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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065991

RESUMO

The COVID-19 quarantine has caused significant changes in everyday life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the quarantine on dietary, physical activity and alcohol consumption habits of Lithuanians and the association between health behaviours and weight changes. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out among individuals older than 18 years in April 2020. The self-administered questionnaire included health behaviour and weight change data. Altogether 2447 subjects participated in the survey. Almost half of the respondents (49.4%) ate more than usual, 45.1% increased snacking, and 62.1% cooked at home more often. Intake of carbonated or sugary drinks, fast food and commercial pastries decreased, while consumption of homemade pastries and fried food increased. A decrease in physical activity was reported by 60.6% of respondents. Every third (31.5%) respondent, more often those already with overweight, gained weight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the higher odds of weight gain were associated with females, older age, increased consumption of sugary drinks, homemade pastries and fried food, eating more than usual, increased snacking, decreased physical activity and increased alcohol consumption. Our data highlighted the need for dietary and physical activity guidelines to prevent weight gain during the period of self-isolation, especially targeting those with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4981, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020469

RESUMO

Antagonism or agonism of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) prevents weight gain and leads to dramatic weight loss in combination with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in preclinical models. Based on the genetic evidence supporting GIPR antagonism, we previously developed a mouse anti-murine GIPR antibody (muGIPR-Ab) that protected diet-induced obese (DIO) mice against body weight gain and improved multiple metabolic parameters. This work reconciles the similar preclinical body weight effects of GIPR antagonists and agonists in vivo, and here we show that chronic GIPR agonism desensitizes GIPR activity in primary adipocytes, both differentiated in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, and functions like a GIPR antagonist. Additionally, GIPR activity in adipocytes is partially responsible for muGIPR-Ab to prevent weight gain in DIO mice, demonstrating a role of adipocyte GIPR in the regulation of adiposity in vivo.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/agonistas , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/antagonistas & inibidores , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/deficiência , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo
3.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 569-573, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058650

RESUMO

What information for children and adolescent with sporting activities, their parents and the supervisors? The somatic, mental health and social benefits of sporting activities have been clearly demonstrated in children. However, in some conditions, sport may have deleterious effects on height and weight growth, puberty, menstrual cycle, and mineralization, and may cause repeated muscular, tendon or skeletal injuries. These effects are often triggered by intense physical activity during training and competitions, with inadequate nutritional intake, resulting in a lack of compensation for the expenditure of energy. This energy deficit has an impact on the somatotropic and gonadotropic hormone axes. Some sports are more risky than others. There is, therefore, a need, particularly in young people involved in elite-level sports, for appropriate medical, nutritional and psychological follow-up, with the motivation of trainers and family, particular as the use of doping agents can occur even in these populations of young sportspeople.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Esportes , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pais
4.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e666-e676, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADVANCE compared the efficacy and safety of two antiretroviral first-line combinations (dolutegravir combined with emtricitabine and either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide), with a third regimen (efavirenz combined with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) previously recommended by WHO. Here, we report the 96-week data for the study. METHODS: This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority phase 3 trial, was done at two research sites in Johannesburg, South Africa, after participant recruitment from 11 public health clinics also in Johannesburg. Eligible participants were aged 12 years or older with HIV-1 infection, who weighed at least 40 kg, had no antiretroviral exposure in the previous 6 months, with a creatinine clearance of more than 60 mL/min (>80 mL per min in individuals aged <19 years), and a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of 500 copies per mL or higher. Individuals who were pregnant or had tuberculosis were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by study staff using a computerised randomisation system. Randomisation was stratified by age (12 and <19 years and ≥19 years). Participants were randomly assigned to once-daily oral fixed-dose combination tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg and emtricitabine 200 mg, and once-daily oral dolutegravir 50 mg; once-daily oral fixed-dose combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg and emtricitabine 200 mg, and once-daily oral dolutegravir 50 mg; or once-daily oral fixed-dose combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and efavirenz 600 mg. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants who had a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48, which has been reported previously. Here, we report the key secondary efficacy endpoint of the proportion of participants who had a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL at the week 96 visit, assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of any study drug, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of -10%. Safety data, including clinical, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and laboratory data, are also reported. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03122262. FINDINGS: Between Jan 17, 2017, and May 14, 2018, we screened 1453 individuals, of whom 1053 were enrolled: 351 participants were randomly assigned to the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, 351 to the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, and 351 to the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group. All participants received at least one dose of study medication and were included in the primary analysis. At week 96, 276 (79%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, 275 (78%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, and 258 (74%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group had achieved a plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL. Non-inferiority was established in all three comparisons. The proportion of patients with protocol-defined virological failure at week 96 was low in all treatment groups. Participants in the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group had fewer changes in bone density than the two other treatment groups. Mean weight gain was substantial (7·1 kg [SD 7·4] in the tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group; 4·3 kg [6·7] in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and dolutegravir group, and 2·3 kg [7·0] in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group), and was greater among women than men. Ten (3%) of 351 participants in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz group discontinued due to treatment-related adverse events, of which liver dysfunction (n=4) and rash (n=4) were most common. INTERPRETATION: Medium-term and long-term metabolic and clinical consequences of the considerable increase in bodyweight observed in participants given these antiretroviral regimens and the trajectory of this weight gain over time, especially among women, require further study. FUNDING: USAID, Unitaid, South African Medical Research Council, ViiV Healthcare.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenina/administração & dosagem , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Duração da Terapia , Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
5.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 114-115, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978548

RESUMO

Data sources PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Study selection Papers reporting a primary study in non-syndromatic preschool children aged 0-6 years, reporting body weight and dental caries experience as outcomes.Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts of the identified citations for relevance. The full text articles were subsequently assessed for eligibility for both qualitative and quantitative review. Body weight outcomes were standardised into four groups; 'underweight' (BMI-for-age percentile less than five), 'normal weight' (BMI-for-age percentile between five and 85), 'overweight' (BMI-for-age percentile between 85 and 95), and 'obese' (BMI-for-age percentile greater than 95). Dental caries outcomes were based on decayed, missing, and filled teeth/surfaces (dmft/dmfs) index. The risk of bias in individual studies were assessed based on the National Institute of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. The GRADE system was used to perform quality assessment for each outcome reported.Results Following screening of 293 articles, a total of 32 studies qualified for qualitative review and 12 of them reported data that was used to conduct a meta-analysis. All included studies were cross-sectional in nature and presented a high risk of bias. Findings from meta-analysis showed that children who are overweight have a significantly higher dmft index (95% CI -0.64 to -0.14, P = 0.002, I2 equals 62 percent). The quality of evidence was found to be moderate.Conclusions Overweight and obese preschool children are at a greater risk of developing caries. Public health prevention programmes must target both conditions together to reduce their burden and effectiveness of prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sobrepeso , Magreza
6.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 83-90, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994596

RESUMO

AIM: To critically analyse the reliability of an article which claims to be evidence that the End of Life Choice Act 2019 provides a "potential hotspot for family, community and social discord that may not be easily remedied" should the legislation receive public support in New Zealand's September 2020 referendum. METHODS: The subject article was reviewed multiple times by all authors and critiqued against three criteria: a reliability pyramid developed to weigh evidence about assisted dying; principles that guide the conduct of social science research; and the use of reliable and current social science literature to support factual claims. RESULTS: The study being analysed involved a single interview and so is located at the second bottom row of the reliability pyramid. Its research design is also unable to support the broad findings that are asserted. Other flaws in method included findings being extended beyond the data, and failure to state appropriate limitations in the research method. Further, claims are made that are unsupported by the weight of reliable social science literature. CONCLUSION: The subject article is methodologically and factually flawed so is unreliable as evidence. It should not be considered in the assisted dying debates preceding the forthcoming referendum.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003245, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beverages, especially sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been increasingly subject to policies aimed at reducing their consumption as part of measures to tackle obesity. However, precision targeting of policies is difficult as information on what types of consumers they might affect, and to what degree, is missing. We fill this gap by creating a typology of beverage consumers in Great Britain (GB) based on observed beverage purchasing behaviour to determine what distinct types of beverage consumers exist, and what their socio-demographic (household) characteristics, dietary behaviours, and weight status are. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cross-sectional latent class analysis to characterise patterns of beverage purchases. We used data from the 2016 GB Kantar Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) panel, a large representative household purchase panel of food and beverages brought home, and restricted our analyses to consumers who purchase beverages regularly (i.e., >52 l per household member annually) (n = 8,675). Six categories of beverages were used to classify households into latent classes: SSBs; diet beverages; fruit juices and milk-based beverages; beer and cider; wine; and bottled water. Multinomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to relate class membership to household characteristics, self-reported weight status, and other dietary behaviours, derived from GB Kantar FMCG. Seven latent classes were identified, characterised primarily by higher purchases of 1 or 2 categories of beverages: 'SSB' (18% of the sample; median SSB volume = 49.4 l/household member/year; median diet beverage volume = 38.0 l), 'Diet' (16%; median diet beverage volume = 94.4 l), 'Fruit & Milk' (6%; median fruit juice/milk-based beverage volume = 30.0 l), 'Beer & Cider' (7%; median beer and cider volume = 36.3 l; median diet beverage volume = 55.6 l), 'Wine' (18%; median wine volume = 25.5 l; median diet beverage volume = 34.3 l), 'Water' (4%; median water volume = 46.9 l), and 'Diverse' (30%; diversity of purchases, including median SSB volume = 22.4 l). Income was positively associated with being classified in the Diverse class, whereas low social grade was more likely for households in the classes SSB, Diet, and Beer & Cider. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was more prevalent in the class Diet (41.2%, 95% CI 37.7%-44.7%) despite households obtaining little energy from beverages in that class (17.9 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 16.2-19.7). Overweight/obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) was above average in the class SSB (66.8%, 95% CI 63.7%-69.9%). When looking at all groceries, households from the class SSB had higher total energy purchases (1,943.6 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 1,901.7-1,985.6), a smaller proportion of energy from fruits and vegetables (6.0%, 95% CI 5.8%-6.3%), and a greater proportion of energy from less healthy food and beverages (54.6%, 95% CI 54.0%-55.1%) than other classes. A greater proportion of energy from sweet snacks was observed for households in the classes SSB (18.5%, 95% CI 18.1%-19.0%) and Diet (18.8%, 95% CI 18.3%-19.3%). The main limitation of our analyses, in common with other studies, is that our data do not include information on food and beverage purchases that are consumed outside the home. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst households that regularly purchase beverages, those that mainly purchased high volumes of SSBs or diet beverages were at greater risk of obesity and tended to purchase less healthy foods, including a high proportion of energy from sweet snacks. These households might additionally benefit from policies targeting unhealthy foods, such as sweet snacks, as a way of reducing excess energy intake.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Adulto , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Cerveja , Peso Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável , Características da Família , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Leite , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Reino Unido , Vinho
8.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003285, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biannual azithromycin distribution has been shown to reduce child mortality as well as increase antimicrobial resistance. Targeting distributions to vulnerable subgroups such as malnourished children is one approach to reaching those at the highest risk of mortality while limiting selection for resistance. The objective of this analysis was to assess whether the effect of azithromycin on mortality differs by nutritional status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A large simple trial randomized communities in Niger to receive biannual distributions of azithromycin or placebo to children 1-59 months old over a 2-year timeframe. In exploratory subgroup analyses, the effect of azithromycin distribution on child mortality was assessed for underweight subgroups using weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) thresholds of -2 and -3. Modification of the effect of azithromycin on mortality by underweight status was examined on the additive and multiplicative scale. Between December 2014 and August 2017, 27,222 children 1-11 months of age from 593 communities had weight measured at their first study visit. Overall, the average age among included children was 4.7 months (interquartile range [IQR] 3-6), 49.5% were female, 23% had a WAZ < -2, and 10% had a WAZ < -3. This analysis included 523 deaths in communities assigned to azithromycin and 661 deaths in communities assigned to placebo. The mortality rate was lower in communities assigned to azithromycin than placebo overall, with larger reductions among children with lower WAZ: -12.6 deaths per 1,000 person-years (95% CI -18.5 to -6.9, P < 0.001) overall, -17.0 (95% CI -28.0 to -7.0, P = 0.001) among children with WAZ < -2, and -25.6 (95% CI -42.6 to -9.6, P = 0.003) among children with WAZ < -3. No statistically significant evidence of effect modification was demonstrated by WAZ subgroup on either the additive or multiplicative scale (WAZ < -2, additive: 95% CI -6.4 to 16.8, P = 0.34; WAZ < -2, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.8 to 1.4, P = 0.50, WAZ < -3, additive: 95% CI -2.2 to 31.1, P = 0.14; WAZ < -3, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.9 to 1.7, P = 0.26). The estimated number of deaths averted with azithromycin was 388 (95% CI 214 to 574) overall, 116 (95% CI 48 to 192) among children with WAZ < -2, and 76 (95% CI 27 to 127) among children with WAZ < -3. Limitations include the availability of a single weight measurement on only the youngest children and the lack of power to detect small effect sizes with this rare outcome. Despite the trial's large size, formal tests for effect modification did not reach statistical significance at the 95% confidence level. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality rates were higher in the underweight subgroups, this study was unable to demonstrate that nutritional status modified the effect of biannual azithromycin distribution on mortality. Even if the effect were greater among underweight children, a nontargeted intervention would result in the greatest absolute number of deaths averted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The MORDOR trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02047981.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/mortalidade , Níger/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Magreza
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21968, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899034

RESUMO

The aim of this study is twofold: firstly, to investigate the plantar pressure distribution differences in children coming from 4 different weight categories and secondly to analyze the presence of sex-related plantar pressure distribution differences.Overall, 416 children, aged 7 to 12 years old were randomly selected from 6 different local schools, and voluntarily participated in the study. Two hundred twenty six of them were men, while 190 were women (mean age: 9.93 ±â€Š1.02 years; height: 1.39 ±â€Š0.8 m; body mass: 37.76 ±â€Š10.34 kg; BMI: 19.24 ±â€Š4.02 kg/m). Based on the body mass index (BMI) the sample was grouped in the following categories: underweight (UW); normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB). Besides, the plantar load distribution parameters (total plantar load distribution and load distribution in forefoot and rearfoot) were assessed employing freeMed Maxi; Sensor Medica device. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the data distribution. Between-groups comparisons were conducted using Mann-Whitney U test, or using Kruskal-Wallis test associated with pairwise comparisons.There were significant differences in load distribution between weight categories, with (OW) and (NW) being significantly different with (O), P = .03 and P = .04, respectively. No significant differences were found on load distribution on the rearfoot and forefoot between categories. The sex effect, particularly among boys, revealed a different pattern of load distribution among (O) compared with other categories. This effect was not detected among women. Different profile of load distribution on the rearfoot and forefoot between boys and girls was found, with girls bearing significantly more weight in the right rearfoot compared with boys (P = .001).It can be concluded that the weight status of the children can affect the plantar load distribution, with obese category being different from (NW) and (OW). Additionally, the sex plays a role when it comes to the load distribution in different regions of the foot. Moreover, since the young age, due to growth and development process, is accompanied with anatomical foot changes which might be affected from numerous factors, assessing plantar pressure distribution in young children results to be a quite complicated matter.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Articulações do Pé/fisiopatologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22147, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925771

RESUMO

Health disorders in mothers and their children are subject to mutual influences arising from the nature of mother-child relationship. The aim of the study was to analyze the issue of anxiety amongst mothers of short children in aspect of growth hormone (GH) therapy in Poland.The study was based on a group of 101 mothers of originally short-stature children: 70 with GH deficiency treated with recombinant human GH and 31 undergoing the diagnostic process, without any treatment. Collected medical data included the child's gender, height and weight, chronological age, bone age delay, and GH therapy duration. For all children the height SDS (standard deviation score of height) and BMI SDS (standard deviation score of body mass index) were calculated. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate anxiety levels among the recruited mothers. Obtained results revealed low trait anxiety levels in all mothers, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. State anxiety levels were significantly higher in mothers of children without diagnosis and treatment than in mothers of children receiving appropriate therapy. Significantly lower levels of maternal state anxiety were observed during the first stage of the GH therapy, and they were further reduced in mothers of children treated for more than 4 years.Growth failure in Polish children is not associated with high maternal anxiety as a personality trait, but lack of diagnosis and lack of appropriate treatment seem to generate high levels of anxiety as a transient state in mothers. The initiation of GH therapy induces a substantial reduction of maternal state anxiety, and the duration of this treatment causes its further decrease. Mothers of short children undergoing diagnostic process could benefit from psychological support, but it seems to be unnecessary when their children are treated with GH.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/psicologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22233, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which is the major type of diabetes, accounts for more than 90% of all case of diabetes, and its pathogenesis remains inconclusive. Recent studies have revealed a significant role of gut microbiota in the onset and development of T2DM. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich clinical experience in the treatment of T2DM for thousands of years and a large amount of studies have shown that TCM has the capacity of lowering blood glucose and modulating gut microbiota. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate all randomized controlled trials on TCM for gut microbiota to assess the effectiveness and safety of TCM in T2DM patients. METHODS: Seven electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and VIP Information-Chinese Scientific Journal Database) will be searched from inception to present in the English and Chinese languages. Eligible randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of TCM in T2DM patients, compared with western medicine, placebo or no intervention will be included in the study. The primary outcomes are the glucose metabolism and gut microbiota as well as its metabolites. The second outcomes are changes in weight, and changes in inflammatory markers. Two authors will independently select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of the studies by scanning the titles, abstracts, and full texts. The meta-analysis will be conducted using Review Manager version 5.3. The results will be presented as risk ratios for dichotomous data and adverse events, and as mean differences for continuous data. RESULT: The study will provide a summary of current evidence for the treatment of T2DM from the perspective of gut microbiota by using TCM based on the outcome measures. CONCLUSION: The systematic review will evaluate the efficacy of TCM in treating T2DM from the perspective of gut microbiota, providing current evidence and laying a foundation for further work in the field. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020188043.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 426-427, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the situation of Anisakis infection of in market-available marine fish in Dongtai City, so as to provide the evidence for the assessment of the risk of human Anisakis infections. METHODS: Raw and fresh marine fish caught in the sea of Dongtai City for sale were collected in 2018. The fish were weighted and dissected for the identification of Anisakis, and the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infections were calculated. In addition, the correlation between the weight of Anisakis-infected marine fish and the infection intensity of Anisakis was examined. RESULTS: There were four species of marine fish infected with Anisakis, including Trichiurus haumela, Scomberomorus niphonius, Pneumatophorus japonicus and Larimichthys polyactis. Among the 149 fish samples, there were 78 with Anisakis infections, with a prevalence rate of 52.35%. The prevalence of Anisakis infection was 100.00% (28/28), 30.00% (9/30), 0 (0/30), 53.33% (16/30) and 80.65% (25/31) in T. haumela, S. niphonius, cuttle fish, P. japonicus and L. polyactis, respectively. A total of 1 049 Anisakis worms were collected, and the overall intensity of infection was 13.45 worms per fish. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the weight of T. haumela and the intensity of Anisakis infection (rs = 0.38, P = 0.047), and no correlation was found in other fish species. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of Anisakis infection in marine fish along the offshore areas of Dongtai City. Intensification of health education is required and healthy and safe dietary habits are encouranged.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase , Anisakis , Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/fisiologia , Organismos Aquáticos/parasitologia , Peso Corporal , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(8): 1108-1115, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935806

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of detraining on physical performance, blood pressure, biologic and anthropometric variables of hypertensive elderly individuals, grouped by two levels of previous physical activity. METHODS: A total of 87 elderly individuals (70 to 93 years old) with systolic/diastolic blood pressure levels above 120/80 mmHg who participated during 18 non-consecutive months in 2 years in physical exercise programs offered in northern Portugal communities were included in the study. Tests were performed before and after three months of no exercise. Attendance to the exercise sessions, hematological markers, cardiorespiratory function, and anthropometric variables were assessed. The results were analyzed according to the fulfillment of the WHO recommendations on moderate physical activity (at least 150 minutes/week). RESULTS: Weight, total cholesterol, and glucose were influenced by the amount of physical activity performed previously to the detraining period. After the detraining period, the total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and weight had significant differences influenced by the amount of physical activity previously performed (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The number of minutes per week of aerobic and resistance exercise training over 18 non-consecutive months was not a significant determinant factor in the development of hypertension during the three months of detraining.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Portugal
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olympic weightlifting requires technical skills, explosive power, strength, and coordination. Weightlifters can be competitive within a range of morphological characteristics due to competition body weight classes. To date no studies have examined when sex differences arise in weightlifting and the impact of body mass on performances at different ages. OBJECTIVES: To examine when sex-related differences emerge, to quantify the influence of body mass on performances at different ages, and to estimate the age at peak performance. METHODS: Competitions results from USA Weightlifting National Championships, Youth, Junior, and Senior from 2014 to 2019 were collected for weightlifters aged 6 to 30. RESULTS: At age 10 the median total weight lifted was 51kg and 54kg, respectively, for girls and boys. From age 10 to 12 a gender gap emerges with a sex difference of 11.7% at age 14 at 55kg body mass. At age 25 the sex-related performance difference is smaller for lighter athletes (23.6% at 69kg body mass) and larger for heavier athletes (29.9% at 81kg body mass). The median peak age for men is 26.5 years (95% CI: 25.7, 27.3) and for women 25.9 years (95% CI: 24.7, 27.3). CONCLUSION: We quantified the impact of body weight and age and sex differences for youth and young adults, ages 6 to 30 years old, participating in national level Olympic weightlifting competitions in the United States. Body weight at younger ages has less impact on performance compared to older ages, and boys and girls perform similarly. When reaching the ages typically associated with the onset of puberty, boys' performances rapidly increase and the gap between genders widens. Women achieve peak performance at a similar age than men. Such results may help to establish progression trajectories for talented athletes and inform coaches, athletes and national governing bodies.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Peso Corporal , Levantamento de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237977, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915802

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the radiocesium transfer rates of pigs fed haylage contaminated with low levels of cesium at different growth stages. We measured the body weight of juvenile and adult pigs during the treatment period to confirm their health status. We also performed pig blood hematologic and biochemical analyses at both growth stages. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report pig radiocesium transfer coefficient rates after 1 month of chronic oral treatment, which is the period assumed to be required for body equilibrium under a diet of radiocesium-contaminated food. The results showed higher radiocesium retention rates in the kidneys, liver, spleen, genitals, psoas major, bladder, thyroid, and urine than in the blood and bone (tibia and femur) of pigs at both growth stages. The radiocesium retention levels were generally higher in juvenile pigs than in adult pigs, with the highest transfer coefficient ratio in the kidneys (16.2%).


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/metabolismo , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal , Radioisótopos de Césio/sangue , Rim/química , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Suínos
16.
Endocrinology ; 161(11)2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880654

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced us to consider the physiologic role of obesity in the response to infectious disease. There are significant disparities in morbidity and mortality by sex, weight, and diabetes status. Numerous endocrine changes might drive these varied responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, including hormone and immune mediators, hyperglycemia, leukocyte responses, cytokine secretion, and tissue dysfunction. Studies of patients with severe COVID-19 disease have revealed the importance of innate immune responses in driving immunopathology and tissue injury. In this review we will describe the impact of the metabolically induced inflammation (meta-inflammation) that characterizes obesity on innate immunity. We consider that obesity-driven dysregulation of innate immune responses may drive organ injury in the development of severe COVID-19 and impair viral clearance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition is defined by <70% weight for length/height, by visible severe wasting, by the presence of pitting edema, and in children 6 to 59 months of age, mid upper arm circumference <110 mm. Severe acute malnutrition remains to be a worldwide problem, claiming lives of millions of children, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Though the Ethiopian national guideline states the total length of stay in therapeutic feeding units should not be more than four weeks, there is huge difference, varying from 8 to 47 days of stay. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess length of stay to recover from severe acute malnutrition and associated factors among under five children hospitalized to the public hospitals in Aksum Town. METHODS: Sample size was calculated using STATA version 12.0. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using pretested questionnaire in the public hospitals in Aksum on children aged 0-59 months. Cleaned data was entered to Epi info version 7.1.4 and then exported into SPSS version 21 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were performed using Kaplan Meier and Cox regression models. During bivariable analysis, variables with p-value < 0.05 were selected for multivariable analysis to identify independent factors associated with length of stay. RESULTS: A total of 564 participants enrolled to the study. The rate of recovery was 56% with median length of stay of 15 days (95% CI: 14.1, 15.9). The independent predictors of length of stay to recovery were presence of diarrhea at admission (AHR = 0.573, 95% CI: 0.415-0.793), being HIV positive (AHR = 0.391, 95% CI: 0.194-0.788), palmar pallor (AHR = 0.575, 95% CI: 0.416-0.794), presence of other co-morbidities at admission (AHR = 0.415, 95% CI: 0.302-0.570) and not being treated with plumpy nut (AHR = 0.368, 95% CI: 0.262-0.518). CONCLUSIONS: Length of stay is in the acceptable range of the international and national set of standards. Nevertheless, the recovery rate was lower compared to the Sphere standard. Presence of diarrhea, palmar pallor, HIV other co-morbidities and not treated with plumpy nut were found independent protective factors for recovery from sever acute malnutrition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/dietoterapia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6311-6324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922003

RESUMO

Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of extracellular matrix (ECM) and its over expression in tumor tissues contributes to the increase of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and hinders the penetration of nanoparticles into solid tumors. Materials and Methods: We here reported a tumoral microenvironment responsive multistage drug delivery system (NPs-EPI/HAase) which was formed layer by layer via electrostatic interaction with epirubicin (EPI)-loaded PEG-b-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-guanidinoethylmethacrylate) (mPEG-PDPA-PG, PEDG) micelles (NPs-EPI) and hyaluronidase (HAase). In this paper, we focused on the hyaluronidase-combined nanoparticles (NPs-EPI/HAase) for tumor penetration in tumor spheroid and solid tumor models in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results showed that NPs-EPI/HAase effectively degrade the HA in ECM and facilitate deep penetration of NPs-EPI into solid tumor. Moreover, NPs-EPI mainly employed clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytic pathways for cellular uptake and were subsequently directed to the lysosomes for further drug release triggered by proton sponge effect. Compared with NPs-EPI, the HAase coating group showed an enhanced tumoral drug delivery efficacy and inhibition of tumor growth. Conclusion: Overall, our studies demonstrated that coating nanoparticles with HAase can provide a simple but efficient strategy for nano-drug carriers to enhance solid tumor penetration and chemotherapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Epirubicina/farmacologia , Epirubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/patologia , Polímeros/química , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234835, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881864

RESUMO

In this study, the physiological values of volumes of plasma, cells, total blood and the F blood factors were identified in 24 adult tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri; 12 male and 12 female; average BW of 123.9±19.19 g). The two-compartment model method of Evans Blue dye was used to obtain the plasma volume and the venous hematocrit was measured by microhematocrit method. To establish the relationship between body weight (BW) and blood volume of tree shrews, We performed linear fitting for these two datasets. Results were analyzed according to gender and weight (<120g vs.>120g). Statistical significance was assessed using the unpaired student t test and one-way ANOVA. The average volumes per 100g body weight of plasma, red blood cell (RBC) and total blood were 5.42±0.543, 3.24±0.445, and 8.66±0.680ml respectively. The mean body hematocrit, cardiac hematocrit, jugular vein hematocrit, femoral vein hematocrit, and tail vein hematocrit was 37.43±4.096, 39.72±3.219, 43.04±4.717, 40.84±3.041, and 38.71±3.442% respectively. The F cardiac was 0.94±0.072, F jugular vein 0.88±0.118, F femoral vein 0.92±0.111, and the F tail vein 0.97±0.117. Blood volume (ml) was 85.89103×BW (kg). This is the first study to provide the parameters of plasma volume, cell volume, total blood volume and F factor and a baseline for future research on blood physiology of tree shrews.


Assuntos
Tupaiidae/sangue , Animais , Volume Sanguíneo , Peso Corporal , Tamanho Celular , Feminino , Hematócrito , Masculino , Volume Plasmático , Tupaiidae/fisiologia
20.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1385-1407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907359

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the development of metabolic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The nutrient-rich resource Cornus Fructus (CF) showed curative effects on diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism underlying its hyperglycemic activity remains obscure. Herein, the antidiabetic potential of four extracts from CF, including saponin (CTS), iridoid glycoside (CIG), tannin (CT), and alcohol extract (CCA) was evaluated in vivo. The results showed that all four extracts could increase the body weight, decrease the blood glucose levels, and elevate the glucose tolerance. Moreover, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile were significantly improved in fed mice. In the [Formula: see text]-diversity index of samples, compared to the DM group, the diversity and richness of gut microbiota in mice to a certain extent were reduced in both CF extracts and Metformin (PC). Among them, there was statistical significance in PC (ACE, [Formula: see text]) and CCA (ACE, [Formula: see text]; chao1: [Formula: see text]). Beta diversity showed the same trend as the UPGMA clustering trees, which revealed that CF extracts could improve intestinal homeostasis in T2DM mice. Also, CF extracts could elevate the production of short-chain fatty acids, as well as regulate the composition of gut microbiota. The key bacteria related to T2DM including Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium were modulated by metformin and CF. Altogether, CF is a potential nutrient-rich candidate that can be used in functional foods for the treatment of T2DM, and the change of gut microbiota might be a novel mechanism underlying its hyperglycemic activity.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Alimento Funcional , Resistência à Insulina , Glicosídeos Iridoides , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas , Taninos
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