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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199160

RESUMO

Acadesine (ACA), a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), showed a promising beneficial effect in a mouse model of colitis, indicating this drug as an alternative tool to manage IBDs. However, ACA displays some pharmacodynamic limitations precluding its therapeutical applications. Our study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro and in vivo effects of FA-5 (a novel direct AMPK activator synthesized in our laboratories) in an experimental model of colitis in rats. A set of experiments evaluated the ability of FA5 to activate AMPK and to compare the efficacy of FA5 with ACA in an experimental model of colitis. The effects of FA-5, ACA, or dexamethasone were tested in rats with 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis to assess systemic and tissue inflammatory parameters. In in vitro experiments, FA5 induced phosphorylation, and thus the activation, of AMPK, contextually to the activation of SIRT-1. In vivo, FA5 counteracted the increase in spleen weight, improved the colon length, ameliorated macroscopic damage score, and reduced TNF and MDA tissue levels in DNBS-treated rats. Of note, FA-5 displayed an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared with ACA. The novel AMPK activator FA-5 displays an improved anti-inflammatory efficacy representing a promising pharmacological tool against bowel inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Dinitrofluorbenzeno/análogos & derivados , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Ontologia Genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199317

RESUMO

Empagliflozin, an established treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), has shown beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis in animals and in humans with T2DM, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH). However, little is known about the effects of empagliflozin on liver function in advanced NASH with liver fibrosis and without diabetes. This study aimed to assess the effects of empagliflozin on hepatic and metabolic outcomes in a diet-induced obese (DIO) and insulin-resistant but non-diabetic biopsy-confirmed mouse model of advanced NASH. Male C57BL/6JRj mice with a biopsy-confirmed steatosis and fibrosis on AMLN diet (high fat, fructose and cholesterol) for 36-weeks were randomized to receive for 12 weeks: (a) Empagliflozin (10 mg/kg/d p.o.), or (b) vehicle. Metabolic outcomes, liver pathology, markers of Kupffer and stellate cell activation and lipidomics were assessed at the treatment completion. Empagliflozin did not affect the body weight, body composition or insulin sensitivity (assessed by intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test), but significantly improved glucose homeostasis as assessed by oral glucose tolerance test in DIO-NASH mice. Empagliflozin improved modestly the NAFLD activity score compared with the vehicle, mainly by improving inflammation and without affecting steatosis, the fibrosis stage and markers of Kupffer and stellate cell activation. Empagliflozin reduced the hepatic concentrations of pro-inflammatory lactosylceramides and increased the concentrations of anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated triglycerides. Empagliflozin exerts beneficial metabolic and hepatic (mainly anti-inflammatory) effects in non-diabetic DIO-NASH mice and thus may be effective against NASH even in non-diabetic conditions.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Biópsia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Lactosilceramidas/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063173

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested that flavonoids such as quercetin and probiotics such as Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bf) and Lactobacillus gasseri (Lg) could play a relevant role in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth. Our study investigated the role of dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg) along with quercetin in the development of mouse colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Adenomatous polyposis coli/multiple intestinal neoplasia (ApcMin/+) mice were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg strains, 107 CFU/100 g food) or both probiotics strains plus microencapsulated quercetin (15 mg/100 g food) for 73 days. Changes in body and organ weights, energy metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and colon tissue were determined. The expression of genes related to the Wnt pathway was also analyzed in colon samples. Results: Dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics or microencapsulated probiotics plus quercetin reduced body weight loss and intestinal bleeding in ApcMin/+ mice. An improvement in energy expenditure was observed after 8 weeks but not after 10 weeks of treatment. A supplemented diet with microencapsulated Bf and Lg reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas by 45% and 60%, respectively, whereas the supplementation with Bf, Lg and quercetin decreased the number of ACF and adenomas by 57% and 80%, respectively. Microencapsulated Bf and Lg in combination with quercetin could exert inhibition of the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in the colon of ApcMin/+ mice Conclusions: The administration of microencapsulated Bf and Lg, individually or in combination with quercetin, inhibits the CRC development in ApcMin/+ mice.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium bifidum/citologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Células Imobilizadas/citologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Lactobacillus gasseri/citologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sangue Oculto , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066865

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent and powerful contributors of cardiovascular diseases. Malignant hypertension is a relatively rare but extremely severe form of hypertension accompanied with heart, brain, and renal impairment. Resveratrol, a recently described grape-derived, polyphenolic antioxidant molecule, has been proposed as an effective agent in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to examine chronic resveratrol administration on blood pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation, with special emphasis on cardiac structure and function in two models of experimental hypertension. The experiments were performed in spontaneously (SHRs) and malignantly hypertensive rats (MHRs). The chronic administration of resveratrol significantly decreased blood pressure in both spontaneously and malignant hypertensive animals. The resveratrol treatment ameliorated morphological changes in the heart tissue. The immunohistochemistry of the heart tissue after resveratrol treatment showed that both TGF-ß and Bax were not present in the myocytes of SHRs and were present mainly in the myocytes of MHRs. Resveratrol suppressed lipid peroxidation and significantly improved oxidative status and release of NO. These results suggest that resveratrol prevents hypertrophic and apoptotic consequences induced by high blood pressure with more pronounced effects in malignant hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Maligna/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Maligna/enzimologia , Hipertensão Maligna/patologia , Hipertensão Maligna/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/patologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/química , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065292

RESUMO

For the first time, the study of the antioxidant activity, the characterization of the phytoconstituants, and the evaluation of in vitro and in vivo toxicity of A. djiboutiensis leave and latex are performed. The antioxidant activity of both latex (ADL) and the methanolic extract of leaves (ADM) is determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) scavenging radical methods and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The phytochemical study of latex is done using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and a molecular networking-based approach. The evaluation of in vivo toxicity is performed on mice by oral gavage with a suspension of ADL. Our results show that weak antioxidant activity of ADL and ADM in opposition to their high polyphenol, 83.01 mg and 46.4 mg expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry weight (DW), respectively, and flavonoid contents 13.12 mg and 4.25 mg expressed in quercetin equivalent (QE)/g dry weight (DW), respectively. Using the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) website, nine (9) anthraquinones derivatives, ten (10) chromones derivatives, two (2) flavonols/ chromones isomers are annotated in the molecular network. The treated mice do not display abnormalities in their general physical appearance and biochemistry parameters, compared to the controls. Only glucose and calcium levels are slightly higher in male treated mice compared to the vehicles.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Djibuti , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16229-16247, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139672

RESUMO

Brain mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced testosterone levels are common features of aging in men. Although evidence suggests that the two phenomena are interrelated, it is unclear whether testosterone supplementation ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in the aging male brain. Here, we show that testosterone supplementation significantly alleviates exploratory behavioral deficits and oxidative damage in the substantia nigra and hippocampus of aging male rats. These effects were consistent with improved mitochondrial function, reflected by testosterone-induced increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), antioxidant enzyme (GSH-PX, catalase, and Mn-SOD) expression/activity, and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities in both brain regions. Furthermore, elevated PGC-1α, NRF-1, and TFAM expression (suggestive of enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis), increased citrate synthase activity, mtDNA copy number, and ND1, COX1, and ATP6 expression (indicative of increased mitochondrial content), as well as increased PINK1/Parkin and decreased P62 expression (suggesting mitophagy activation), were detected in the substantial nigra and hippocampus of aged male rats after testosterone supplementation. These findings suggest that testosterone supplementation may be a viable approach to ameliorating brain mitochondrial dysfunction and thus prevent or treat cognitive-behavioral deficits and neurodegenerative conditions associated with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Testosterona/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
8.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(4): 395-401, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the incidence of amikacin plasma peak concentration (Cmax) below 60 mg·L-1 in critically ill children receiving an amikacin dosing regimen of 30 mg kg-1·day-1. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with low Cmax and to assess the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in two French pediatric intensive care units. All admitted children who received 30 mg·kg-1 amikacin and had a Cmax measurement were eligible. Clinical and biological data, amikacin dose, and concentrations were collected. RESULTS: In total, 30 patients were included, aged from 3 weeks to 7 years. They received a median amikacin dosage of 30 mg kg-1·day-1 (range 29-33) based on admission body weight (BW), corresponding to 27 mg kg-1·day-1 (range 24-30) based on actual BW. Cmax was < 60 mg·L-1 in 21 (70%) children and none had a Cmax ≥ 80 mg·L-1. Among the 15 patients with a measured minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 13 (87%) had a Cmax/MIC ratio > 8. Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with Cmax < 60 mg·L-1 were high estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.015) and low blood urea concentration (p = 0.001). AKI progression or occurrence was observed after amikacin administration in two (7%) and six (21%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the administration of the maximal recommended amikacin dose, Cmax was below the pharmacokinetic target in 70% of our pediatric population. Further studies are needed to develop a pharmacokinetic model in a population of critically ill children to optimize target attainment.


Assuntos
Amicacina/administração & dosagem , Amicacina/sangue , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Estado Terminal/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Amicacina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(2): 188-191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease due to multiple pathophysiological defects. Monotherapy alone cannot achieve adequate glycemic control and can lead to treatment failure. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter2 (SGLT2) inhibitor improves glycemic control in patients with T2DM. There were limited studies to determine efficacy and safety profile of empagliflozin with conventional oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in Pakistan. So we investigated the efficacy and safety profile of empagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin and sitagliptin in T2DM patients. METHODS: In this comparative randomized placebo-controlled trial, 240 obese type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate glycaemic control (i.e, HbA1c ≥7%) with metformin and sitagliptin were allocated in to two groups. Patients in group B were given tab empagliflozin 10mg twice a day while patients in group A were given tab placebo for a period of 24 weeks. Changes in body weight, HbA1c, blood pressure were analysed pre and post treatment by using SPSS v23. RESULTS: Empagliflozin caused a significant reduction in body weight -6.9±2.4 kg as compared to placebo -3.1±0.8 kg with p-value <0.001. This body weight reduction was further accompanied by reduction in systolic blood pressure -10.1±2.6 mmHg in empagliflozin group versus -5.3±2.5 mmHg in placebo group with p-value <0.001, and HbA1c -1.68±0.45 in empagliflozin group versus -0.1±0.06 in placebo group with p-value <0.001. There were 28.3% patients in empagliflozin group in whom HbA1c levels reduced <7% as compared to only 13.3% patients in placebo group (p-value 0.04). However no significant adverse effects were recorded in both study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin as a combination therapy has good efficacy and safety profile in obese type 2 diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070220

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia. Despite research efforts, currently there are no effective pharmacotherapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of AD. Recently, numerous studies highlighted the beneficial effects of curcumin (CUR), a natural polyphenol, in the neuroprotection. Especially, its dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties attracted the interest of researchers. In fact, besides its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, this biomolecule is not degraded in the intestinal tract. Additionally, CUR is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and could therefore to be used to treat neurodegenerative pathologies associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The present study aimed to assess the ability of CUR to induce neuronal protective and/or recovery effects on a rat model of neurotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3), which mimics the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Our results showed that treatment with CUR enhances pro-oxidant levels, antioxidant enzymes activities and anti-inflammatory cytokine production and decreases apoptotic cells in AlCl3-exposed hippocampus rats. Additionally, histopathological analysis of hippocampus revealed the potential of CUR in decreasing the hallmarks in the AlCl3-induced AD. We also showed that CUR post-treatment significantly improved the behavioral, oxidative stress and inflammation in AlCl3-exposed rats. Taken together, our data presented CUR as a nutraceutical potential through its protective effects that are more interesting than recovery ones in sporadic model of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/complicações , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Cloreto de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 595, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the overall cardiovascular and metabolic effect of the switch to three different single tablet regimens (STRs) [tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (TAF/FTC/RPV), TAF/FTC/elvitegravir/cobi (TAF/FTC/EVG/cobi) and ABC/lamivudine/dolutegravir (ABC/3TC/DTG)] in a cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) under effective ART. METHODS: All PLWH aged above 18 years on antiretroviral treatment with an HIV-RNA < 50 cp/mL at the time of the switch to TAF/FTC/RPV, TAF/FTC/EVG/cobi and ABC/3TC/DTG were retrospectively included in the analysis. Framingham risk score modification after 12 months from the switch such as lipid profile and body weight modification were assessed. The change from baseline to 12 months in mean cardiovascular risk and body weight in each of the STR's group were assessed by means of Wilcoxon signed-rank test whereas a mixed regression model was used to assess variation in lipid levels. RESULTS: Five-hundred and sixty PLWH were switched to an STR regimen of whom 170 (30.4%) to TAF/FTC/EVG/cobi, 191 (34.1%) to TAF/FTC/RPV and 199 (35.5%) to ABC/3TC/DTG. No difference in the Framingham cardiovascular risk score was observed after 12 months from the switch in each of the STR's groups. No significant overtime variation in mean total cholesterol levels from baseline to 12 months was observed for PLWH switched to ABC/3TC/DTG [200 (SD 38) mg/dl vs 201 (SD 35) mg/dl; p = 0.610] whereas a significant increment was observed in PLWH switched to TAF/FTC/EVG/cobi [192 (SD 34) mg/dl vs 208 (SD 40) mg/dl; p < 0.0001] and TAF/FTC/RPV [187 (SD 34) mg/dl vs 195 (SD 35) mg/dl; p = 0.027]. In addition, a significant variation in the mean body weight from baseline to 12 months was observed in PLWH switched to TAF/FTC/EVG/cobi [72.2 (SD 13.5) kilograms vs 74.6 (SD 14.3) kilograms; p < 0.0001] and TAF/FTC/RPV [73.4 (SD 11.6) kilograms vs 75.6 (SD 11.8) kilograms; p < 0.0001] whereas no difference was observed in those switched to ABC/3TC/DTG [71.5 (SD 12.8) kilograms vs 72.1 (SD 12.6) kilograms; p = 0.478]. CONCLUSION: No difference in the cardiovascular risk after 1 year from the switch to these STRs were observed. PLWH switched to TAF/FTC/EVG/cobi and TAF/FTC/RPV showed an increase in total cholesterol levels and body weight 12 months after the switch.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/uso terapêutico , Combinação Emtricitabina, Rilpivirina e Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Didesoxinucleosídeos/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Combinação Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/metabolismo , Combinação Emtricitabina, Rilpivirina e Tenofovir/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Lamivudina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Piridonas/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico
12.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4117-4131, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977940

RESUMO

The hypoglycemic effects and potential mechanism of sweet potato leaf polyphenols (SPLP) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were investigated. Results showed that oral administration of SPLP to mice could alleviate body weight loss, decrease fasting blood glucose levels (by 64.78%) and improve oral glucose tolerance compared with those of untreated diabetic mice. Furthermore, increased fasting serum insulin levels (by 100.11%), ameliorated insulin resistance and improved hepatic glycogen (by 126.78%) and muscle glycogen (increased by 135.85%) were observed in the SPLP treatment group. SPLP also could reverse dyslipidemia, as indicated by decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and promoted high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Histopathological analysis revealed that SPLP could relieve liver inflammation and maintain the islet structure to inhibit ß-cell apoptosis. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed that SPLP could up-regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase-3ß signaling pathway to improve glucose metabolism and up-regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/glucose transporter 4 signaling pathway in the skeletal muscle to enhance glucose transport. This study provides useful information to support the application of SPLP as a natural product for the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Glicogênio Hepático/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pâncreas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585077, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997019

RESUMO

Background: Fibrinogen and interleukin-1ß as a proinflammatory cytokine and interleukin-10 and nesfatin-1 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine have an important role in the development and prevention of systemic inflammation and incidence of obesity-induced diseases. Thus, this study is aimed at the interaction effects of aerobic training and oak husk hydroalcoholic extract consumption on plasma levels of fibrinogen, interleukin-1ß, nesfatin-1, and interleukin-10 in obese elderly male mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 fat male mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks to induce obesity, and subsequently, they were divided randomly into four groups: control, supplement, exercise-placebo, and exercise-supplement. The training groups performed aerobic exercise 5 days a week for 6 weeks (approximately 80-75% VOmax 2). The supplement groups received a solution of oak husk hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 20 milligram per kilogram of body weight for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken 48 h after the last training session, and the levels of IL-10, fibrinogen, IL-1ß, and nesfatin-1 were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests. Results: The results showed that six-week training and oak husk hydroalcoholic extract consumption significantly increased the levels of IL-10 and nesfatin-1 in experimental groups (P < 0.001). Also, the levels of fibrinogen and IL-1ß decreased significantly in training groups. Averages between group variations of all indicators were statistically significant, and they were more meaningfully pronounced in the exercise-supplement group than other groups (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the results of the present study, the use of moderate aerobic exercise and oak husk hydroalcoholic extract is recommended to reduce the risk of obesity; it may also have a positive effect on inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Etanol/química , Inflamação/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Quercus/química , Água/química , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Obesos , Nucleobindinas/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947045

RESUMO

Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) is a transcription factor that is increased in high-glucose conditions and activates the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 promoter. We examined the effects of synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamides in preventing USF1 binding on the TGF-ß1 promoter in Wistar rats in which diabetic nephropathy was established by intravenous administration of streptozotocin (STZ). High glucose induced nuclear localization of USF1 in cultured mesangial cells (MCs). In MCs with high glucose, USF1 PI polyamide significantly inhibited increases in promoter activity of TGF-ß1 and expression of TGF-ß1 mRNA and protein, whereas it significantly decreased the expression of osteopontin and increased that of h-caldesmon mRNA. We also examined the effects of USF1 PI polyamide on diabetic nephropathy. Intraperitoneal injection of USF1 PI polyamide significantly suppressed urinary albumin excretion and decreased serum urea nitrogen in the STZ-diabetic rats. USF1 PI polyamide significantly decreased the glomerular injury score and tubular injury score in the STZ-diabetic rats. It also suppressed the immunostaining of TGF-ß1 in the glomerulus and proximal tubules and significantly decreased the expression of TGF-ß1 protein from kidney in these rats. These findings indicate that synthetic USF1 PI polyamide could potentially be a practical medicine for diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inativação Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/antagonistas & inibidores , Albuminúria/etiologia , Albuminúria/prevenção & controle , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Desenho de Fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Glucose/farmacologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Glomérulos Renais/química , Túbulos Renais/química , Masculino , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Osteopontina/análise , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/metabolismo
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2043415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969115

RESUMO

The protective effect of aspirin against myocardial hypertrophy (MH) was studied. Model rats of pressure overload MH were prepared by abdominal aortic coarctation. Rats were randomly divided into the sham group (n = 9), MH model group (n = 9), and MH+aspirin group (n = 9), which was, respectively, divided into the 4-week group and 8-week group according to the time of intragastric administration. Arterial blood pressure and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. Changes in myocardial tissue structure were observed by HE staining, Masson staining, and reticular fiber staining. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. The levels of TNF-α, IL-10, TXA2, and PGI2 in myocardium and plasma were detected by ELISA. The arterial blood pressure in the MH model group was significantly higher than that in the 4- and 8-week sham groups, but that in the MH+aspirin group was significantly lower than that in the MH model group. At 4 and 8 weeks, the LVWI in the MH model group was significantly higher than that in the sham group, but it was significantly reduced after aspirin treatment. The myocardial cell hypertrophy was obvious, collagen fibers were proliferated, and reticular fibers were reduced in the 4- and 8-week MH model groups. Compared with the MH model groups, myocardial cells in the MH+aspirin groups were significantly reduced, the collagen fiber content was significantly reduced, and the reticular fiber content was increased. The apoptotic cardiomyocytes in the 4- and 8-week MH model groups were obviously increased. The apoptosis of myocardial cells in the MH+aspirin groups was obviously decreased. The TNF-α levels in the myocardial tissue of the 4- and 8-week MH model groups were significantly increased, while those of the MH+aspirin groups were significantly decreased. There was no significant change in the IL-10 level or PGI2 level at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, the PGI2 level was significantly decreased in the MH model group while significantly increased in the MH+aspirin group. The TXA2 levels were significantly increased in the 4- and 8-week MH model groups and those in the 4- and 8-week MH+aspirin groups were significantly lower. Aspirin has an anti-inflammatory effect, can effectively reduce the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibit myocardial apoptosis, and has a certain protective effect against MH.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Colágenos Fibrilares/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Hipertrofia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/sangue , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandinas/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Tromboxano A2/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
16.
Life Sci ; 278: 119550, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932442

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin (Vit) D regulates various organic processes, including adipose tissue morphofunction and lipid metabolism. Studies indicate that Vit D bioavailability is reduced in obesity, which could contribute to obesity development; however, the effects of Vit D supplementation on increased adiposity in western diet (WD)-obese rats (an experimental model that better resembles the obesogenic human obesity condition) have not been studied, to date. Thus, we hypothesized that Vit D supplementation following the induction of obesity in WD rats might reduce their body weight (BW) and adiposity. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed on a standard chow [control (CTL) group] or a WD to induce obesity (WD group), from 21 to 59 days of age. Subsequently, from 60 to 90-days, half of the CTL and of the WD rats were randomly submitted, or not, to oral Vit D supplementation (CTL-VD and WD-VD groups, respectively). KEY FINDINGS: At 91 days of age, WD rats were obese, displaying higher abdominal circumference and white fat stores, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and greater plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Vit D supplementation decreased BW gain, abdominal fat deposition and ameliorated the plasma lipid profile in WD-VD rats. These effects were accompanied by reductions in leptinemia and in circulating TNF-α levels in these rodents. SIGNIFICANCE: Vit D supplementation, following the induction of obesity, may represent a good strategy to attenuate BW gain and abdominal adiposity, and ameliorate the plasma lipid profile in WD rats. These effects may be mediated, at least in part, by reductions in circulating levels of leptin and TNF-α.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ratos Wistar
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918820

RESUMO

Quercetin has been shown to have anti-obesity effects, but it is unknown whether these effects can be transmitted from mothers to their progeny. In this study, we investigated whether maternal quercetin consumption during pregnancy has a protective effect on high-fat diet-induced hyper lipid levels and overweight in progeny. Female mice consumed a control diet or a diet containing 1.0% quercetin during breeding. The male progeny were then divided into four groups that were (1) sacrificed at postnatal day 3; (2) born to dams fed the control diet and also fed the control diet (C-C), (3) born to dams fed the control diet and then fed a 30% high-fat diet (C-HF), or (4) born to dams fed the Q-diet and then fed the HF diet (Q-HF). Maternal consumption of quercetin did not affect body weight or blood lipid parameters in either dams or neonates at postnatal day 3. After 13 weeks, the Q-HF group exhibited greater body and liver weights, and higher blood cholesterol levels than the C-HF group. However, the total cholesterol/ high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol ratios in the Q-HF and C-C groups remained similar. In conclusion, maternal quercetin consumption does not appear to protect the next generation from high-fat diet-induced hyper cholesterol level in the blood and liver, and consequently overweight, but may help regulate the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801901

RESUMO

Trilobatin was identified as the primary bioactive component in the Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd (LPR) leaves. This study explored the antiobesity effect of trilobatin from LPR leaves and its influence on gut microbiota in obese rats. Results showed that trilobatin could significantly reduce body and liver weight gain induced by a high-fat diet, and the accumulation of perirenal fat, epididymal fat, and brown fat of SD (Male Sprague-Dawley) obese rats in a dose-independent manner. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations increased, especially the concentration of butyrate. Trilobatin supplementation could significantly increase the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Prevotella, CF231, Bacteroides, and Oscillospira, and decrease greatly the abundance of Blautia, Allobaculum, Phascolarctobacterium, and Coprococcus, resulting in an increase of the ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (except the genera of Lactobacillus and Oscillospira). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway predicted by the Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) indicated the different relative metabolic pathways after trilobatin supplementation. This study may reveal the contribution of gut microbiota to the antiobesity effect of trilobatin from LPR leaves and predict the potential regulatory mechanism for obesity induced by a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801984

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are microbial metabolites, mainly generated by the action of gut microbiota on dietary fibers. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the three main SCFAs produced typically in a 60:20:20 molar ratio in the colon. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, when given individually as supplements, have shown a protective role in obesity and hyperglycemia; however, the sex-specific effects of a mixture of SCFAs, when given in 60:20:20 ratio, on the regulation of lipid metabolism and lipid profile are not known. Male and female Long-Evans rats were given a mixture of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate; molar ratio 60:20:20) each day for seven days intraperitoneally; plasma and hepatic lipids, gene expression, and lipidomics profile were analyzed. SCFAs significantly decreased plasma and hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol in males, whereas the fatty acyl composition of cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and phospholipids was modulated in females. SCFAs decreased the mRNA expression of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 in both males and females. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that SCFAs (60:20:20) improved plasma and hepatic lipid levels and fatty acyl composition in a manner that may provide cardio-protective and anti-inflammatory effects in both sexes, via independent mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ésteres do Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Caracteres Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5521503, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815654

RESUMO

Background: Bu Shen Yi Sui capsule (BSYS) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription that has shown antineuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Microglia play an important role in neuroinflammation. The M1 phenotype of microglia is involved in the proinflammatory process of the disease, while the M2 phenotype plays an anti-inflammatory role. Promoting the polarization of microglia to M2 in MS/EAE is a promising therapeutic strategy. This study is aimed at exploring the effects of BSYS on microglial polarization in mice with EAE. Methods: The EAE model was established by the intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin and subcutaneous injection of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were treated with BSYS (3.02 g/kg), FTY720 (0.3 mg/kg), or distilled water by intragastric administration. H&E and LFB staining, transmission electron microscopy, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, ELISA, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and western blotting were used to detect the histological changes in myelin, microglial M1/M2 polarization markers, and the expression of key genes involved in EAE. Results and Conclusions. BSYS treatment of EAE mice increased the body weight, decreased the clinical score, and reduced demyelination induced by inflammatory infiltration. BSYS also inhibited the mRNA expression of M1 microglial markers while increasing the mRNA level of M2 markers. Additionally, BSYS led to a marked decrease in the ratio of M1 microglia (iNOS+/Iba1+) and an obvious increase in the number of M2 microglia (Arg1+/Iba1+). In the EAE mouse model, miR-124 expression was decreased, and miR-155 expression was increased, while BSYS treatment significantly reversed this effect and modulated the levels of C/EBP α, PU.1, and SOCS1 (target genes of miR-124 and miR-155). Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of BSYS against MS/EAE was related to promoting microglia toward M2 polarization, which may be correlated with changes in miR-124 and miR-155 in vivo.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/genética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Inflamação/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Cápsulas , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/sangue , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Transativadores/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
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