Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 843
Filtrar
1.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 263, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is a bacterial species widely distributed among mammals and avian species, and also a member of the normal intestinal microbiota. However, some E. coli strains of different pathotypes can cause disease in both humans and animals. Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) can infect both animals and humans or influence the severity of other ongoing infections. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 332 samples were collected from ducks, geese, turkeys, chickens, and pigeons from the Hungarian Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate, two slaughterhouses, two pigeon keepers and one backyard chicken farm. E. coli was isolated and verified from 319 samples. The isolates were screened by PCR for diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Altogether seven atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains were identified: two from four-week-old dead turkeys, two from force-fed geese, and three from pigeons. No further pathotypes were identified in the collection. The atypical EPEC strains were classified phylogenetically to B1, B2, and F, and four out of the seven aEPEC isolates proved to be multidrug resistant. Serotypes of aEPEC strains were uniform collected from same farms and showed diversity between their origins with O76, O145, O109 serogroups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report in the literature about aEPEC in goose (Anser anser domestica). Furthermore, this is the first isolation of aEPEC from turkeys and pigeons in Hungary. The uneven distribution of aEPEC in different age groups of poultry suggests that aEPEC disappears with growing up, but stress (e.g.: force-feeding) and concurrent diseases might promote its reappearance in the intestine.


Assuntos
Columbidae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/genética , Gansos/microbiologia , Genótipo , Hungria , Perus/microbiologia
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 348: 109208, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940536

RESUMO

Microbiological spoilage of meat is considered as a process which involves mainly bacterial metabolism leading to degradation of meat sensory qualities. Studying spoilage requires the collection of different types of experimental data encompassing microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial measurements. Within this framework, the objective herein was to carry out a multiblock path modelling workflow to decipher causality relationships between different types of spoilage-related responses: composition of microbiota, volatilome and off-odour profiles. Analyses were performed with the Path-ComDim approach on a large-scale dataset collected on fresh turkey sausages. This approach enabled to quantify the importance of causality relationships determined a priori between each type of responses as well as to identify important responses involved in spoilage, then to validate causality assumptions. Results were very promising: the data integration confirmed and quantified the causality between data blocks, exhibiting the dynamical nature of spoilage, mainly characterized by the evolution of off-odour profiles caused by the production of volatile organic compounds such as ethanol or ethyl acetate. This production was possibly associated with several bacterial species like Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum, Psychrobacter sp. or Latilactobacillus fuchuensis. Likewise, the production of acetoin and diacetyl in meat spoilage was highlighted. The Path-ComDim approach illustrated here with meat spoilage can be applied to other large-scale and heterogeneous datasets associated with pathway scenarios and represents a promising key tool for deciphering causality in complex biological phenomena.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Lactococcus/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Microbiota , Odorantes/análise , Psychrobacter/metabolismo , Perus/microbiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822782

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida is a bacterial pathogen with the ability to infect a multitude of hosts including humans, companion animals, livestock, and wildlife. This study used bioinformatic approaches to explore the genomic diversity of 656 P. multocida isolates and epidemiological associations between host factors and specific genotypes. Isolates included in this study originated from a variety of hosts, including poultry, cattle, swine, rabbits, rodents, and humans, from five different continents. Multi-locus sequence typing identified 69 different sequence types. In-silico methodology for determining capsular serogroup was developed, validated, and applied to all genome sequences, whereby capsular serogroups A, B, D, and F were found. Whole genome phylogeny was constructed from 237,670 core single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and demonstrated an overall lack of host or capsular serogroup specificity, with the exception of isolates from bovine sources. Specific SNVs within the srlB gene were identified in P. multocida subsp. septica genomes, representing specific mutations that may be useful for differentiating one of the three known subspecies. Significant associations were identified between capsular serogroup and virulence factors, including capsular serogroup A and OmpH1, OmpH3, PlpE, and PfhB1; capsular serogroup B and HgbA and PtfA; and capsular serogroup F and PtfA and PlpP. Various mobile genetic elements were identified including those similar to ICEPmu1, ICEhin1056, and IncQ1 plasmids, all of which harbored multiple antimicrobial resistance-encoding genes. Additional analyses were performed on a subset of 99 isolates obtained from turkeys during fowl cholera outbreaks from a single company which revealed that multiple strains of P. multocida were circulating during the outbreak, instead of a single, highly virulent clone. This study further demonstrates the extensive genomic diversity of P. multocida, provides epidemiological context to the various genotyping schemes that have traditionally been used for differentiating isolates, and introduces additional tools for P. multocida molecular typing.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Pasteurella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella multocida/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Perus/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109104, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676333

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil (TAEO). Moreover, the present study comparatively investigated TAEO in the forms of emulsion and Nano-emulsion in alginate-based edible coatings against inoculated Listeria monocytogenes in turkey fillets during 12 days in cold storage (at a temperature of 4 ± 1 °C). Alginate solutions with two levels of TAEO (in emulsion and Nano-emulsion forms) were prepared in this study. The bacterial count was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. Based on the obtained results of the current study, a comparison of different treatments with the blank samples (without any coating) showed that the highest considerable result was observed in the samples with Nano-emulsion coating (P < 0.05). Nano-emulsion loaded alginate coating prevented the growth of listeria in turkey fillets even after 12 days of cold storage. According to the findings of this study, the application of alginate edible coatings containing TAEO, especially in Nano-form, can be very effective in controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes, as a foodborne pathogen, during storage; therefore, it is a good choice to be applied in the meat industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Perus/microbiologia , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Apiaceae/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Filmes Comestíveis , Emulsões/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/microbiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2544, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510238

RESUMO

The respiratory tracts of turkeys play important roles in the overall health and performance of the birds. Understanding the bacterial communities present in the respiratory tracts of turkeys can be helpful to better understand the interactions between commensal or symbiotic microorganisms and other pathogenic bacteria or viral infections. The aim of this study was the characterization of the bacterial communities of upper respiratory tracks in commercial turkeys using NGS sequencing by the amplification of 16S rRNA gene with primers designed for hypervariable regions V3 and V4 (MiSeq, Illumina). From 10 phyla identified in upper respiratory tract in turkeys, the most dominated phyla were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Differences in composition of bacterial diversity were found at the family and genus level. At the genus level, the turkey sequences present in respiratory tract represent 144 established bacteria. Several respiratory pathogens that contribute to the development of infections in the respiratory system of birds were identified, including the presence of Ornithobacterium and Mycoplasma OTUs. These results obtained in this study supply information about bacterial composition and diversity of the turkey upper respiratory tract. Knowledge about bacteria present in the respiratory tract and the roles they can play in infections can be useful in controlling, diagnosing and treating commercial turkey flocks.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota , Mucosa Respiratória/microbiologia , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos
6.
Avian Pathol ; 50(1): 52-60, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016771

RESUMO

Almost two decades ago, in addition to a compulsory M. gallisepticum (Mg) monitoring programme of breeding stock based on European Union regulations, the Dutch poultry industry added national regulations to further reduce the Mg prevalence in Dutch commercial poultry. Currently, all commercial chicken and turkey flocks except broilers are monitored for Mg. All breeding flocks on a farm where one or more flocks tested Mg positive are culled. Mg positive layer pullets are channelled and layer pullets placed on Mg positive multi-age farms are vaccinated. The monitoring data obtained were analysed covering a period of 17 years. Moreover, 31 Dutch Mg isolates from the same period were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and compared to available PubMLST data. The results show that in breeding stock the seroprevalence decreased from 1.6% to 0.0%, in commercial layers from 6.3% to 1.9%, and in meat turkeys from 17.6% to 2.4%. The MLST results showed the presence of closely related and identical sequence types (STs) within the different Dutch poultry types. Similar STs were found in Northern and Southern Europe only. The results show a fast decline in the Mg prevalence since 2001, although in layers the Mg prevalence has stabilized and suggests backyard poultry might pose a risk for commercial poultry. The need for Mg control across poultry sectors and in trade was confirmed by the similarity in STs found in different types of poultry and regions. These results from the Dutch poultry industry can be extrapolated to Mg control in general.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/prevenção & controle , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Med Mycol ; 59(5): 465-475, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844181

RESUMO

Across the world, many commercial poultry flocks and captive birds are threatened by infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. Susceptibility to aspergillosis varies among birds; among galliform birds specifically, morbidity and mortality rates seem to be greater in turkeys than in chickens. Little is known regarding the features of avian immune responses after inhalation of Aspergillus conidia, and to date, scarce information on inflammatory responses during aspergillosis exists. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to improve our understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and economically relevant galliform birds in terms of local innate immune responses. Intra-tracheal aerosolization of A. fumigatus conidia in turkey and chicken poults led to more severe clinical signs and lung lesions in turkeys, but leukocyte recovery from lung lavages was higher in chickens at 1dpi only. Interestingly, only chicken CD8+ T lymphocyte proportions increased after infection. Furthermore, the lungs of infected chickens showed an early upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IFN-γ and IL-6, whereas in turkeys, most of these cytokines showed a downregulation or a delayed upregulation. These results confirmed the importance of an early pro-inflammatory response to ensure the development of an appropriate anti-fungal immunity to avoid Aspergillus dissemination in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, we show for the first time that differences in local innate immune responses between chickens and turkeys during aspergillosis may determine the outcome of the disease.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/imunologia , Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/imunologia , Perus/imunologia , Animais , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Peptídeos , Perus/microbiologia
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 108992, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285359

RESUMO

Salmonella spp. remains the most significant foodborne pathogen in south Brazil, but its epidemiology tends to change over time. Using official and surrogate data, a microbial subtyping model attributed different Salmonella serovars to laying hens, pigs, broilers, and turkeys from 2005 to 2015 in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Additional to the subtyping model, three sub-analyses of outbreak data attributed Salmonella spp. in humans to animal and non-animal food. Laying hens/eggs was the most important source of human salmonellosis in RS, with almost 40% (159 cases; 95% credibility interval, 43-247) attribution proportion, followed by pigs reared in Santa Catarina, a neighbor state (34.5%). The Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most common serovars involved. Source-related parameters had wide credibility intervals but showed a higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from the other three animal-food sources. Analysis of the outbreak data corroborated the findings and indicated signs of decreasing importance for eggs and increasing importance for pork consumption.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Brasil/epidemiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sorogrupo , Suínos/microbiologia , Perus/microbiologia
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 283-295, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357692

RESUMO

A dairy-originated probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii B3523 (PF) was found to be effective in reducing multidrug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg (MDR SH) colonization in turkey poults (2-week-old) and growing (7-week-old) and finishing (12-week-old) turkeys. In this study, we explored the potential for microbiome modulation in the cecum of turkeys of different age groups due to PF supplementation in conjunction with MDR SH challenge. One-day-old commercial turkey poults were allocated to 3 treatment groups: negative control (N; turkeys without PF supplementation or SH challenge), SH control (S; turkeys challenged with SH without PF supplementation), and test group (P; turkeys supplemented with PF and challenged with SH). Turkeys were supplemented with 1010 CFU PF in 5-gallon (18.9 L) water until 7 or 12 week of age. At the 6th or 11th wk, turkeys were challenged with SH at 106 and 108 CFU/bird by crop gavage, respectively. After 2 and 7 d of challenge (2-d postinoculation [PI] and 7-d PI, respectively), cecal samples were collected and microbiome analysis was conducted using Illumina MiSeq. The experiments were repeated twice with 8 and 10 turkeys/group for 7- and 12-wk studies, respectively. Results indicated that the species richness and abundance (Shannon diversity index) was similar among the treatment groups. However, treatments caused apparent clustering of the samples among each other (P < 0.05). Firmicutes was the predominant phylum in the growing and finishing turkey cecum which was evenly distributed among the treatments except on wk 12 where the relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly higher in P than in N (P = 0.02). The MDR SH challenge resulted in modulation of microflora such as Streptococcus, Gordonibacter, and Turicibacter (P < 0.05) in the S groups compared with the P and N groups, known to be associated with inflammatory responses in birds and mammals. The supplementation of PF increased the relative abundance of carbohydrate-fermenting and short-chain fatty acid-producing genera in the P group compared with the S group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results revealed that PF supplementation potentially modulated the beneficial microbiota in the P group, which could mitigate SH carriage in turkeys.


Assuntos
Ceco , Microbiota , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Probióticos , Propionibacterium , Salmonelose Animal , Perus , Animais , Antibiose , Ceco/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonella/fisiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Perus/microbiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306730

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat in humans and animals, and antimicrobial usage (AMU) has been identified as a main trigger of AMR. The purpose of this work was to compare data on AMR in clinical and non-clinical isolates of Escherichia coli in German broilers and turkeys between 2014 and 2017. Furthermore, we investigated AMR changes over time and the association of changes in AMU with changes in AMR. Data on clinical and non-clinical isolates together with data on therapy frequency of broilers and turkeys were collected from German monitoring systems. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the explanatory factors (AMU, year and isolate type) and the dependent variable (AMR). In broilers, the analysis showed lower resistance proportions of clinical isolates of E. coli to ampicillin and colistin (ampicillin: Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.44 (0.3-0.64), p<0.001; colistin: OR and 95% CI = 0.75 (0.73-0.76), p<0.001) but higher proportions for cefotaxime (OR and 95% CI = 4.58 (1.56-15.1), p = 0.007). Resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin and tetracycline was less frequent in clinical isolates in turkeys (ampicillin: OR and 95% CI = 0.4 (0.29-0.53), p<0.001; gentamicin: OR and 95% CI = 0.5 (0.26-0.94), p = 0.035; tetracycline: OR and 95% CI = 0.4 (0.29-0.55), p<0.001). The analysis found decreasing associations of AMU with resistance to tetracycline in turkeys and to colistin in broilers. Year was associated with a decrease in resistance to colistin in broilers and to tetracycline in turkeys. Differences in resistance found in this study between clinical and non-clinical isolates might play an important role in resistance prevalence. This study indicated that further data analyses over longer time intervals are required to clarify the differences found between clinical and non-clinical isolates and to assess the long-term effects of changes in AMU on the prevalence of AMR.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Perus/microbiologia
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352984

RESUMO

Salmonella Infantis carrying extended spectrum ß-lactamase blaCTX-M-65 on a pESI-like megaplasmid has recently emerged in United States poultry. In order to determine the carriage rate and gene content variability of this plasmid in U.S. Salmonella Infantis, whole genome sequences of Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in the U.S. and internationally containing the pESI-like plasmid were analyzed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) identified 654 product sampling isolates containing pESI-like plasmids through hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) verification testing in 2017 and 2018. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified 55 isolates with pESI-like plasmids in 2016-2018 through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Approximately 49% of pESI-like plasmids from FSIS verification isolates and 71% from CDC NARMS contained blaCTX-M-65. Pan-plasmid genome analysis was also performed. All plasmids contained traN and more than 95% contained 172 other conserved genes; 61% contained blaCTX-M-65. In a hierarchical clustering analysis, some plasmids from U.S. animal sources clustered together and some plasmids from South America clustered together, possibly indicating multiple plasmid lineages. However, most plasmids contained similar genes regardless of origin. Carriage of the pESI-like plasmid in U.S. appears to be limited to Salmonella Infantis and carriage rates increased from 2017 to 2018.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Plasmídeos/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonella/enzimologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Perus/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17463, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060781

RESUMO

Salmonella is a major causative agent of foodborne illness and rapid identification of this pathogen is essential to prevent disease. Currently most assays require high bacterial burdens or prolonged enrichment to achieve acceptable performance. A reduction in testing time without loss of sensitivity is critical to allow food processors to safely decrease product holding time. To meet this need, a method was developed to detect Salmonella using luciferase reporter bacteriophages. Bacteriophages were engineered to express NanoLuc, a novel optimized luciferase originating from the deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris. NanoLuc-expressing bacteriophages had a limit of detection of 10-100 CFU per mL in culture without enrichment. Luciferase reporters demonstrated a broad host range covering all Salmonella species with one reporter detecting 99.3% of 269 inclusivity strains. Cross-reactivity was limited and only observed with other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In food matrix studies, a cocktail of engineered bacteriophages accurately detected 1 CFU in either 25 g of ground turkey with a 7 h enrichment or 100 g of powdered infant formula with a 16 h enrichment. Use of the NanoLuc reporter assay described herein resulted in a considerable reduction in enrichment time without a loss of sensitivity.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fórmulas Infantis/microbiologia , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Animais , Decápodes/microbiologia , Genes Reporter , Limite de Detecção , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Perus/microbiologia
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916893

RESUMO

The feed supplementation of probiotic microorganisms is a promising method for detoxification of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of newly elaborated synbiotics on the turkey performance, the intestinal microbiota and its enzymatic activity in turkeys (0-15 weeks) fed OTA contaminated feed (198.6-462.0 µg/kg) compared to control group (OTA-free feed). The studies determined the composition of intestinal microorganisms by the culture method and the activity of fecal enzymes by spectrophotometry. It was found that OTA had an adverse effect on the body weight, the intestinal microbiota and the fecal enzymes activity in turkeys. On the other hand, synbiotics resulted in an increase in the count of beneficial bacteria while reducing the number of potential pathogens in the digestive tract. Moreover, synbiotics caused an increase in the activity of α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase, while decreasing the activity of potentially harmful fecal enzymes (ß-glucosidase, ß-galactosidase, ß-glucuronidase) in the turkey's excreta. Results indicate a beneficial effect of elaborated synbiotics on the health of turkeys and a reduction of the negative impact of OTA contaminated feed. These synbiotics can be successfully used as feed additives for turkeys.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Simbióticos , Perus/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Fezes/enzimologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Ocratoxinas/metabolismo , Perus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perus/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
14.
Food Microbiol ; 92: 103580, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950164

RESUMO

Meat products contain valuable nutrients that are important for human health and development but are also highly susceptible to colonization by microorganisms. This can lead to spoilage and serious foodborne illnesses. Natural antimicrobial peptides, produced by many organisms as part of their innate immune system to fight microbial infections, have great potential as food preservatives. In this study, we explored the effect of ternary antimicrobial random peptide mixtures (RPMs) on food spoilage bacteria in minced turkey meat. Amendment of RPMs to meat led to significant reductions in bacterial abundance in experimental tests, and RPMs worked synergistically with nitrite to reduce bacterial loads. Using high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing, we characterized the effect of RPMs and nitrite on meat microbial community structure before and during incubation under refrigerated conditions. Our findings reveal strong antimicrobial activity for RPMs against spoilage bacteria in meat, including Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas putida. These results demonstrate the potential of RPMs as a safer preservative for reducing spoilage in meat and other food products.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Perus/microbiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925914

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacterales from turkeys in Canada and characterize the associated resistance determinants. Pooled fecal samples were collected in 77 turkey farms across British Columbia, Québec, and Ontario. Isolates were obtained with and without selective enrichment cultures and compared to isolates from diagnostic submissions of suspected colibacillosis cases in Ontario. Isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF and susceptibility to ESCs was assessed by disk diffusion. The presence of blaCMY, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV was tested by PCR. Transformation experiments were used to characterize blaCMY plasmids. Genome sequencing with short and long reads was performed on a representative sample of blaCTX-M-positive isolates to assess isolates relatedness and characterize blaCTX-M plasmids. For the positive enrichment cultures (67% of total samples), 93% (587/610) were identified as E. coli, with only a few other Enterobacterales species identified. The frequency of ESC resistance was low in E. coli isolates from diagnostic submission (4%) and fecal samples without selective enrichment (5%). Of the ESC-resistant Enterobacterales isolates from selective enrichments, 71%, 18%, 14%, and 8% were positive for blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV, respectively. IncI1 followed by IncK were the main incompatibility groups identified for blaCMY plasmids. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was found repeatedly on IncI1 plasmids of the pMLST type 3, while blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-55, and blaCTX-M-65 were associated with a variety of IncF plasmids. Clonal spread of strains carrying blaCTX-M genes between turkey farms was observed, as well as the presence of an epidemic blaCTX-M-1 plasmid in unrelated E. coli strains. In conclusion, Enterobacterales resistant to ESCs were still widespread at low concentration in turkey feces two years after the cessation of ceftiofur use. Although blaCMY-2 is the main ESC resistance determinant in E. coli from Canadian turkeys, blaCTX-M genes also occur which are often carried by multidrug resistance plasmids. Both clonal spread and horizontal gene transfer are involved in parallel in the spread of blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacterales from Canadian turkeys.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
16.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(11)2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816720

RESUMO

The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria presents a global health challenge. Efficient surveillance of bacteria harboring antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a critical aspect to controlling the spread. Increased access to microbial genomic data from many diverse populations informs this surveillance but only when functional ARGs are identifiable within the data set. Current, homology-based approaches are effective at identifying the majority of ARGs within given clinical and nonclinical data sets for several pathogens, yet there are still some whose identities remain elusive. By coupling phenotypic profiling with genotypic data, these unknown ARGs can be identified to strengthen homology-based searches. To prove the efficacy and feasibility of this approach, a published data set from the U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), for which the phenotypic and genotypic data of 640 Salmonella isolates are available, was subjected to this analysis. Six isolates recovered from the NARMS retail meat program between 2011 and 2013 were identified previously as phenotypically resistant to gentamicin but contained no known gentamicin resistance gene. Using the phenotypic and genotypic data, a comparative genomics approach was employed to identify the gene responsible for the observed resistance in all six of the isolates. This gene, grdA, is harbored on a 9,016-bp plasmid that is transferrable to Escherichia coli, confers gentamicin resistance to E. coli, and has never before been reported to confer gentamicin resistance. Bioinformatic analysis of the encoded protein suggests an ATP binding motif. This work demonstrates the advantages associated with coupling genomics technologies with phenotypic data for novel ARG identification.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Gentamicinas , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella/genética
17.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(12): 750-757, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678987

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates of Campylobacter spp. isolated from conventional and organic turkey meat sold at retail in Germany. Samples of conventional (N = 527) and organic (N = 245) fresh turkey meat without skin were collected at retail markets throughout Germany and tested for Campylobacter spp.. Campylobacter isolates were tested for resistance to six antimicrobials (gentamicin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, and tetracycline) using broth microdilution. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was higher in organic (32.7%) than in conventional (19.4%) turkey meat. The proportion of fully susceptible isolates was lower in Campylobacter coli (6.8%) than in Campylobacter jejuni (33.9%) and higher in isolates from organic (38.4%) than from conventional production (17.4%). Overall, resistance rates were the highest to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Resistance to erythromycin was only observed in C. coli and resistance to gentamicin was absent. Overall, resistance rates to tetracycline and fluoroquinolones were higher in isolates from conventional (60.9% and 78.9%) than from organic meat (32.9% and 58.9%, respectively). However, this significant difference was only observed for C. jejuni, but not for C. coli. Further studies are needed to identify the reasons for the differences in the association of production type of turkeys with AMR in the different Campylobacter spp. and the critical parameters for the reduction of AMR in Campylobacter from turkey meat.


Assuntos
Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Carne/microbiologia , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Orgânicos/microbiologia , Alemanha , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
18.
mSphere ; 5(2)2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295868

RESUMO

Two separate human outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Reading occurred between 2017 and 2019 in the United States and Canada, and both outbreaks were linked to the consumption of raw turkey products. In this study, a comprehensive genomic investigation was conducted to reconstruct the evolutionary history of S. Reading from turkeys and to determine the genomic context of outbreaks involving this infrequently isolated Salmonella serotype. A total of 988 isolates of U.S. origin were examined using whole-genome-based approaches, including current and historical isolates from humans, meat, and live food animals. Broadly, isolates clustered into three major clades, with one apparently highly adapted turkey clade. Within the turkey clade, isolates clustered into three subclades, including an "emergent" clade that contained only isolates dated 2016 or later, with many of the isolates from these outbreaks. Genomic differences were identified between emergent and other turkey subclades, suggesting that the apparent success of currently circulating subclades is, in part, attributable to plasmid acquisitions conferring antimicrobial resistance, gain of phage-like sequences with cargo virulence factors, and mutations in systems that may be involved in beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance towards colicins. U.S. and Canadian outbreak isolates were found interspersed throughout the emergent subclade and the other circulating subclade. The emergence of a novel S Reading turkey subclade, coinciding temporally with expansion in commercial turkey production and with U.S. and Canadian human outbreaks, indicates that emergent strains with higher potential for niche success were likely vertically transferred and rapidly disseminated from a common source.IMPORTANCE Increasingly, outbreak investigations involving foodborne pathogens are difficult due to the interconnectedness of food animal production and distribution, and homogeneous nature of industry integration, necessitating high-resolution genomic investigations to determine their basis. Fortunately, surveillance and whole-genome sequencing, combined with the public availability of these data, enable comprehensive queries to determine underlying causes of such outbreaks. Utilizing this pipeline, it was determined that a novel clone of Salmonella Reading has emerged that coincided with increased abundance in raw turkey products and two outbreaks of human illness in North America. The rapid dissemination of this highly adapted and conserved clone indicates that it was likely obtained from a common source and rapidly disseminated across turkey production. Key genomic changes may have contributed to its apparent continued success in commercial turkeys and ability to cause illness in humans.


Assuntos
Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Indústria Alimentícia , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Filogenia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108637, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273016

RESUMO

This paper presents the impact on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in poultry and pig bacteria of the French EcoAntibio plan, a public policy to reduce antimicrobial use in animals. The analysis was performed using sales data of veterinary antimicrobials and AMR data from bacteria obtained at slaughterhouse and from diseased animals. From 2011-2018, fluoroquinolones exposure decreased by 71.5 % for poultry and 89.7 % for pigs. For Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broilers at slaughterhouses, ciprofloxacin resistance increased from 51 % in 2010 to 63 % in 2018, whereas for turkeys the percentages varied from 56 % in 2014 to 63 % in 2018. For commensal E. coli isolated from the caecal content of broilers at slaughterhouses, the resistance to ciprofloxacin - assessed using an epidemiological cut-off value - increased in broiler isolates from 30.7 % in 2010 to 38.1 % in 2018. In turkeys, the percentage of resistant E. coli isolates decreased from 21.3 % in 2014 to 15.2 % in 2018, whereas in pigs, it increased from 1.9 % in 2009 to 5.5 % in 2017. However, for E. coli isolated from diseased animals, when the breakpoints of 2018 were applied, resistance to fluoroquinolones significantly decreased between 2010 and 2018 from 9.0%-5.4% for broilers/hens, from 7.4 % to 3.4 % for turkeys and from 9.4 % to 3.6 % for pigs. These data show that the major, rapid decrease in the exposition to fluoroquinolones had contrasting effects on resistance in the diverse bacterial collections. Co-selection or fitness of resistant strains may explain why changes in AMR do not always closely mirror changes in use.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , França , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Simbiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Perus/microbiologia
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(12)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276973

RESUMO

Communities of gut bacteria (microbiota) are known to play roles in resistance to pathogen infection and optimal weight gain in turkey flocks. However, knowledge of turkey respiratory microbiota and its link to gut microbiota is lacking. This study presents a 16S rRNA gene-based census of the turkey respiratory microbiota (nasal cavity and trachea) alongside gut microbiota (cecum and ileum) in two identical commercial Hybrid Converter turkey flocks raised in parallel under typical field commercial conditions. The flocks were housed in adjacent barns during the brood stage and in geographically separated farms during the grow-out stage. Several bacterial taxa, primarily Staphylococcus, that were acquired in the respiratory tract at the beginning of the brood stage persisted throughout the flock cycle. Late-emerging predominant taxa in the respiratory tract included Deinococcus and Corynebacterium Tracheal and nasal microbiota of turkeys were identifiably distinct from one another and from gut microbiota. Nevertheless, gut and respiratory microbiota changed in parallel over time and appeared to share many taxa. During the brood stage, the two flocks generally acquired similar gut and respiratory microbiota, and their average body weights were comparable. However, there were qualitative and quantitative differences in microbial profiles and body weight gain trajectories after the flocks were transferred to geographically separated grow-out farms. Lower weight gain corresponded to the emergence of Deinococcus and Ornithobacterium in the respiratory tract and Fusobacterium and Parasutterella in gut. This study provides an overview of turkey microbiota under field conditions and suggests several hypotheses concerning the respiratory microbiome.IMPORTANCE Turkey meat is an important source of animal protein, and the industry around its production contributes significantly to the agricultural economy. The microorganisms present in the gut of turkeys are known to impact bird health and flock performance. However, the respiratory microbiota in turkeys is entirely unexplored. This study has elucidated the microbiota of respiratory tracts of turkeys from two commercial flocks raised in parallel throughout a normal flock cycle. Further, the study suggests that bacteria originating in the gut or in poultry house environments influence respiratory communities; consequently, they induce poor performance, either directly or indirectly. Future attempts to develop microbiome-based interventions for turkey health should delimit the contributions of respiratory microbiota and aim to limit disturbances to those communities.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Microbiota , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Traqueia/microbiologia , Perus/microbiologia , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...