressa-se o estilo de evitação, a partirdo qual se evidencia a omissão de atividades e a supressão de objetivos. Conclui-se queas experiências de enfrentamento variam de acordo com as diferentes características dosparticipantes, exigindo um olhar intersetorial na análise. (AU)

Humanos , Adaptação Psicológica , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Peru/epidemiologia
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 86, 2022 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550511


BACKGROUND: Peru has some of the worst outcomes worldwide as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; it is presumed that this has also affected healthcare workers. This study aimed to establish whether occupation and other non-occupational variables were risk factors for possible reinfection, hospitalization, and mortality from COVID-19 in cohorts of Peruvian healthcare workers infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Healthcare workers who presented SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 1, 2020, and August 6, 2021, were included. Occupational cohorts were reconstructed from the following sources of information: National Epidemiological Surveillance System, molecular tests (NETLAB), results of serology and antigen tests (SICOVID-19), National Registry of Health Personnel (INFORHUS), and National Information System of Deaths (SINADEF). The incidence of probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 was obtained in the cohorts of technicians and health assistants, nursing staff, midwives, dentists, doctors, and other healthcare workers. We evaluated whether the occupation and other non-occupational variables were risk factors for probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 using log-binomial and probit binomial models, obtaining the adjusted relative risk (RRAJ). RESULTS: 90,398 healthcare workers were included in the study. Most cases were seen in technicians and health assistants (38.6%), and nursing staff (25.6%). 8.1% required hospitalization, 1.7% died from COVID-19, and 1.8% had probable reinfection. A similar incidence of probable reinfection was found in the six cohorts (1.7-1.9%). Doctors had a higher incidence of hospitalization (13.2%) and death (2.6%); however, they were also those who presented greater susceptibility linked to non-occupational variables (age and comorbidities). The multivariate analysis found that doctors (RRAJ = 1.720; CI 95: 1.569-1.886) had a higher risk of hospitalization and that the occupation of technician and health assistant was the only one that constituted a risk factor for mortality from COVID-19 (RRAJ = 1.256; 95% CI: 1.043-1.512). CONCLUSIONS: Peruvian technicians and health assistants would have a higher risk of death from COVID-19 than other healthcare workers, while doctors have a higher incidence of death probably linked to the high frequency of non-occupational risk factors. Doctors present a higher risk of hospitalization independent of comorbidities and age; likewise, all occupations show a similar risk of probable reinfection.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Reinfecção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitalização
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573688


PURPOSE: Depression has become a major health concern, particularly in developing countries. This disorder is highly prevalent among certain vulnerable populations, such as prisoners. In Peru, prisons are overcrowded, and the health of prisoners is neglected. Thus, this study aims to estimate the prevalence of depression diagnosed during incarceration in male inmates from all Peruvian prisons and assess its associated factors. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the secondary data analysis of the National Census of Prison Population 2016 in Peru. This study included records of prisoners who reported whether they were diagnosed with depression by a health-care professional after admission into the prisons. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. FINDINGS: Of the 63,312 prisoners included in this study, 1,007 reported an in-prison diagnosis of depression by a health-care professional, which represents a prevalence of 1.59%. Substance use disorder (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.91-5.03), hypertension (aPR 7.20; 95% CI: 6.28-8.24) and previous discrimination (aPR 1.97; 95% CI: 1.62-2.40) were strongly associated with depression, even when adjusting for multiple confounders. Other directly associated variables were, for example, violence during childhood, infrequent visits in prison and diabetes. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The right of prisoners to adequate health care is being neglected in Peru. Mental health is a cornerstone of health quality. Acknowledging which factors are associated with depression in prison is important to implement strategies to improve the mental health of prisoners.

Depressão , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Masculino , Depressão/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Prisões , Estudos Transversais , Censos , Prisioneiros/psicologia
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558378


Malnutrition is one of the main public health problems affecting early childhood development, compromising the health and quality of life of thousands of Peruvian children. The main contribution of this work is the analysis of the nutritional status of the infant population of the Chirikyacu Indigenous Community of Peru in order to evaluate current and future food policies. It is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 19 children between 6 months and 6 years of age. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical variables and dietary habits were analyzed from 7 January to 4 February 2018. The mean age of the children was 29.74 months (SD = 23.91). We found statistically significant differences between the BMI values of boys and girls (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). According to the z-scores, 35.29% suffer from malnutrition, although in no case is it severe. Hair, nails and skin were in good condition in general, except for some cases showing signs of nutritional deficiency. Dietary patterns are based on legumes, vegetables, dairy products, ice cream, cookies and sweets, and are considered insufficient to cover basic needs; water intake was also insufficient. Breastfeeding lasted an average of 14 months (SD = 2.9). We found a prevalence of malnutrition higher than that established by the WHO in Latin America among the children of Chirikyacu. The dietary pattern is insufficient to cover basic needs, so it is necessary to continue with nutritional educational interventions to improve it.

Desnutrição , Avaliação Nutricional , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Antropometria
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278947, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542597


INTRODUCTION: Depression is a public health concern, nearing 1.5 million cases and accounting for 9.7% of years lost due to disability. Several factors, including altitude, contribute to its development. Altitude has become a topic for recent research, but its association with depressive symptoms has not been fully clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between altitude and depressive symptoms in the Peruvian population. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES in Spanish) was conducted. The dependent variable, depressive symptoms, was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the independent variable, altitude, was categorized into: <1500 meters above sea level (masl), 1500-2499 masl and ≥2500 masl. To evaluate the association between altitude and depressive symptoms, we used Poisson regression model, constructing crude and multiple models. RESULTS: Of those living at 1500 to 2499 masl and ≥2500 masl, 7.23% and 7.12% had depressive symptoms, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, high altitude was found to be associated with depressive symptoms (prevalence ratio adjusted (aPR): 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.84; aPR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.20-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: A statistically significant association was found between high altitude and depressive symptoms. This may be attributable to hypobaric hypoxia that occurs at high altitudes and its effects on brain function. This study's findings should be considered to identify the population at risk and expand the coverage of preventive and therapeutic measures in high-altitude areas of Peru with poor access to health services.

Altitude , Depressão , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 39(2): 178-184, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477318


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze inequality in the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) between departments in Peru, generated by poverty and education, in the years 2011 and 2019. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ecological study based on the analysis of social inequalities in health, recommended by the World Health Organization. The health indicator was the NMR. Poverty, measured as the existence of at least one unmet basic need per department, and education, average years of study of women of childbearing age per department, were selected to stratify equity. We calculated the absolute inequality gap (AG), the relative inequality gap (RG) and the health concentration index (HCI). RESULTS: A higher NMR was found in departments with greater poverty and less education. In the NMR generated by poverty, the AG decreased from 8.13 to 2.24 between 2011-2019 and the RG from 2.08 to 1.31. The AG of the NMR according to education dropped from 4.50 to 2.31 and the RG from 1.62 to 1.28. The HCI registered values close to zero and with a decreasing trend; in 2019 it was 0.07 for poverty and 0.06 for education. CONCLUSIONS: There is inequality in neonatal mortality between departments in Peru according to poverty and education, which decreased between 2011 and 2019 mainly in the poor or less educated population. The Ministry of Health should continue to reduce neonatal mortality by promoting interventions with a greater population focus.

OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la desigualdad en la TMN entre departamentos del Perú, generada por la pobreza y educación, en los años 2011 y 2019. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico basado en el análisis de desigualdades sociales en salud recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El indicador de salud fue la TMN y como estratificadores de equidad se seleccionaron a la pobreza, medida como la existencia de al menos una necesidad básica insatisfecha por departamento, y a la educación, promedio de años de estudio de las mujeres en edad fértil por departamento. Se calculó la desigualdad absoluta (BA), relativa (BR) y el índice de concentración de salud (ICS). RESULTADOS: Se encontró mayor TMN en departamentos con mayor pobreza y menor educación. En la TMN generada por la pobreza la BA se redujo de 8,13 a 2,24 entre 2011-2019 y la BR de 2,08 a 1,31. La BA de la TMN según educación pasó de 4,50 a 2,31 y la BR de 1,62 a 1,28. El ICS registró valores cercanos a cero y con tendencia a la reducción; en el 2019 fue 0,07 para la pobreza y 0,06 para la educación. CONCLUSIONES: Existe desigualdad en la mortalidad neonatal entre departamentos del Perú según pobreza y la educación, habiéndose reducido entre el 2011 y 2019 principalmente en la población pobre o menos educada. El Ministerio de Salud debe continuar reduciendo la mortalidad neonatal impulsando intervenciones con mayor enfoque poblacional.

Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 39(2): 208-213, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477322


The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of patients diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) with severe neurological disease. We reviewed the medical records of patients under 1 year of age with positive IgM test for Toxoplasma gondii and brain, eye, and/or hearing involvement. This study was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja (INSNSB), Lima, Peru. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with CT were evaluated; 57.1% were female, and the median age at diagnosis was 3.1 months (IQR: 1.7-7.3). The main central nervous system manifestations were hydrocephalus (76.2%), intracranial calcifications (52.4%), microcephaly (42.9%), and convulsions (25.6%); the most frequent ocular manifestation was chorioretinitis (38.1%). In conclusion, 64% of CT cases had one or more manifestations of severe neurological disease.

El propósito del presente estudio fue describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, y terapéuticas de pacientes con diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis congénita (TC) con enfermedad neurológica severa. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes menores de 1 año con serología IgM positiva para Toxoplasma gondii y compromiso encefálico, ocular y/o auditivo. El estudio se realizó en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja (INSN-SB) en Lima, Perú. Se evaluaron a 21 pacientes con diagnóstico de TC, el 57,1% fueron del sexo femenino y la mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue 3,1 meses (RIC: 1,7-7,3). Las principales manifestaciones del sistema nervioso central fueron hidrocefalia (76,2%), calcificaciones intracraneales (52,4%), microcefalia (42,9%), y convulsiones (25,6%); la manifestación ocular más frecuente fue la coriorretinitis (38,1%). En conclusión, 64% de los casos de TC tuvieron una o más manifestaciones de enfermedad neurológica severa.

Toxoplasmose Congênita , Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Masculino , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Hospitais
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 39(2): 193-200, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477320


OBJECTIVE.: This study aimed to assess the trends of different smoking indicators among Peruvian adolescents. Additionally, we evaluated whether such trends were different by sex or among those without previous smoking history. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: We analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2007, 2014, 2019). Active smoking was defined according to smoking in the last 30 days. Passive smoking was assessed based on exposure to tobacco inside and outside the household, both overall and daily. Analyses considered the sample design. RESULTS.: A total of 17,047 records (9,869 in 2007, 3,424 in 2014, and 3,754 in 2019) were analyzed; the mean age was 14 years, and 49.9% were women. Previous smoking history was reported in 26.6% of the records; such prevalence fell from 45.2% (2007), to 25.3% (2014), and to 19.4% (2019, p-value for trend < 0.001), whereas active smoking fell from 17.1% (2007) to 8.7% (2014) and to 5.7% (2019). The overall prevalence of passive smoking inside the household fell from 24.7% to 12.9% and 10.4% (p-value <0.001), whereas the overall prevalence of passive smoking outside the household dropped from 46.3% to 39.4% and 36.3% (p-value <0.001) during the same period. The reduction of the smoking indicators was observed mainly among women than in men. CONCLUSION.: There is evidence of a sustained reduction in smoking indicators in Peruvian adolescents. Passive smoking outside the household continues to be common, calling for strengthening current tobacco control policies.

OBJETIVO.: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las tendencias ocurridas en diferentes indicadores de tabaquismo en adolescentes peruanos. Asimismo, se evaluó las tendencias en dichos indicadores de acuerdo a sexo y en aquellos sin antecedente de tabaquismo previo. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS.: El presente estudio usa la Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2007, 2014, 2019). Tabaquismo activo se definió según el consumo de tabaco en los últimos 30 días. Tabaquismo pasivo se definió en función a exposición a tabaco dentro y fuera del hogar, tanto global como en forma diaria. Los análisis consideraron el diseño muestral. RESULTADOS.: Un total de 17 047 registros (9869 en el 2007, 3424 en el 2014, y 3754 en el 2019) fueron analizados; edad media 14 años y 49,9% mujeres. El 26,6% reportó antecedente de tabaquismo previo; dicha prevalencia cayó de 45,2% (2007), a 25,3% (2014), y a 19,4% (2019, p de tendencias < 0,001), mientras que el tabaquismo activo cayó de 17,1% (2007) a 8,7% (2014) y a 5,7% (2019). La prevalencia global de tabaquismo pasivo en el hogar cayó de 24,7%, a 12,9% y a 10,4% (p de tendencias <0,001), mientras que la prevalencia global de tabaquismo pasivo fuera del hogar se redujo de 46,3%, a 39,4%, y a 36,3% (p < 0,001) en ese lapso. La caída en los indicadores de tabaquismo se vio principalmente en mujeres que en varones. CONCLUSIÓN.: Se evidencia una reducción sostenida en los indicadores de tabaquismo en adolescentes peruanos. El tabaquismo pasivo fuera del hogar continúa siendo frecuente requiriendo el fortalecimiento de las actuales políticas de control de tabaco.

Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 39(3): 336-344, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478167


OBJECTIVES.: To evaluate the variation of hematological profiles of patients infected with uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and P. falciparum (Pf) malaria before, during and after treatment in a population of the Loreto region. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: This study was conducted between 2010 and 2012, in Zungarococha (Iquitos). The 425 participants had three visits (visit 1-day 0-before treatment, visit 2-day 7-during treatment, visit 3-day 28-after treatment), complete blood count, microscopic and molecular diagnosis (PCR). RESULTS.: At the first visit, 93 (21.9%) participants were found positive for Pv and 34 (8.0%) for Pf. All positives showed a reduction in hematocrit, white blood cell count (WBC), ablated and segmented neutrophils, eosinophils and platelets (p<0.001) compared to the negative group. A higher percentage of ablated neutrophils was found in Pf and segmented neutrophils in Pv compared to the negative group. Variations in hematological profiles were observed after treatment for both species; ablated neutrophils decreased, platelets increased, eosinophils increased at day 7 and declined at day 28, hematocrit and segmented neutrophils decreased at day 7 and normalized at day 28. Interspecies differences over time showed a bigger daily decrease in ablated neutrophils in Pv-infected when compared to Pf. CONCLUSIONS.: The hematological profile in uncomplicated malaria-positive patients varies over time during and after treatment. These are indicators of disease progression and help in the therapeutic surveillance of Plasmodium-infected patients.

OBJETIVOS.: Evaluar la variación de los perfiles hematológicos antes, durante y después del tratamiento de pacientes infectados con malaria no complicada por Plasmodium vivax (Pv) y P. falciparum (Pf) en una población de la región Loreto. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS.: El estudio se realizó entre 2010 y 2012, en Zungarococha (Iquitos). Los 425 participantes tuvieron tres visitas (visita 1-día 0-antes del tratamiento, visita 2-día 7-durante tratamiento, visita 3-día 28-después del tratamiento), hemograma completo, diagnóstico microscópico y molecular (PCR). RESULTADOS.: En la primera visita, se encontraron 93 (21,9%) positivos a Pv y 34 (8,0%) a Pf. Todos los positivos mostraron una reducción en los indicadores hematológicos de hematocrito, recuento de glóbulos blancos (RGB), neutrófilos abastonados y segmentados, eosinófilos y plaquetas (p<0.001) en comparación con el grupo negativo. Se encontró un porcentaje mayor de neutrófilos abastonados en Pf y de neutrófilos segmentados en Pv comparado al grupo negativo. Se observó variaciones en los perfiles hematológicos después del tratamiento para ambas especies, los neutrófilos abastonados disminuyeron, las plaquetas aumentaron, los eosinófilos se incrementaron al día 7 y decaen el día 28, el hematocrito y los neutrófilos segmentados disminuyeron al día 7 y se normalizaron el día 28. Las diferencias entre especies en el tiempo mostraron una disminución diaria de neutrófilos abastonados en infectados con Pv que en Pf. CONCLUSIONES.: El perfil hematológico en pacientes positivos a malaria no complicada varía en el tiempo durante y después del tratamiento. Estos son indicadores de la progresión de la enfermedad y ayudan en la vigilancia terapéutica de pacientes infectados con Plasmodium.

Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554774


During the pandemic, the elderly population was the most exposed to disease and changes in their daily lives. The objective was to determine the association between demographic factors, access to health services, sources of information, and physical symptoms in the mental health of the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic-a study with 3828 older adults residing in nine cities in Peru. The data was collected using a web-based survey, and the instruments of demographic data; exposure to information (radio, television, and internet); and presence of physical symptoms, anxiety, and perceived stress were used. Descriptive and analytical analysis was performed. Female sex, those aged between 60 and 79 years old, those with secondary education, those in their own home, those residing in an urban area, and those using public services of health predominated in this study. Likewise, 62.9% presented depressive symptoms; on the stress scale, an average of 27.81 (SD = 8.71), and on the anxiety scale, an average of 27.24 (SD = 6.04). Moreover, 65.1% reported fatigue, 62.2% had a headache, and 61.2% lack of energy. There is an association between demographic variables and the physical and psychological symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in the elderly during the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Humanos , Idoso , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Peru/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia