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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817646

RESUMO

Parental high-fat diet (HFD) programs for obesity and hypertension in female offspring in rats, but it is unknown how the pregnancies of these offspring are impacted. Therefore, the hypothesis was tested that parental HFD exaggerates obesity and hypertension during pregnancy of the offspring. Wistar Hannover rat dams (the parental, P generation) were maintained on normal-fat diet (NFD) or HFD from weaning and were kept on respective diets through pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring (the first filial, F1 generation) were weaned onto the same diet as the P generation, or they were changed to the other diet to determine if combined HFD in the P and F1 generations exaggerates body weight and blood pressure levels during pregnancy in these offspring. This diet paradigm resulted in the following groups of pregnant F1 offspring: P-NFD/F1-NFD, P-HFD/F1-NFD, P-NFD/F1-HFD, and P-HFD/F1-HFD. Maternal body and adipose tissue weights were greatest in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group compared to the other 3 groups by the end of pregnancy. Plasma leptin and conscious mean arterial blood pressure were not significantly different between any group, although there was a main effect for increased blood pressure in the F1-HFD groups. Circulating levels of the antihypertensive pregnancy factor, placental growth factor (PlGF), were assessed. Although average PlGF levels were similar among all groups, correlative studies revealed that lower levels of PlGF were associated with higher blood pressure only in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group. In summary, HFD feeding from the P generation exaggerated HFD-induced body and adipose tissue weights in the pregnant offspring.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Desmame
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003196, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency, caused by mutations in MC4R, is the most common cause of monogenic forms of obesity. However, these mutations have often been identified in small-scale, case-focused studies. Here, we assess the penetrance of previously reported MC4R mutations at a population level. Furthermore, we examine why some carriers of pathogenic mutations remain of normal weight, to gain insight into the mechanisms that control body weight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 59 known obesity-increasing mutations in MC4R from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and Clinvar. We assessed their penetrance and effect on obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) in >450,000 individuals (age 40-69 years) of the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort study. Of these 59 mutations, only 11 had moderate-to-high penetrance and increased the odds of obesity by more than 2-fold. We subsequently focused on these 11 mutations and examined differences between carriers of normal weight and carriers with obesity. Twenty-eight of the 182 carriers of these 11 mutations were of normal weight. Body composition of carriers of normal weight was similar to noncarriers of normal weight, whereas among individuals with obesity, carriers had a somewhat higher BMI than noncarriers (1.44 ± 0.07 standard deviation scores [SDSs] ± standard error [SE] versus 1.29 ± 0.001, P = 0.03), because of greater lean mass (1.44 ± 0.09 versus 1.15 ± 0.002, P = 0.002). Carriers of normal weight more often reported that, already at age 10 years, their body size was below average or average (72%) compared with carriers with obesity (48%) (P = 0.01). To assess the polygenic contribution to body weight in carriers of normal weight and carriers with obesity, we calculated a genome-wide polygenic risk score for BMI (PRSBMI). The PRSBMI of carriers of normal weight (PRSBMI = -0.64 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than of carriers with obesity (0.40 ± 0.11; P = 1.7 × 10-6), and tended to be lower than that of noncarriers of normal weight (-0.29 ± 0.003; P = 0.05). Among carriers, those with a low PRSBMI (bottom quartile) have an approximately 5-kg/m2 lower BMI (approximately 14 kg of body weight for a 1.7-m-tall person) than those with a high PRS (top quartile). Because the UK Biobank population is healthier than the general population in the United Kingdom, penetrance may have been somewhat underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that large-scale data are needed to validate the impact of mutations observed in small-scale and case-focused studies. Furthermore, we observed that despite the key role of MC4R in obesity, the effects of pathogenic MC4R mutations may be countered, at least in part, by a low polygenic risk potentially representing other innate mechanisms implicated in body weight regulation.


Assuntos
Mutação , Obesidade/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Composição Corporal/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Reino Unido
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15748-15754, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571943

RESUMO

Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and lifespan constrain animal life histories, leading to evolutionary diversification of life history cycles in different environments. In female mammals, gestation and lactation are expected to impose the major costs of reproduction, driving reproductive trade-offs, although mating also requires interactions with males that could themselves influence life history. Here we show that a male's presence by itself leads to lifelong alterations in life history in female mice. Housing C57BL/6J female mice with sterilized males early in life led to an increase in body weight, an effect that persisted across life even when females were later allowed to produce pups. We found that those females previously housed with sterile males also showed enhanced late-life offspring production when allowed to reproduce, indicating that earlier mating can influence subsequent fecundity. This effect was the opposite to that seen in females previously housed with intact males, which showed the expected trade-off between early-life and late-life reproduction. However, housing with a sterile male early in life came at a cost to lifespan, which was observed in the absence of females ever undergoing fertilization. Endocrinologically, mating also permanently reduced the concentration of circulating prolactin, a pituitary hormone influencing maternal care. Changes in hormone axes that influence reproduction could therefore help alter life history allocation in response to opposite-sex stimuli. Our results demonstrate that mating itself can increase growth and subsequent fecundity in mammals, and that responses to sexual stimuli could account for some lifespan trade-offs normally attributed to pregnancy and lactation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Lactação , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 524-533, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The TaqI A1 polymorphism (rs1800497; T>C) downstream of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene has been associated with diminished DRD2 receptor density, higher food reinforcement, and impaired eating behavior in adults. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the association between the rs1800497 polymorphism and the reinforcing value of food and eating in the absence of hunger in Chilean children. MATERIAL AND METHOD: nineteen Chilean children (aged 8-12 years) who were carriers of the A1-allele and 19 age- and gender-matched non-carriers (A2-allele) were evaluated on the reinforcing value of food and eating in the absence of hunger. Anthropometric measures were performed by standard procedures. Briefly, children received a standard pre-load lunch followed by an ad-libitum exposure to palatable foods. RESULTS: no differences were found between A1-allele carriers and non-carriers, whether obese or non-obese, in ad libitum energy intake, macronutrient consumption, or the relative reinforcing value of food (p > 0.05). In obese children, A1 carriers reported significantly lower satiety and fullness before lunch (p < 0.05). However, in children with normal weight A1 carriers were found to exhibit trends for greater satiety and fullness before lunch when compared to non-carriers, but this trend reversed after lunch such that carriers exhibited lower satiety and fullness (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: although TaqI A1 may play an important role in some eating behavior-related traits such as satiety and fullness, especially in obese children, our findings indicate that this polymorphism does not appear to affect eating in the absence of hunger or food reinforcement in children


ANTECEDENTES: los alimentos son un poderoso reforzador de la alimentación. El polimorfismo TaqI A1 (rs1800497; T> C) del gen del receptor 2 de dopamina (DRD2) se ha asociado con una menor densidad de DRD2, un mayor refuerzo alimentario y un comportamiento alimentario alterado en adultos. OBJETIVO: evaluar la asociación entre el polimorfismo rs1800497, el valor reforzador del alimento y la conducta de comer en ausencia de hambre en niños chilenos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: treinta y ocho niños chilenos, 19 portadores del alelo A1 y 19 no portadores (alelo A2), pareados por género y edad, fueron evaluados en condiciones de laboratorio para determinar el valor reforzador del alimento y la conducta de comer en ausencia de hambre. Las mediciones antropométricas se realizaron por procedimientos estándar. Brevemente, los niños recibieron un almuerzo estándar seguido de una exposición ad-libitum a alimentos sabrosos. RESULTADOS: no hubo diferencias en la ingesta ad libitum de energía, ni en el consumo de macronutrientes, ni en el valor reforzador del alimento entre los portadores del alelo A1 frente a los no portadores (p > 0,05). Entre los niños obesos, los portadores del alelo A1 reportaron un menor nivel de saciedad y plenitud pre-almuerzo (p < 0,05). Sin embargo, entre los niños con normopeso se observó que los portadores de A1 tenían tendencia a presentar un mayor grado de saciedad y plenitud (pre-almuerzo) frente a los no portadores. Esta tendencia se invirtió post-almuerzo, de modo que los portadores exhibieron menor saciedad y plenitud (p = 0,06). CONCLUSIONES: la variante TaqI A1 podría desempeñar un papel importante en algunos rasgos relacionados con la conducta alimentaria, como la saciedad y la plenitud


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Fome/fisiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/genética , Obesidade/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Chile , Variação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Antropometria , Peso Corporal/genética , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234803, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544202

RESUMO

The genetic bases of growth and body weight are of economic and scientific interest, and teleost fish models have proven useful in such investigations. The Oryzias latipes species complex (medaka) is an abundant freshwater fish in Japan and suitable for genetic studies. We compared two wild medaka stocks originating from different latitudes. The Maizuru population from higher latitudes weighed more than the Ginoza population. We investigated the genetic basis of body weight, using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the F2 offspring of these populations. We detected one statistically significant QTL for body weight on medaka chromosome 4 and identified 12 candidate genes that might be associated with body weight or growth. Nine of these 12 genes had at least one single nucleotide polymorphism that caused amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions, and we estimated the effects of these substitutions. The present findings might contribute to the marker-assisted selection of economically important aquaculture species.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Variação Genética , Oryzias/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Oryzias/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alinhamento de Sequência
6.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 34, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pasteurellosis (Pasteurella infection) is one of the most common bacterial infections in rabbits on commercial farms and in laboratory facilities. Curative treatments using antibiotics are only partly efficient, with frequent relapses. Breeding rabbits for improved genetic resistance to pasteurellosis is a sustainable alternative approach. In this study, we infected 964 crossbred rabbits from six sire lines experimentally with Pasteurella multocida. After post-mortem examination and bacteriological analyses, abscess, bacteria, and resistance scores were derived for each rabbit based on the extent of lesions and bacterial dissemination in the body. This is the first study to use such an experimental design and response traits to measure resistance to pasteurellosis in a rabbit population. We investigated the genetic variation of these traits in order to identify potential selection criteria. We also estimated genetic correlations of resistance to pasteurellosis in the experimental population with traits that are under selection in the breeding populations (number of kits born alive and weaning weight). RESULTS: Heritability estimates for the novel response traits, abscess, bacteria, and resistance scores, ranged from 0.08 (± 0.05) to 0.16 (± 0.06). The resistance score showed very strong negative genetic correlation estimates with abscess (- 0.99 ± 0.05) and bacteria scores (- 0.98 ± 0.07). A very high positive genetic correlation of 0.99 ± 0.16 was estimated between abscess and bacteria scores. Estimates of genetic correlations of the resistance score with average daily gain traits for the first and second week after inoculation were 0.98 (± 0.06) and 0.70 (± 0.14), respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of the disease-related traits with average daily gain pre-inoculation were favorable but with high standard errors. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations of the disease-related traits with commercial selection traits were not significantly different from zero. CONCLUSIONS: Disease response traits are heritable and are highly correlated with each other, but do not show any significant genetic correlations with commercial selection traits. Thus, the prevalence of pasteurellosis could be decreased by selecting more resistant rabbits on any one of the disease response traits with a limited impact on the selection traits, which would allow implementation of a breeding program to improve resistance to pasteurellosis in rabbits.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Infecções por Pasteurella/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Pasteurella/genética , Pasteurella/patogenicidade , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Coelhos , Desmame
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348410

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate variance components for performance and carcass traits in a paternal broiler line. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method applied to the animal model, including the fixed effect of group (sex and hatch) and additive genetic and residual as random effects. Estimated heritability for performance traits ranged from 0.09 to 0.42. The genetic correlations between traits ranged from -0.50 to 0.97. The heritability estimates of feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion from 35 to 41 days of age were of low magnitude. The genetic correlations among them were favorable to genetic selection. These results suggest that moderate genetic gain can be obtained to the feed intake and weight gain when the selection criterion is the body weight and prime cuts traits. The feed conversion that had low heritability estimation and low genetic correlation with the body weight and prime cut traits needs to pay greater attention due to the economic importance in the high-meat production lineage breeding programs.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Ganho de Peso/genética
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309860

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have shown that quantitative trait loci (QTLs) at the end of chromosome 1 identified in different chicken breeds and populations exert significant effects on growth traits in chickens. Nevertheless, the causal genes underlying the QTL effect remain poorly understood. Using an updated gene database, a novel lncRNA (named LncFAM) was found at the end of chromosome 1 and located in a growth and digestion QTL. This study showed that the expression level of LncFAM in pancreas tissues with a high weight was significantly higher than that in pancreas tissues with a low weight, which indicates that the expression level of LncFAM was positively correlated with various growth phenotype indexes, such as growth speed and body weight. A polymorphism screening identified four polymorphisms with strong linkage disequilibrium in LncFAM: a 5-bp indel in the second exon, an A/G base mutation, and 7-bp and 97-bp indels in the second intron. A study of a 97-bp insertion in the second intron using an F2 chicken resource population produced by Anka and Gushi chickens showed that the mutant individuals with genotype II had the highest values for body weight (BW) at 0 days and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks, shank girth (SG) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, chest width (CW) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, body slant length (BSL) at 8 and 12 weeks, and pelvic width (PW) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, followed by ID and DD genotypes. The amplification and typing of 2,716 chickens from ten different breeds, namely, the F2 chicken resource population, dual-type chickens, including Xichuan black-bone chickens, Lushi green-shell layers, Dongxiang green-shell layers, Changshun green-shell layers, and Gushi chickens, and commercial broilers, including Ross 308, AA, Cobb and Hubbard broilers, revealed that II was the dominant genotype. Interestingly, only genotype II existed among the tested populations of commercial broilers. Moreover, the expression level in the pancreas tissue of Ross 308 chickens was significantly higher than that in the pancreas tissue of Gushi chickens (P < 0.001), which might be related to the conversion rates among different chickens. The prediction and verification of the target gene of LncFAM showed that LncFAM might regulate the expression of its target gene FAM48A through cis-expression. Our results provide useful information on the mutation of LncFAM, which can be used as a potential molecular breeding marker.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Fenótipo
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323457

RESUMO

Direct selection for litter size or weight at weaning in pigs is often hindered by external interventions such as cross-fostering. The objective of this study was to infer the causal structure among phenotypes of reproductive traits in pigs to enable subsequent direct selection for these traits. Examined traits included: number born alive (NBA), litter size on day 21 (LS21), and litter weight on day 21 (LW21). The study included 6,240 litters from 1,673 Landrace dams and 5,393 litters from 1,484 Large White dams. The inductive causation (IC) algorithm was used to infer the causal structure, which was then fitted to a structural equation model (SEM) to estimate causal coefficients and genetic parameters. Based on the IC algorithm and temporal and biological information, the causal structure among traits was identified as: NBA â†’ LS21 â†’ LW21 and NBA â†’ LW21. Owing to the causal effect of NBA on LS21 and LW21, the genetic, permanent environmental, and residual variances of LS21 and LW21were much lower in the SEM than in the multiple-trait model for both breeds. Given the strong effect of NBA on LS21 and LW21, the SEM and causal information might assist with selective breeding for LS21 and LW21 when cross-fostering occurs.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodução/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Variação Genética , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5354-5365, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331897

RESUMO

The rate at which new traits are being developed is increasing, leading to an expanding number of evaluations provided to dairy producers, especially for functional traits. This review will discuss the development and implementation of genetic evaluations for direct health traits in the United States, as well as potential future developments. Beginning in April 2018, routine official genomic evaluations for 6 direct health traits in Holsteins were made available to US producers from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (Bowie, MD). Traits include resistance to milk fever, displaced abomasum, ketosis, clinical mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta. These health traits were included in net merit indices beginning in August 2018, with a total weight of approximately 2%. Previously, improvement of cow health was primarily made through changes to management practices or genetic selection on indicator traits, such as somatic cell score, productive life, or livability. Widespread genomic testing now allows for accelerated improvement of traits with low heritabilities such as health; however, phenotypes remain essential to the success of genomic evaluations. Establishment and maintenance of data pipelines is a critical component of health trait evaluations, as well as appropriate data quality control standards. Data standardization is a necessary process when multiple data sources are involved. Model refinement continues, including implementation of variance adjustments beginning with the April 2019 evaluation. Mastitis evaluations are submitted to Interbull along with somatic cell score for international validation and evaluation of udder health. Additional areas of research include evaluation of other breeds for direct health traits, use of multiple-trait models, and evaluations for additional functional traits such as calf health and feed efficiency. Future developments will require new and continued cooperation among numerous industry stakeholders. There is more information available than ever before with which to make better selection decisions; however, this also makes it increasingly important to provide accurate and unbiased information.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Nível de Saúde , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Cetose/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Fenótipo , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Gastropatias/veterinária , Estados Unidos
11.
Gene ; 743: 144600, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217139

RESUMO

Exploring molecular markers related to economic traits of livestock is of great significance to breeding. Long-chain fatty acid COA synthetase (ACSL) plays a crucial role in lipid synthesis and metabolism, which may affect animal growth. This study was to investigate the polymorphism of ACSL gene and its association with the growth trait of the donkey. Three insertions and two deletions were detected on the introns of ACSL3 gene in 450 Dezhou donkeys using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After that, linkage disequilibrium analysis found that there was a strong linkage among ACSL3 gene loci in Dezhou donkey. Association analysis of growth traits showed that ACSL3-1, ACSL3-2, ACSL3-3, and ACSL3-4 loci were significantly associated with body weight and other growth traits (P < 0.05). Furthermore, five high frequency haplotypes were identified in Dezhou donkey, and haplotype combination analysis showed that among the first three high-frequency combinations, the low-frequency Hap3Hap3 (II-DD-II-DD-DD) homozygous haplotype combination was lower than the other two groups (Hap1Hap1, Hap5Hap5) in the chest width and chest depth (P < 0.05) of the female. Conclusively, the results of this study indicated that the polymorphisms in ACSL3 gene can be used as molecular markers to participate in donkey breeding.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Equidae/genética , Haplótipos , Animais , Cruzamento , Equidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Íntrons/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1023-1032, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170649

RESUMO

Separation of autosomal and sex-linked direct additive genetic effects has significant role in sheep breeding programs. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the genetic parameters of autosomal and sex-linked effects for growth traits of Zandi sheep. The data set used in this study contained 7571 Zandi lambs, descendent of 220 sires and 1481 dams, which were collected from Zandi sheep breeding Station at Khojir, Tehran, Iran from 1992 to 2011. The fixed effects included of year (20 classes), season (winter and spring), sex (male or female), birth type (single or twin), and the age of dam (seven classes, 2-8 years old). The data were analyzed using REML methodology by WOMBAT software. In the most appropriate fitted model, based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the values of direct autosomal heritabilities of birth weight (BW), kleiber ratio at weaning (KR), 6-month weight (6MW), and 9-month weight (9MW) were 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.29 ± 0.05, 0.14 ± 0.04, and 0.15 ± 0.04, respectively. Furthermore, weaning weight (WW), average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADG), and 12-month weight (12 MW) showed the values of 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.22 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.03, and 0.15 ± 0.05 and 0.18 ± 0.05, respectively. Based on the best models through all traits, estimates of the direct sex-linked heritability ranged from 0.0 (WW, ADG, KR, and 6MW) to 0.02 ± 0.03 (12MW). The average of autosomal and sex-linked breeding values (BVs) of body growth traits except KR (for autosomal) and 9MW and 12MW (for sex-linked) were greater than zero. The Pearson's/Spearman's correlation coefficients varied between 0.344 and 0.599/0.30 and 0.61 for autosomal and sex-linked BVs. Direct autosomal and sex-linked additive correlations for growth traits were ranged from - 0.02 (BW-KR) to 0.98 (WW-ADG) and 0.04 (KR-9 MW) to 0.99 (WW-ADG), respectively. Our results revealed that the genetic parameters related to growth traits in Zandi sheep could be more useful in selection strategies.


Assuntos
Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Ganho de Peso/genética
13.
Radiat Res ; 193(6): 552-559, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150496

RESUMO

In this work, we utilized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wister Kyoto rats (WKY), from which the SHR was established, to evaluate the effects of whole-body acute radiation on the cardiovascular system at doses from 0 to 4 Gy. In the irradiated SHR, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased with increasing dose, while body weight gain decreased with increasing radiation dose. Furthermore, pathological observations of SHR demonstrated that the number of rats with cystic degeneration in the liver increased with increasing dose. The effects observed among SHR, such as increased SBP and retardation of body weight gain, appear very similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. In contrast, the SBP among WKY did not change relative to dose; the body weight, however, did change, as in the SHR. Therefore, the association between radiation exposure and SBP, but not between radiation exposure and retardation of body weight gain, may be affected by genetic background, as evident from strain difference. These results suggest that the SHR and WKY animal models may be useful for studying radiation effects on non-cancer diseases including circulatory diseases, chronic liver disease and developmental retardation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos da radiação , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/efeitos da radiação , Patrimônio Genético , Animais , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
14.
Gene ; 736: 144420, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007585

RESUMO

Leptin has been proved to play critical roles in energy metabolism, body weight regulation, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its roles are still largely unclear in fish. Here, we report two leptin genes (lepA and lepB) from the Northern snakehead (Channa argus) and their transcriptions in response to different feeding status. The snakehead lepA is 781 bp in length and contains a 480 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 159-aa protein, while the snakehead lepB is 553 bp in length and contains a 477 bp ORF encoding a 158-aa protein. Multi-sequences alignment, three-dimensional (3D) model prediction, syntenic and genomic comparison, and phylogenetic analysis confirm two leptin genes are widely existing in teleost. Tissue distribution revealed that the two leptin genes exhibit different patterns. In a post-prandial experiment, the hepatic lepA and brain lepB showed a similar transcription pattern. In a long-term (2-week) fasting and refeeding experiment, the hepatic lepA and brain lepB showed a similar transcription change pattern induced by food deprivation stimulation but differential changes after refeeding. These findings suggest snakehead lepA and lepB are differential both in tissue distribution and molecular functions, and they might play as an important regulator in energy metabolism and food intake in fish, respectively.


Assuntos
Jejum/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Peixes/genética , Leptina/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Peso Corporal/genética , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Distribuição Tecidual/genética
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1209-1215, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029150

RESUMO

Adult myoblasts, satellite cells, will proliferate, and differentiate into myotubes in vitro. However, changes in environmental and nutritional conditions will result in the satellite cells differentiating into adipocyte-like cells synthesizing lipids. Prior research has shown that levels of N-glycosylation and heparan sulfate can promote or prevent the adipogenic conversion of myogenic satellite cells. Syndecan-4, an N-glycosylated heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has been shown to play key roles in satellite cell proliferation and migration. The objective of the current study was to determine if syndecan-4, and syndecan-4 N-glycosylation and heparan sulfate chain levels altered the conversion of satellite cells to an adipogenic cell fate and if growth selection affected the response of the satellite cells. Over-expression of syndecan-4, syndecan-4 without N-glycosylated chains but with its heparan sulfate chains attached, syndecan-4 without heparan sulfate chains with its N-glycosylation chains, and syndecan-4 without N-glycosylation and heparan sulfate chains was measured for lipid accumulation in pectoralis major muscle satellite cells isolated from the Randombred Control line 2 (RBC2) and 16 wk body weight (F line) turkeys. The F line was selected from the RBC2 line for only 16 wk body weight. Results from this study demonstrated that wild type levels of syndecan-4 and its covalently attached N-glycosylation chains play a key role in regulating the conversion of pectoralis major muscle satellite cells to an adipogenic lineage while selection for body weight was not a major contributing factor in this conversion.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Sindecana-4/metabolismo , Perus/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Animais , Glicosilação , Masculino , Perus/genética
16.
Behav Genet ; 50(2): 127-138, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040643

RESUMO

The univariate bootstrap is a relatively recently developed version of the bootstrap (Lee and Rodgers in Psychol Methods 3(1): 91, 1998). DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis is a regression model used to estimate parameters in behavioral genetic models (DeFries and Fulker in Behav Genet 15(5): 467-473, 1985). It is appealing for its simplicity; however, it violates certain regression assumptions such as homogeneity of variance and independence of errors that make calculation of standard errors and confidence intervals problematic. Methods have been developed to account for these issues (Kohler and Rodgers in Behav Genet 31(2): 179-191, 2001), however the univariate bootstrap represents a unique means of doing so that is presaged by suggestions from previous DF research (e.g., Cherny et al. in Behav Genet 22(2): 153-162, 1992). In the present study we use simulations to examine the performance of the univariate bootstrap in the context of DF analysis. We compare a number of possible bootstrap schemes as well as more traditional confidence interval methods. We follow up with an empirical demonstration, applying results of the simulation to models estimated to investigate changes in body mass index in adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão , Meio Social , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2442-2459, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954564

RESUMO

There is considerable interest in improving feed utilization of dairy cattle while limiting losses to the environment (i.e., greenhouse gases, GHG). To breed for feed-efficient or climate-friendly cattle, it is first necessary to obtain accurate estimates of genetic parameters and correlations of feed intake, greenhouse gases, and production traits. Reducing dry matter take (DMI) requirements while maintaining production has high economic value to farmers, but DMI is costly to record and thus limited to small research or nucleus herds. Conversely, enteric methane (CH4) currently has no economic value, is also costly to record, and is limited to small experimental trials. However, breath gas concentrations of methane (CH4c) and carbon dioxide (CO2c) are relatively cheap to measure at high throughput under commercial conditions by installing sniffers in automated milking stations. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic correlations between DMI, body weight (BW), fat- and protein-corrected milk yield (FPCM), and GHG-related traits: CH4c and CO2c from Denmark (DNK) and the Netherlands (NLD). A second objective was to assess the genetic potential for improving feed efficiency and the added benefits of using CH4c and CO2c as indicators. Feed intake data were available on 703 primiparous cows in DNK and 524 in NLD; CH4c and CO2c records were available on 434 primiparous cows in DNK and 656 in NLD. The GHG-related traits were heritable (e.g., CH4c h2: DNK = 0.26, NLD = 0.15) but were differentially genetically correlated with DMI and feed efficiency in both magnitude and sign, depending on the population and the definition of feed efficiency. Across feed efficiency traits and DMI, having bulls with 100 daughters with FPCM, BW, and GHG traits resulted in sufficiently high accuracy to almost negate the need for DMI records. Despite differences in genetic correlation structure, the relatively cheap GHG-related traits showed considerable potential for improving the accuracy of breeding values of highly valuable feed intake and feed efficiency traits.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Testes Respiratórios , Bovinos/fisiologia , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Lactação/genética , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Dinamarca , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Leite , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Países Baixos , Fenótipo
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2477-2486, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954583

RESUMO

Genomic selection is an important tool to introduce feed efficiency into dairy cattle breeding. The goals of the current research are to estimate genomic breeding values of residual feed intake (RFI) and to assess the prediction reliability for RFI in the US Holstein population. The RFI data were collected from 4,823 lactations of 3,947 Holstein cows in 9 research herds in the United States, and were pre-adjusted to remove phenotypic correlations with milk energy, metabolic body weight, body weight change, and for several environmental effects. In the current analyses, genomic predicted transmitting abilities of milk energy and of body weight composite were included into the RFI model to further remove the genetic correlations that remained between RFI and these energy sinks. In the first part of the analyses, a national genomic evaluation for RFI was conducted for all the Holsteins in the national database using a standard multi-step genomic evaluation method and 60,671 SNP list. In the second part of the study, a single-step genomic prediction method was applied to estimate genomic breeding values of RFI for all cows with phenotypes, 5,252 elite young bulls, 4,029 young heifers, as well as their ancestors in the pedigree, using a high-density genotype chip. Theoretical prediction reliabilities were calculated for all the studied animals in the single-step genomic prediction by direct inversion of the mixed model equations. In the results, breeding values were estimated for 1.6 million genotyped Holsteins and 60 million ungenotyped Holsteins, The genomic predicted transmitting ability correlations between RFI and other traits in the index (e.g., fertility) are generally low, indicating minor correlated responses on other index traits when selecting for RFI. Genomic prediction reliabilities for RFI averaged 34% for all phenotyped animals and 13% for all 1.6 million genotyped animals. Including genomic information increased the prediction reliabilities for RFI compared with using only pedigree information. All bulls had low reliabilities, and averaged to only 16% for the top 100 net merit progeny-tested bulls. Analyses using single-step genomic prediction and high-density genotypes gave similar results to those obtained from the national evaluation. The average theoretical reliability for RFI was 18% among the elite young bulls under 5 yr old, being lower in the younger generations of elite bulls compared with older bulls. To conclude, the size of the reference population and its relationship to the predicted population remain as the limiting factors in the genomic prediction for RFI. Continued collection of feed intake data is necessary so that reliabilities can be maintained due to close relationships of phenotyped animals with breeding stock. Considering the currently low prediction reliability and high cost of data collection, focusing RFI data collection on relatives of elite bulls that will have the greatest genetic contribution to the next generation will give more gains and profit.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Genoma , Lactação , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990923

RESUMO

Growth is dependent on genotype and diet, even at early developmental stages. In this study, we investigated the effects of genotype, sex, and body weight on the fetal muscle transcriptome of purebred Iberian and crossbred Iberian x Large White pigs sharing the same uterine environment. RNA sequencing was performed on 16 purebred and crossbred fetuses with high body weight (340±14g and 415±14g, respectively) and 16 with low body weight (246±14g and 311±14g, respectively), on gestational day 77. Genotype had the greatest effect on gene expression, with 645 genes identified as differentially expressed (DE) between purebred and crossbred animals. Functional analysis showed differential regulation of pathways involved in energy and lipid metabolism, muscle development, and tissue disorders. In purebred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 35 DE genes involved in development, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. In crossbred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 60 DE genes involved in muscle development, viability, and immunity. Interestingly, the results suggested an interaction genotype*weight for some DE genes. Fetal sex had only a modest effect on gene expression. This study allowed the identification of genes, metabolic pathways, biological functions and regulators related to fetal genotype, weight and sex, in animals sharing the same uterine environment. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events that influence prenatal muscle development and highlight the complex interactions affecting transcriptional regulation during development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Genótipo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Gravidez , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 107-121, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914628

RESUMO

The peptide kisspeptin and its receptor, Kiss1r, act centrally to stimulate reproduction. Evidence indicates that kisspeptin signaling is also important for body weight (BW) and metabolism. We recently reported that Kiss1r KO mice develop obesity, along with reduced metabolism and energy expenditure, independent of estradiol levels. Outside the brain, Kiss1r is expressed in several metabolic tissues, including brown adipose tissue (BAT), but it is unknown which specific tissue is responsible for the metabolic phenotype in Kiss1r KOs. We first determined that global Kiss1r KO mice have significant alterations in body temperature and BAT thermogenic gene expression, perhaps contributing to their obesity. Next, to test whether kisspeptin signaling specifically in BAT influences BW, metabolism, or body temperature, we used Cre/lox technology to generate conditional Kiss1r knockout exclusively in BAT (BAT-Kiss1r KO). Unlike global Kiss1r KOs, BAT-Kiss1r KOs (lacking Kiss1r in just BAT) were not hypogonadal, as expected. Surprisingly, however, BAT-Kiss1r KOs of both sexes displayed significantly lower BW and adiposity than controls. This novel BAT-Kiss1r KO phenotype was of greater magnitude in females and was associated with improved glucose tolerance, increased metabolism, energy expenditure, and locomotor activity, along with increased body temperature and BAT gene expression, specifically Cox8b. Our findings suggest that the previously observed obesity and decreased metabolism in global Kiss1r KOs reflect impaired kisspeptin signaling in non-BAT tissues. However, the novel finding of increased metabolism and body temperature and lower BW in BAT-Kiss1r KOs reveal a previously unidentified role for endogenous kisspeptin signaling in BAT in modulating metabolic and thermogenic physiology.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Genótipo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/genética
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