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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4313-4319, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In order to produce an animal model for oral mucositis induced by anticancer drugs, it is necessary to maintain an immunosuppressive state. We determined the optimal dose and frequency of 5-fluorouracil for a model mouse production. In addition, we used this model to investigate the effect of GGsTop® gelation on the therapeutic effect of oral mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Changes in body weight and white blood cell count were measured to determine the optimal dosing schedule. The therapeutic effect of GGsTop® gel using chitosan was evaluated by observing changes in the ulcer area for three weeks and measuring collagen and glutathione concentrations in oral mucosal tissue. RESULTS: The optimal dose and frequency of 5-fluorouracil were found to be 50 mg/kg every four days. It was revealed that the therapeutic effect of GGsTop® was enhanced by gelation. CONCLUSION: GGsTop® gel is suggested to be a promising formulation for the treatment of oral mucositis.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organofosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Géis , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Organofosfonatos/farmacologia , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/metabolismo
2.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 52, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at exploring the relationships between physical activity, weight control, and psycho-social aspects of the COVID-19 lockdown, which have characterized the Israeli population's behavior during the COVID-19 global crisis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey research. METHODS: Participants included 1855 men and women aged 18 and above, from different regions in the country and representing different sectors. They were recruited through the social media in a "snowball" sampling, and filled out a self-administered six-part survey: Demographic background, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the positive and negative affect scales (PANAS), the Conor and Davidson resilience scale, a questionnaire for measuring depressive symptoms, and questions regarding weight change based on the Israeli National Health and Nutrition (MABAT) survey. RESULTS: Routine physical activity (PA) was reported by 76.3% of the participants before the lockdown, 19.3% stopped exercising during this period, and 9.3% began exercising during the lockdown. The participants who were physically active during the lockdown period reported a higher level of resilience and positive feelings, and a lower level of depression, compared with those who were not physically active. People who were physically active during the lockdown maintained their weight compared with those who were inactive. Concerning weight change, 44.8% of the respondents maintained their weight, and a higher percentage of people reported weight gain than those who reported weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous PA before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were associated with higher resilience and positive emotions, and depressive symptoms, in people aged 18 and above. Although a causal link cannot be established, in light of the results of the present study, encouraging physical activity may contribute to improving mental health and a sense of self-efficacy, as well as to maintaining weight during a crisis.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 361, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Realimentation can compensate for weight loss from poor-quality feedstuffs or drought. Mature cows fluctuate in body weight throughout the year due to nutrient availability. The objective of this study was to determine whether cows that differ in weight gain during realimentation also differ in the abundance of transcripts for enzymes associated with energy utilization in skeletal muscle. Mature cows were subjected to feed restriction followed by ad libitum feed. Skeletal muscle transcriptome expression differences during the two feeding periods were determined from cows with greater (n = 6) and less (n = 6) weight gain during the ad libitum feeding period. RESULTS: A total of 567 differentially expressed genes (408 up- and 159 down-regulated) were identified for the comparison of restriction and ad libitum periods (PBonferroni < 0.05). These genes were over-represented in lysosome, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and glutathione metabolism pathways. Validation of the expression of five of the genes was performed and four were confirmed. These data suggest that realimentation weight gain for all cows is partially controlled by protein turnover, but oxidative stress and cellular signaling pathways are also involved in the muscle tissue. This dataset provides insight into molecular mechanisms utilized by mature cows during realimentation after a period of low abundance feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Transcriptoma , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Feminino , Músculo Esquelético , Ganho de Peso
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 461, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545453

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed restriction regimens on performance, behavioral patterns, blood cortisol, and carcass parameters in Sasso broilers. Sixty healthy 1-day-old unsexed Sasso chicks were randomly assigned to three groups (20 chicks per group) and each group was divided into 4 replicates with 5 chicks each based on feed restriction program during the rearing period (60 days). The first group (G1) is control in which birds were fed ad libitum had free access to feed (no restriction). The second group (G2) was subjected to temporary feed restriction at the first 2 weeks as birds had access to feed for 12 h only after that they had free access to feed until the end of the experimental period. The third one (G3) was subjected to continuous feed restriction as birds had free access to feed for 12 h only throughout the rearing periods. During the study period, growth performance and behavioral patterns were estimated. At the end of the study, blood samples for cortisol testing were taken. Three birds from each group were slaughtered at the end of the study to see how the feed restriction affected carcass parameters. Feed restriction had a substantial impact (P ≤ 0.05) on final body weight and carcass parameters. Feed restriction elevated blood cortisol significantly (P = 0.004). Feed restriction showed a significant impact on some behaviors as feeding, stretching, preening, and aggression. Overall, different feed restriction programs had a wide effect on growth performance, behaviors, cortisol concentration, and carcass parameters of Sasso broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Hidrocortisona , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 457, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537883

RESUMO

The information of birth (10,017 records), weaning (9439 records), 6 months (7669 records), 9 months (4536 records), and yearling weights (417 records) collected from 1989 to 2016 by the Lori Bakhtiari (Sholi) sheep breeding station located in Shahrekord were used to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic parameters of growth traits of Lori Bakhtiari sheep. The components of variance and genetic parameters were estimated by the Bayesian statistical method based on the Gibbs sampling technique due to the high accuracy of this method. Factors including birth year, lamb sex, birth type, and maternal age at lambing have significant effects on all of these traits (P < 0.01) and were considered fixed effects in the statistical model for estimation of genetic parameters. Lamb weight at weaning was used as a covariate in the model. Based on the models with the lowest Akaike information criterion, direct heritability for birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month, and yearling weights were 0.36, 0.18, 0.21, 0.27, and 0.32, respectively. The moderate heritability obtained for the studied traits pointed up the effectiveness of selection in genetic improvement, but the environmental conditions should be improved for better performance of weight traits.


Assuntos
Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso Corporal , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Desmame
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from the research project "Fitness clubs-a venue for public health?" provided an opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height, and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as the "trueness" of novice exercisers perception of weight status category, which has not been examined in this population. The aims were to examine self-reported body weight, height, and calculated BMI data from an online survey compared with measured data at fitness club start-up, investigate how accurately novice exercisers place themselves within self-classified weight group (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), and compare this with fitness club attendance at three months follow-up. METHODS: Prior to anthropometric measurements, 62 men and 63 women responded to an online questionnaire, including body weight (kilogram, kg) and height (centimeters, cm), and self-classified weight group ("I think I am … underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese"). We used the following statistical analysis: Paired sample t-tests, a Bland-Altman plot kappa statistics, chi-squared tests, and a logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean difference of BMI calculated from self-reported and measured data was 0.06 (95% CI -0.29 to 0.17, p = 0.593) in men, and 0.16 (95% CI -0.40 to 0.09, p = 0.224) in women, with four participants being outliers of the 95% limits of agreement (Bland-Altman plot). Allowing a difference of 0.5 kg between self-reported and measured weight, we found that 16% reported their weight correctly, 31.2% underreported (-1.89 ± 1.59 kg), and 52.8% overreported (1.85 ± 1.23 kg), with no sex differences (p = 0.870). Further, our results suggest that both sexes may have difficulty recognizing overweight/obesity in themselves, and particularly men are likely to underreport their perceived weight group compared with women. More than half (53.3%) of the overweight men perceived themselves to be normal weight (women: 14%), and only 33.3% of obese men and women correctly classified themselves as being obese. We did not find any difference between participants correctly or incorrectly classifying weight group and fitness club attendance (≥2 times a week) at three months follow-up. CONCLUSION: Both sexes reported body weight and height reasonably accurately, and BMI based on self-report appears to be valid measure. Still, a large proportion of novice exercisers do not recognise their own overweight or obesity status, which may in part explain why public health campaigns do not reach risk populations.


Assuntos
Estatura , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem
7.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
8.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 37-47, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422232

RESUMO

Background: Disability is a major determinant of impaired health and nutritional status. This study aims to assess the health and nutritional status of adults with disability and their relationship with socio-demographic factors. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 323 adults with disability in support-centers/schools of disability in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria was conducted. The participants' socio-demographic factors, behavioural characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall were recorded. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumference were obtained. The height and weight measurements of non-ambulatory participants were estimated from knee height and mid-arm circumference. Biochemical analyses of blood samples were also performed. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of socio-demographic factors on health and nutritional status. Results: The participants consisted of females (59.3%) within the age of 20 to 30 years (59.1%). The major area of difficulty was in physical mobility (51.1%) and this occurred mostly in females (26.9%). The participants' mean daily intakes of calorie, protein and fat were below the recommended dietary allowances. The participants were overweight (49.2%), obese (4.6%), hypertensive (29.7%) and diabetic (12.1%). Dyslipidemia (81.8%), anemia (63.6%) and zinc deficiency (51.1%) were highly prevalent among the study group. Gender difference was observed in alcohol consumption (p=0.000), smoking habit (p=0.001), waist circumference (WC)(p=0.000), waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (p=0.000), triglyceride (p=0.026) and haemoglobin concentration (p=0.007). Being boarder was a positive predictor of overweight/obesity (OR= 2.974, 95% CI=1.449-6.104), abnormal WHR (OR=2.893, 95% CI = 1.073-7.801) and hypertension (OR=8.381, 95% CI=1.598-13.959). Female gender was associated with abnormal WC (OR=7.219, 95% CI=3.116-14.228) and WHR (OR=3.590, 95% CI=2.095-6.150) whereas older age-group was associated with overweight/obesity (OR=1.908, 95% CI=1.137- 3.202). Being employed was a negative predictor of hypertension. Conclusion: Overweight/obesity, anemia, zinc deficiency and dyslipidemia were highly prevalent among persons living with disability in Enugu Metropolis.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Nível de Saúde , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/deficiência
9.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 873-882, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406876

RESUMO

Ancient traditions showed that fermented enzyme foods have beneficial health effects on the body. However, only a few studies have reported on its impact on weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to verify whether diet supplementation with fermented enzyme foods can have a beneficial functional impact on the body. We examined the antiobesity properties of fermented mixed grain (FMG) with digestive enzymes (FMG) in diet-induced obese mice. Sixty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to six dietary groups: (1) normal diet (ND), (2) high-fat diet (HFD), (3) Bacilus Coagulans, (4) steamed grain, (5) low-dose FMG (L-FMG), and (6) high-dose FMG (H-FMG) supplement for 12 weeks. The results showed that H-FMG supplement dramatically decreased body weight and fat mass with simultaneous decreases in plasma lipid contents. Furthermore, H-FMG significantly lowered fasting blood glucose concentrations and improved glucose tolerance compared with the HFD group. Also, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines secreted from adipocytes in H-FMG-supplemented mice decreased dramatically. Taken together, our findings indicated that H-FMG can ameliorate HFD-induced obesity and its associated complications and could be used as a potential preventive intervention for obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Doenças Metabólicas , Adiposidade , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade
10.
Theriogenology ; 173: 261-268, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403971

RESUMO

Our objectives were to estimate genetic parameters for male and female reproductive traits and their genetic correlations with body weight and carcass traits, evaluate the genetic trends over the years, and verify the effect of inbreeding on the phenotypes of Brahman cattle. The traits evaluated were body weights at 120, 210, 365, and 450 days of age (W120, W210, W365, and W450); scrotal circumference at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450), age at first calving (AFC), gestation length (GL), stayability (STAY), ribeye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT). Direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.10 ± 0.03 (AFC) to 0.43 ± 0.06 (GL). Maternal heritability estimates for body weights, scrotal circumferences, and GL ranged from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.15 ± 0.03. The proportion of the maternal permanent environment for W120 and W210 was equal to 0.11 ± 0.02. Genetic correlations varied between -0.60 ± 0.25 (STAY and BFT) to 0.97 ± 0.01 (W365 and W450). Except for AFC, all genetic trends were significant (p < 0.05) and presented favorable annual genetic gains. Unfavorable effects due to the increase of inbreeding coefficients were observed for body weights and AFC, suggesting greater attention be paid to the applied mating systems to control inbreeding. Reproductive traits, such as AFC and STAY, could be assisted indirectly by scrotal circumference selection. The emphasis applied to body weight selection, especially at W210, may assist REA. The BFT and RFT traits presented genetic variability and have responded to selection, although not included in the Brahman selection index.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Escroto , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução/genética
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444919

RESUMO

Flaxseed is an oilseed (45-50% oil on a dry-weight basis) crop. Its oil has demonstrated multiple health benefits and industrial applications. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the free polyphenol fraction of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds (PLU), based on their use in traditional medicine. Mice with alloxan-induced diabetes were used to study the antidiabetic activity of PLU in vivo, with an oral administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg over 28 days. Measurements of body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were carried out weekly, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Inhibitory activities of PLU on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were evaluated in vitro. The anti-inflammatory was evaluated in vivo in Wistar rats using the paw edema induction Test by carrageenan, and in vitro using the hemolysis ratio test. PLU administration to diabetic mice during the study period improved their body weight and FBG levels remarkably. In vitro inhibitory activity of digestive enzymes indicated that they may be involved in the proposed mode of action of PLU extract. Qualitative results of PLU revealed the presence of 18 polyphenols. These findings support daily consumption of flaxseed for people with diabetes, and suggest that polyphenols in flaxseed may serve as dietary supplements or novel phytomedicines to treat diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Linho/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Camundongos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445403

RESUMO

Natural smectites have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of diarrhea. The present study evaluated the prophylactic effect of a diosmectite (FI5pp) on the clinical course, colon damage, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and the composition of the gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Diosmectite was administered daily to Balb/c mice from day 1 to 7 by oral gavage, followed by induction of acute DSS-colitis from day 8 to 14 ("Control", n = 6; "DSS", n = 10; "FI5pp + DSS", n = 11). Mice were sacrificed on day 21. Clinical symptoms (body weight, stool consistency and occult blood) were checked daily after colitis induction. Colon tissue was collected for histological damage scoring and quantification of tight junction protein expression. Stool samples were collected for microbiome analysis. Our study revealed prophylactic diosmectite treatment attenuated the severity of DSS colitis, which was apparent by significantly reduced weight loss (p = 0.022 vs. DSS), disease activity index (p = 0.0025 vs. DSS) and histological damage score (p = 0.023 vs. DSS). No significant effects were obtained for the expression of TJ proteins (claudin-2 and claudin-3) after diosmectite treatment. Characterization of the microbial composition by 16S amplicon NGS showed that diosmectite treatment modified the DSS-associated dysbiosis. Thus, diosmectites are promising candidates for therapeutic approaches to target intestinal inflammation and to identify possible underlying mechanisms of diosmectites in further studies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicatos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Silicatos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333640

RESUMO

In beef cattle maternally influenced traits, estimates of direct-maternal genetic correlations (rdm) are usually reported to be negative. In international evaluations, rdm can differ both within countries (rdm_WC) and between countries (rdm_BC). The rdm_BC are difficult to estimate and are assumed to be zero in the current model for international beef cattle evaluations (Interbeef). Our objective was to investigate re-ranking of international estimated breeding values (IEBVs) in international beef cattle evaluations between models that either used estimated values for rdm or assumed them to be 0. Age-adjusted weaning weights and pedigree data were available for Limousin beef cattle from ten European countries. International EBVs were obtained using a multi-trait animal model with countries modeled as different traits. We compared IEBVs from a model that uses estimated rdm_BC (ranging between -0.14 and +0.14) and rdm_WC (between -0.33 and +0.40) with IEBVs obtained either from the current model that assumes rdm_BC to be 0, or from an alternative model that assumes both rdm_BC and rdm_WC to be 0. Direct and maternal IEBVs were compared across those three scenarios for different groups of animals. The ratio of population accuracies from the linear regression method was used to further investigate the impact of rdm on international evaluations, for both the whole set of animals in the evaluation and the domestic ones. Ignoring rdm_BC, i.e., replacing estimated values with 0, resulted in no (rank correlations > 0.99) or limited (between 0.98 and 0.99) re-ranking for direct and maternal IEBVs, respectively. Both rdm_BC and rdm_WC had less impact on direct IEBVs than on maternal IEBVs. Re-ranking of maternal IEBVs decreased with increasing reliability. Ignoring rdm_BC resulted in no re-ranking for sires with IEBVs that might be exchanged across countries and limited re-ranking for the top 100 sires. Using estimated rdm_BC values instead of considering them to be 0 resulted in null to limited increases in population accuracy. Ignoring both rdm_BC and rdm_WC resulted in considerable re-ranking of animals' IEBVs in all groups of animals evaluated. This study showed the limited impact of the current practice of ignoring rdm_BC in international evaluations for Limousin weaning weight, most likely because the estimated rdm_BC was close to 0. We expect that these conclusions can be extended to other traits that have reported rdm values in the range of rdm_WC values for weaning weight in Limousin.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Desmame
14.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444719

RESUMO

Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with metabolic complications, such as glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances in early life. The objective of this study was to assess: (1) the effect of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on glucose and fat metabolism in an LBW piglet model, and (2) the role peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5HT3) receptors in regulating the feeding behavior in LBW piglets fed with Trp-supplemented diets. Seven-day-old piglets were assigned to 4 treatments: normal birthweight-0%Trp (NBW-T0), LBW-0%Trp (LBW-T0), LBW-0.4%Trp (LBW-T0.4), and LBW-0.8%Trp (LBW-T0.8) for 3 weeks. Compared to LBW-T0, the blood glucose was decreased in LBW-T0.8 at 60 min following the meal test, and the triglycerides were lower in LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8. Relative to LBW-T0, LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript and protein abundance of hepatic glucose transporter-2, a higher mRNA abundance of glucokinase, and a lower transcript of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. LBW-T0.4 tended to have a lower protein abundance of sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 in the jejunum. In comparison with LBW-T0, LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and LBW-T0.4 had a higher transcript of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Blocking 5-HT3 receptors with ondansetron reduced the feed intake in all groups, with a transient effect on LBW-T0, but more persistent effect on LBW-T0.8 and NBW-T0. In conclusion, Trp supplementation reduced the hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, but increased the glycolysis in LBW piglets. Peripheral serotonin is likely involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, particularly in LBW piglets fed diets supplemented with a higher dose of Trp.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Ondansetron/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444722

RESUMO

Dietary patterns, exercise, sport, and physical activity have been shown to improve body composition in children. This systematic review with meta-analysis analyzed the effects of practicing football on body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, and bone mineral content) in children. An initial search in PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus was carried out in April 2021 to identify relevant articles. Inclusion criteria required children up to 12 years of age with a minimum football intervention duration of 10 weeks. Methodological quality of the articles was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Between the 1803 articles originally founded, only 14 articles were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 1643 subjects between the 14 studies were identified. The review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and used Review Manager and Full Meta-Analysis software. The results between the control and experimental groups showed significantly better lean body mass and fat mass values in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Football practice was positively associated with increases in lean body mass (mean difference of 1.55; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.15), decreases in fat mass (mean difference of -0.81; 95% CI, -1.49, -0.13), and increases in whole body bone mineral content (mean difference of 117.68; 95% CI, 83.69, 151.67). In conclusion, the results of this systematic review with meta-analysis suggest that football positively affects body composition in children. However, further research is needed to confirm the results for bone mineral content.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Estado Nutricional , Futebol , Esportes Juvenis , Tecido Adiposo , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444723

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research examining hydration and nutrition behaviors in youth American football players. A potentially unique risk factor are league restrictions based on weight (WR) or age (AR). The purpose of this study was to examine hydration status between WR and AR leagues. The secondary purpose was to describe eating patterns in players. An observational cohort design with 63 youth football players (10 ± 1 yrs, 148.2 ± 9.4 cm, 44.9 ± 15.3 kg) was utilized. Independent variables were league (AR (n = 36); WR (n = 27)) and activity type (practice (PX = 8); game (GM = 3)). Dependent variables were hydration status (urine osmolality; percent change in body mass (%BM)), eating attitudes (Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT-26)) and self-reported frequency of meals. On average, players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated (830 ± 296 mOsm/kg) and %BM was minimal (-0.1 ± 0.7%) during events. Players consumed 2 ± 1 meals and 1 ± 1 snack before events. The ChEAT-26 survey reported 21.6% (n = 8) of players were at risk for abnormal eating attitudes. Among these players, eating binges, vomiting, excessive exercise and drastic weight loss were reported. Youth American football players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated and consumed enough fluid during activity to maintain euhydration. Abnormal eating attitudes and the use of unhealthy weight loss methods were reported by some youth American football players.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Alimentar , Futebol Americano , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Fatores de Risco , Sudorese , Estados Unidos , Perda de Peso
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444729

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies showed that higher vitamin K (VK) consumption correlates with a reduced risk of osteoporosis, yet the dispute remains about whether VK is effective in improving bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to discover the anti-osteoporotic effect of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and evaluate the expression of critical genes related to bone formation and bone resorption pathways in the body. Fifty female C57BL/6 mice (aged 13 weeks) were randomly arranged to a sham-operated group (SHAM, treated with corn oil) and four ovariectomized groups that were administered corn oil (OVX group), estradiol valerate (EV, 2 mg/kg body weight as the positive control), low or high doses of VK (LVK and HVK; 20 and 40 mg MK-4/kg body weight, respectively) by gavage every other day for 12 weeks. Body and uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone microarchitecture, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and the mRNA expression of critical genes related to bone formation and bone resorption pathways were assessed. Either dose of MK-4 supplementation increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), decreased the undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP, p < 0.05) levels, and presented higher BMD, percent bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and lower trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structure model index (SMI, p < 0.05) compared with the OVX group. Additionally, both doses of MK4 increased the mRNA expression of Runx2 and Bmp2 (p < 0.05), whereas the doses down-regulated Pu.1 and Nfatc1 (p < 0.05) mRNA expression, the high dose decreased Osx and Tgfb (p < 0.05) mRNA expression, and the low dose decreased Mitd and Akt1 (p < 0.05) mRNA expression. These data show the dual regulatory effects of MK-4 on bone remodeling in ovariectomized mice: the promotion of bone anabolic activity and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation, which provides a novel idea for treating osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/genética , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Ovariectomia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina K 2/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K 2/farmacologia
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444945

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe eating disorder where caloric restriction, excessive physical activity and metabolic alterations lead to life-threatening situations. Despite weight restoration after treatment, a significant part of patients experience relapses. In this translational study, we combined clinical and preclinical approaches. We describe preliminary data about the effect of weight gain on the symptomatology of patients suffering from acute AN (n = 225) and partially recovered (n = 41). We measured more precisely physical activity with continuous cardiac monitoring in a sub-group (n = 68). Using a mouse model, we investigated whether a long-term food restriction followed by nutritional recovery associated or not with physical activity may differentially impact peripheral and central homeostatic regulation. We assessed the plasma concentration of acyl ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and leptin and the mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and their receptors. Our data show an effect of undernutrition history on the level of physical activity in AN. The preclinical model supports an important role of physical activity in the recovery process and points out the leptin system as one factor that can drive a reliable restoration of metabolic variables through the hypothalamic regulation of neuropeptides involved in feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/metabolismo , Anorexia Nervosa/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grelina/análogos & derivados , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Recidiva , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
19.
Science ; 373(6556): 808-812, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385400

RESUMO

Total daily energy expenditure ("total expenditure") reflects daily energy needs and is a critical variable in human health and physiology, but its trajectory over the life course is poorly studied. We analyzed a large, diverse database of total expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method for males and females aged 8 days to 95 years. Total expenditure increased with fat-free mass in a power-law manner, with four distinct life stages. Fat-free mass-adjusted expenditure accelerates rapidly in neonates to ~50% above adult values at ~1 year; declines slowly to adult levels by ~20 years; remains stable in adulthood (20 to 60 years), even during pregnancy; then declines in older adults. These changes shed light on human development and aging and should help shape nutrition and health strategies across the life span.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Metabolismo Energético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444793

RESUMO

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Refeições , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Peso Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Almoço , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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