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1.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 52, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at exploring the relationships between physical activity, weight control, and psycho-social aspects of the COVID-19 lockdown, which have characterized the Israeli population's behavior during the COVID-19 global crisis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey research. METHODS: Participants included 1855 men and women aged 18 and above, from different regions in the country and representing different sectors. They were recruited through the social media in a "snowball" sampling, and filled out a self-administered six-part survey: Demographic background, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the positive and negative affect scales (PANAS), the Conor and Davidson resilience scale, a questionnaire for measuring depressive symptoms, and questions regarding weight change based on the Israeli National Health and Nutrition (MABAT) survey. RESULTS: Routine physical activity (PA) was reported by 76.3% of the participants before the lockdown, 19.3% stopped exercising during this period, and 9.3% began exercising during the lockdown. The participants who were physically active during the lockdown period reported a higher level of resilience and positive feelings, and a lower level of depression, compared with those who were not physically active. People who were physically active during the lockdown maintained their weight compared with those who were inactive. Concerning weight change, 44.8% of the respondents maintained their weight, and a higher percentage of people reported weight gain than those who reported weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous PA before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were associated with higher resilience and positive emotions, and depressive symptoms, in people aged 18 and above. Although a causal link cannot be established, in light of the results of the present study, encouraging physical activity may contribute to improving mental health and a sense of self-efficacy, as well as to maintaining weight during a crisis.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209004

RESUMO

This investigation aimed to compare the effects of suspension training versus traditional resistance exercise using a combination of bands and bodyweight on body composition, bioimpedance vector patterns, and handgrip strength in older men. Thirty-six older men (age 67.4 ± 5.1 years, BMI 27.1 ± 3.3 kg/m2) were randomly allocated into suspension training (n = 12), traditional training (n = 13), or non-exercise (n = 11) groups over a 12-week study period. Body composition was assessed using conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis and classic and specific bioelectric impedance vector analysis, and handgrip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Results showed a significant (p < 0.05) group by time interaction for fat mass, fat-free mass, total body water, skeletal muscle index, classic and specific bioelectrical resistance, classic bioelectrical reactance, phase angle, and dominant handgrip strength. Classic and specific vector displacements from baseline to post 12 weeks for the three groups were observed. Handgrip strength increased in the suspension training group (p < 0.01, ES: 1.50), remained stable in the traditional training group, and decreased in the control group (p < 0.01, ES: -0.86). Although bodyweight and elastic band training helps to prevent a decline in muscle mass and handgrip strength, suspension training proved more effective in counteracting the effects of aging in older men under the specific conditions studied.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202475

RESUMO

Recently, intermittent fasting, also known as time-restricted eating (TRE), has become a popular diet trend. Compared to animal studies, there have been few studies and inconclusive findings investigating the effects of TRE in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of 8 h TRE on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were mainly active at night. A total of 33 young adults completed the 8 h TRE for 4 weeks. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and every 2 weeks, and blood samples were collected at baseline and week 4. Daily dietary records were logged throughout the intervention period. Participants experienced significant changes in body weight (-1.0 ± 1.4 kg), body mass index (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2), and body fat (-0.4 ± 1.9%) after 4 weeks of TRE. When participants were divided into weight loss/gain groups based on their weight change in week 4, fat mass reduction was significantly higher in the weight loss group than in the weight gain group. Regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance improved in the weight loss group after intervention, but not in the weight gain group. All subjects showed late-shifted sleeping patterns, but no significant differences in sleep duration, sleep quality, or psychological measures between the two groups. When meal frequency and energy proportion were evaluated, the average meal frequency was 2.8 ± 0.5 and energy proportions of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks were 4.5, 39.2, 37.6, and 18.5%, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the saturated fat intake at dinner was lower in the weight loss group (3.1 ± 3.2%, 6.0 ± 2.5% respectively). In conclusion, 8 h TRE can be applied as a lifestyle strategy to manage body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors among young adults with late chronotypes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Registros de Dieta , Impedância Elétrica , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203166

RESUMO

Placental dysfunction can lead to fetal growth restriction which is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Fetal growth restriction increases the risk of obesity and diabetes later in life. Placental O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) has been identified as a marker and a mediator of placental insufficiency in the setting of prenatal stress, however, its role in the fetal programming of metabolism and glucose homeostasis remains unknown. We aim to determine the long-term metabolic outcomes of offspring with a reduction in placental OGT. Mice with a partial reduction and a full knockout of placenta-specific OGT were generated utilizing the Cre-Lox system. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters were assessed on a normal chow and a high-fat diet in both male and female adult offspring. A reduction in placental OGT did not demonstrate differences in the metabolic parameters or glucose homeostasis compared to the controls on a standard chow. The high-fat diet provided a metabolic challenge that revealed a decrease in body weight gain (p = 0.02) and an improved insulin tolerance (p = 0.03) for offspring with a partially reduced placental OGT but not when OGT was fully knocked out. Changes in body weight were not associated with changes in energy homeostasis. Offspring with a partial reduction in placental OGT demonstrated increased hepatic Akt phosphorylation in response to insulin treatment (p = 0.02). A partial reduction in placental OGT was protective from weight gain and insulin intolerance when faced with the metabolic challenge of a high-fat diet. This appears to be, in part, due to increased hepatic insulin signaling. The findings of this study contribute to the greater understanding of fetal metabolic programming and the effect of placental OGT on peripheral insulin sensitivity and provides a target for future investigation and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/farmacologia , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Gravidez
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068942

RESUMO

Phylogenetic trees based on multiple genomic loci enable us to estimate the evolution of functional constraints that operate on genes based on lineage-specific fluctuation of the evolutionary rate at particular gene loci, "gene-branch interactions". Using this information as predictors, our previous work inferred that the common ancestor of placental mammals was nocturnal, insectivorous, solitary, and bred seasonally. Here, we added seven new continuous traits including lifespan, bodyweight, and five reproduction-related traits and inferred the coevolution network of 14 core life history traits for 89 mammals. In this network, bodyweight and lifespan are not directly connected to each other; instead, their correlation is due to both of them coevolving with gestation period. Diurnal mammals are more likely to be monogamous than nocturnal mammals, while arboreal mammals tend to have a smaller litter size than terrestrial mammals. Coevolution between diet and the seasonal breeding behavior test shows that year-round breeding preceded the dietary change to omnivory, while seasonal breeding preceded the dietary change to carnivory. We also discuss the evolution of reproductive strategy of mammals. Genes selected as predictors were identified as well; for example, genes function as tumor suppressor were selected as predictors of weaning age.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Longevidade/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Filogenia , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez
6.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(1): E146-E155, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097543

RESUMO

Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists reduce body weight and improve several parameters of glucose homeostasis. However, these drugs have also been associated with deleterious side effects. CB1R expression is widespread in the brain and in peripheral tissues, but whether specific sites of expression can mediate the beneficial metabolic effects of CB1R drugs, while avoiding the untoward side effects, remains unclear. Evidence suggests inverse agonists may act on key sites within the central nervous system to improve metabolism. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a critical node regulating energy balance and glucose homeostasis. To determine the contributions of CB1Rs expressed in VMH neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis, we generated mice lacking CB1Rs in the VMH. We found that the deletion of CB1Rs in the VMH did not affect body weight in chow- and high-fat diet-fed male and female mice. We also found that deletion of CB1Rs in the VMH did not alter weight loss responses induced by the CB1R inverse agonist SR141716. However, we did find that CB1Rs of the VMH regulate parameters of glucose homeostasis independent of body weight in diet-induced obese male mice.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) regulate metabolic homeostasis, and CB1R inverse agonists reduce body weight and improve parameters of glucose metabolism. However, the cell populations expressing CB1Rs that regulate metabolic homeostasis remain unclear. CB1Rs are highly expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), which is a crucial node that regulates metabolism. With CRISPR/Cas9, we generated mice lacking CB1Rs specifically in VMH neurons and found that CB1Rs in VMH neurons are essential for the regulation of glucose metabolism independent of body weight regulation.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/fisiologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/deficiência , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética
7.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(4): 395-401, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the incidence of amikacin plasma peak concentration (Cmax) below 60 mg·L-1 in critically ill children receiving an amikacin dosing regimen of 30 mg kg-1·day-1. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with low Cmax and to assess the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in two French pediatric intensive care units. All admitted children who received 30 mg·kg-1 amikacin and had a Cmax measurement were eligible. Clinical and biological data, amikacin dose, and concentrations were collected. RESULTS: In total, 30 patients were included, aged from 3 weeks to 7 years. They received a median amikacin dosage of 30 mg kg-1·day-1 (range 29-33) based on admission body weight (BW), corresponding to 27 mg kg-1·day-1 (range 24-30) based on actual BW. Cmax was < 60 mg·L-1 in 21 (70%) children and none had a Cmax ≥ 80 mg·L-1. Among the 15 patients with a measured minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 13 (87%) had a Cmax/MIC ratio > 8. Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with Cmax < 60 mg·L-1 were high estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.015) and low blood urea concentration (p = 0.001). AKI progression or occurrence was observed after amikacin administration in two (7%) and six (21%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the administration of the maximal recommended amikacin dose, Cmax was below the pharmacokinetic target in 70% of our pediatric population. Further studies are needed to develop a pharmacokinetic model in a population of critically ill children to optimize target attainment.


Assuntos
Amicacina/administração & dosagem , Amicacina/sangue , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Estado Terminal/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Amicacina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068091

RESUMO

The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes5) processes oral sensory-motor information, but its role in the control of energy balance remains unexplored. Here, using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that the Mes5 expresses the melanocortin-4 receptor. Consistent with MC4R activation in other areas of the brain, we found that Mes5 microinjection of the MC4R agonist melanotan-II (MTII) suppresses food intake and body weight in the mouse. Furthermore, NTS POMC-projecting neurons to the Mes5 can be chemogenetically activated to drive a suppression in food intake. Taken together, these findings highlight the Mes5 as a novel target of melanocortinergic control of food intake and body weight regulation, although elucidating the endogenous role of this circuit requires future study. While we observed the sufficiency of Mes5 MC4Rs for food intake and body weight suppression, these receptors do not appear to be necessary for food intake or body weight control. Collectively, the data presented here support the functional relevance of the NTS POMC to Mes5 projection pathway as a novel circuit that can be targeted to modulate food intake and body weight.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Tegmento Mesencefálico/fisiologia , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064139

RESUMO

The therapeutic potential of Sargassum siliquosum grown in Australian tropical waters was tested in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 12 rats and each group was fed a different diet for 16 weeks: corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) containing fructose, sucrose, saturated and trans fats; and C or H diets with 5% S. siliquosum mixed into the food from weeks 9 to 16 (CS and HS). Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, fatty liver and left ventricular fibrosis developed in H rats. In HS rats, S. siliquosum decreased body weight (H, 547 ± 14; HS, 490 ± 16 g), fat mass (H, 248 ± 27; HS, 193 ± 19 g), abdominal fat deposition and liver fat vacuole size but did not reverse cardiovascular and liver effects. H rats showed marked changes in gut microbiota compared to C rats, while S. siliquosum supplementation increased gut microbiota belonging to the family Muribaculaceae. This selective increase in gut microbiota likely complements the prebiotic actions of the alginates. Thus, S. siliquosum may be a useful dietary additive to decrease abdominal and liver fat deposition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Sargassum , Alga Marinha/microbiologia , Gordura Abdominal/microbiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072910

RESUMO

Maternal diet has the potential to affect human milk (HM) composition, but very few studies have directly assessed the effect of maternal diets on HM composition. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of improving dietary quality in lactating women over 2 weeks on the concentrations of macronutrients and metabolic hormones in HM. The secondary aims were to assess the impact of the dietary intervention on 24 h milk production, maternal body composition and infant growth. Fifteen women completed a 1-week baseline period followed by a 2-week dietary intervention phase targeted towards reducing fat and sugar intake. Maternal anthropometric and body composition and infant growth measurements were performed weekly. Total 24 h milk production was measured before and after the dietary intervention, and HM samples were collected daily. Maternal intakes of energy (-33%), carbohydrate (-22%), sugar (-29%), fat (-54%) and saturated fat (-63%) were significantly reduced during the dietary intervention. HM insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations were 10-25% lower at the end of the dietary intervention, but HM concentrations of macronutrients were unaffected. Maternal body weight (-1.8%) and fat mass (-6.3%) were significantly reduced at the end of the dietary intervention, but there were no effects on 24 h milk production or infant growth. These results suggest that reducing maternal energy, carbohydrate, fat and sugar intake over a 2-week period is associated with significant reductions in HM insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations. These changes may be secondary to decreases in maternal weight and fat mass. The limited studies to date that have investigated the association between metabolic hormone concentrations in HM and infant growth raise the possibility that the changes in HM composition observed in the current study could impact infant growth and adiposity, but further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Mães
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 75, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) at different intensities (moderate and vigorous or moderate-to-vigorous) and prospective weight gain in non-obese people. We also examined whether these associations were independent of other lifestyle factors and changes in muscle mass and whether they were age-dependent and changed over a person's life course. METHODS: The data were extracted from the Lifelines cohort study (N = 52,498; 43.5% men) and excluded obese individuals (BMI > 30 kg/m2). We used the validated SQUASH questionnaire to estimate moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA; MET≥4), moderate (MPA; MET between 4 and 6.5) and vigorous PA (VPA; MET≥6.5). Body weight was objectively measured, and changes were standardized to a 4-year period. Separate analyses, adjusted for age, educational level, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and changes in creatinine excretion (a marker of muscle mass), were performed for men and women. RESULTS: The average weight gain was + 0.45 ± 0.03 kg in women. Relative to each reference groups (No-MVPA, No-MPA and No-VPA), MVPA (Beta (95%CI): - 0.34 kg (- 0.56;-0.13)), MPA (- 0.32 kg (- 0.54;-0.10)) and VPA (- 0.30 kg (- 0.43;-0.18)) were associated with less gain in body weight in women after adjusting for potential confounders, described above. These associations were dose-dependent when physically active individuals were divided in tertiles. Beta-coefficients (95%CI) for the lowest, middle, and highest MVPA tertiles relative to the 'No-MVPA' were, respectively, - 0.24 (- 0.47;-0.02), - 0.31 (- 0.53;-0.08), and - 0.38 (- 0.61;-0.16) kg. The average weight gain in men was + 0.13 ± 0.03 kg, and only VPA, not MPA was associated with less body weight gain. Beta-coefficients (95%CI) for the VPA tertiles relative to the 'No-VPA' group were, respectively, - 0.25 (- 0.42;-0.09), - 0.19 (- 0.38;-0.01) and - 0.20 (- 0.38;-0.02) kg. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association was no longer significant in men. The potential benefits of leisure-time PA were age-stratified and mainly observed in younger adults (men < 35 years) or stronger with younger age (women < 55 years). CONCLUSION: Higher leisure-time MVPA, MPA, and VPA were associated with less weight gain in women < 55 years. In younger men (< 35 years), only VPA was associated with less weight gain.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
12.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(6): 818-828, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthropometric and demographic properties may affect balance, but there is no consensus on this subject; so, there is a need for studies that explore it. This study aimed to assess the relationship between balance and anthropometric as well as demographic properties; and to determine the effect of anthropometric and demographic properties on balance in healthy adults. METHODS: Sixty healthy adults were included in this study. The ages of the participants were questioned; height, body weight, Body Mass Index, head circumference, upper extremity, lower extremity, and foot length were evaluated, and shoe numbers were recorded. Balance assessments were performed with the Balance Master System device. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 23.50±1.97 years. The balance developed with age (P<0.05), while there was a negative correlation between height and balance (P<0.05). Weight gain affected balance negatively (P<0.05). The increase in head circumference, extremity, and foot length was associated with a deterioration in balance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study were showed that anthropometric and demographic properties affect balance. The increase in some of the anthropometric and demographic properties including height, weight, head circumference, extremity, and foot length harms the balance. During balance assessments, anthropometric and demographic characteristics should be considered as a factor that affects balance.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3717, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162841

RESUMO

Rawls argued that fairness in human societies can be achieved if decisions about the distribution of societal rewards are made from behind a veil of ignorance, which obscures the personal gains that result. Whether ignorance promotes fairness in animal societies, that is, the distribution of resources to reduce inequality, is unknown. Here we show experimentally that cooperatively breeding banded mongooses, acting from behind a veil of ignorance over kinship, allocate postnatal care in a way that reduces inequality among offspring, in the manner predicted by a Rawlsian model of cooperation. In this society synchronized reproduction leaves adults in a group ignorant of the individual parentage of their communal young. We provisioned half of the mothers in each mongoose group during pregnancy, leaving the other half as matched controls, thus increasing inequality among mothers and increasing the amount of variation in offspring birth weight in communal litters. After birth, fed mothers provided extra care to the offspring of unfed mothers, not their own young, which levelled up initial size inequalities among the offspring and equalized their survival to adulthood. Our findings suggest that a classic idea of moral philosophy also applies to the evolution of cooperation in biological systems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Gravidez , Predomínio Social
14.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 42(6): 1425-1432, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948709

RESUMO

Obesity has become increasingly recognized in adults with Fontan palliation, yet the relationship between weight changes in adulthood and Fontan failure is not clearly defined. We hypothesize that increasing weight in adulthood among Fontan patients is associated with the development of Fontan failure. Single-center data from adults with Fontan palliation who were not in Fontan failure at their first clinic visit in adulthood and who received ongoing care were retrospectively collected. Fontan failure was defined as death, transplant, diagnosis of protein losing enteropathy, predicted peak VO2 less than 50%, or new loop diuretic requirement. Anthropometric data including weight and BMI were collected. Change in weight was compared between those that developed Fontan failure, and those that remained failure-free. To estimate the association between weight change during adulthood and the risk of developing Fontan failure, a survival analysis using multiple Cox's proportional hazards regression model was performed. Overall, 104 patients were included in the analysis. Those that developed Fontan failure had a larger associated median weight gain than those who remained failure-free (7.8 kg vs. 4.9 kg, respectively; p = 0.011). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, increased weight during adulthood was associated with increased likelihood of developing Fontan failure (HR 1.36; CI 1.07-1.73; p = 0.011). Weight gain in adulthood is associated with the development of Fontan failure.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946036

RESUMO

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been increasingly used to measure steroids in human saliva. We studied the performance of a conventional LC-MS/MS for measuring dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone and progesterone in human saliva. These three steroids were co-extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and derivatized. Derivatives were resolved on a C18 column and quantified using an LC-MS/MS (AB Sciex API 2000) instrument. The assay's limits of quantification were 0.03 ng/mL for all three steroids. Inter-assay coefficients of variation were 16.6-18.8% (DHEA), 12.0-15.8% (testosterone), and 12.7-19.3% (progesterone). Assay linearity analysis showed R2 of 0.9926, 0.9750 and 0.9949 for DHEA, testosterone and progesterone, respectively. No carry-over between samplings was observed. An ion-enhancement effect of 11.6% for DHEA determination and ion-suppression effects of 13.9% and 20.7% for analysis of progesterone and testosterone, respectively, were determined. No interferences by 9 steroid analogs were detected. Spiked recoveries were 85.5% (DHEA), 86.5% (testosterone), and 92.6% (progesterone). Comparison with laboratory developed test (LDT)-LC-MS/MS methods by other New York State Department of Health certified laboratories revealed R2 = 0.9425 (DHEA, LC-MS/MS = 1.0267 LDT + 21.989), R2 = 0.9849 (testosterone, LC-MS/MS = 0.9447 LDT + 9.8037), and R2 = 0.9736 (progesterone, LC-MS/MS = 1.1196 LDT + 0.0985). Reference intervals for the 3 steroids in saliva for young males and females were estimated. Results of intra-individual salivary progesterone analysis indicated that caution should be exercised when using progesterone concentrations in predicting ovulation for females who are under treatment with birth control pills/devices or has body a weight of > 90 kg.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Previsão da Ovulação , Progesterona/análise , Testosterona/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saliva/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 966-970, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weight stigma is prevalent across the world. However, little is known about whether and how the harmful health consequences of weight stigma may vary across countries. The current study examined the association between experiences of weight stigma and multiple eating and exercise-related indicators among a large, multinational sample of adults. METHODS: Adults enrolled in an international weight management program residing in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States completed identical Web-based surveys in the dominant language for their country. Participants (N = 13,996) reported on their personal experiences of weight stigma and health, including eating behaviors, attitudes toward exercise, and perceived stress. RESULTS: More than half of all participants in each country reported experiencing weight stigma. Participants who had experienced weight stigma reported engaging in more eating to cope, gym avoidance, and self-monitoring behaviors, as well as higher levels of stress and reduced eating self-efficacy. These associations were documented over and above sociodemographic characteristics and BMI and did not vary across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings document uniform health-related correlates of weight stigma within a multinational context and underscore the need for global initiatives to curtail weight stigma in order to support population health.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estigma Social , Preconceito de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Preconceito de Peso/psicologia
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 995-1002, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether a 12-week, weight-maintaining, macronutrient-stable dietary intervention that varies only by meat, fish, or soda consumption alters 24-hour energy expenditure (24hrEE) and substrate oxidation. METHODS: Healthy males were recruited to participate in a 12-week inpatient study and were randomized to a weight-maintaining dietary intervention that contained varying combinations of meat (0% or 19%), fish (0% or 6%), or soda (0% or 14%) in a factorial design. Macronutrient composition across dietary intervention groups was as follows: 50% of energy from carbohydrates, 30% of energy from fat, and 20% of energy from protein. Whole-room indirect calorimetry at baseline and week 12 were used to measure 24hrEE and substrate oxidation. RESULTS: Twenty-six males (mean [SEM], age: 46.6 [10.4] years; BMI: 26.9 [4.1] kg/m2 ) completed all measurements. Fish consumption resulted in higher 24hrEE by 126 (55) kcal/d compared with no fish consumption (P = 0.03), whereas 24hrEE for soda consumption was 132 (56) kcal/d (P = 0.03) lower. Approximately 80% of the decrease in 24hrEE with soda consumption was due to lower awake-inactive energy expenditure (EE; P = 0.001). No specific EE component accounted for the differences observed with fish consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that dietary sources of protein and carbohydrates appear to influence 24hrEE and inactive EE.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Peixes , Carne , Adulto , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Projetos Piloto
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 152: 112188, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836210

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the long-term low-dose effects of exposure to a mixture of 6 pesticide active substances (diquat, imazamox, imazethapyr, tepraloxydin, bentazone, acifluorfen) and to elucidate if chronic vitamin deficiency can influence their toxicity. Two hundred Wistar rats were divided in 4 groups: a vitamin-sufficiency control group, a vitamin-deficiency control group, a vitamin sufficiency test group and a vitamin-deficiency test group. The test groups were treated with the aforementioned pesticides at doses 100 times lower than the corresponding NOAEL. After 6 months, ten rats from each group were sacrificed and a complete evaluation of blood and urine biochemistry, biomarkers of oxidative stress, xenobiotic detoxification enzymes and lysosomal enzymes and organ histopathology was performed. The pesticides mixture and vitamin deficiency determined an increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and urinary calcium levels, abnormal serum lipid profile, and a decrease of total blood proteins levels, red blood cells, haematocrit and haemoglobin. The combination of the two stressors up-regulated CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1 and GST levels. This study provides a new proof for the need to move forward from single chemical testing to a more complex approach to account for the multitude of stressors that can challenge the setting of real safety levels.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/fisiopatologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Deficiência de Vitaminas/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/urina , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Lipase/sangue , Lipase/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(5): H2044-H2057, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834865

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its complications; however, causal mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate cardiac structural and functional alterations and associated changes in myocardial glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) disaccharide profile in mice that exhibit depression-like behavior. Mice were assigned to the chronic mild stress (CMS) group and nonstress control group (CT). The CMS group was exposed to a series of mild, unpredictable stressors for 7 wk. Mice in the CMS group show a significant decrease in protein expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and exhibit depression-like behavioral changes, such as learned helplessness and decreased exploration behavior, as compared with the control group. Although cardiac function remained unchanged between the groups, echocardiography analysis showed slightly increased left ventricular wall thickness in the CMS group. Furthermore, the CMS group shows an increase in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and an associated decrease in BDNF protein expression and increase in IL-6 mRNA expression, when compared with control mice. GAG disaccharide analysis of the left ventricles of the CMS and CT mice revealed an elevation in heparan (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) content in the CMS hearts (35.3% and 17.9%, respectively, vs. control group). Furthermore, we also observed that unsulfated or monosulfated disaccharides were the most abundant units; however, we did not find any significant difference in mole percent or sulfation pattern of HS/CS disaccharides between the groups. The current investigation highlights a need for further research to explore the relationship between cardiac GAGs biology and myocardial remodeling as a causal mechanism that underlie cardiovascular complications in patients with MDD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Comorbidity between depression and CVD is well established, whereas its etiology, especially the role of nonfibrous components (proteoglycans/GAGs) of the extracellular matrix, is unexplored. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize cardiac proteoglycan/glycosaminoglycan profile in response to depression-like behavioral changes in mice. We observed that chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression-like behavior and alterations in glycosaminoglycan profile were associated with structural changes in the heart.


Assuntos
Depressão/metabolismo , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Depressão/patologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/patologia
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