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1.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 771, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The important property of the quantitative traits of model organisms is time-dependent. However, the methodology for investigating the genetic interaction network over time is still lacking. Our study aims to provide insights into the mechanistic basis of epistatic interactions affecting the phenotypes of model organisms. RESULTS: We performed an exhaustive genome-wide search for significant SNP-SNP interactions associated with male birds' body weight (BW) (n = 475) at multiple time points (day of hatch (BW0) and 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks (BW1, BW3, BW5, and BW7)). Statistical analysis detected 67, four, and two significant SNP pairs associated with BW0, BW1, and BW3, respectively, with a significance threshold at 8.67 × 10- 12 (Bonferroni-adjusted: 1%). Meanwhile, no significant SNP pairs associated with BW5 and BW7 were found. The SNP-SNP interaction networks of BW0, BW1, and BW3 were built and annotated. CONCLUSIONS: With strong annotated information and a strict significant threshold, SNP-SNP interactions underpinned the gene-gene interactions that might occur between chromosomes or within the same chromosome. Comparing and combing the networks, the results indicated that the genetic network for chicken body weight was dynamic and time-dependent.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Epistasia Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Masculino , Fenótipo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472239

RESUMO

Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide synthesized in the eyestalk in crustaceans, is mainly responsible for the molting by negatively controlling the ecdysteroids secretion. Although there are several reports of the isolation and protein sequencing of MIH in the red swamp crayfish, little is known about the nucleotide sequence and gene organization of this neuropeptide, even less about the association of MIH polymorphisms and growth traits. Here, a 1237 bp full-length MIH cDNA was obtained from the crayfish eyestalk, which encodes a putative protein of 106 amino acids, with a 191 bp 5'-UTR and a 728 bp 3'-UTR. The MIH genomic DNA sequence is 4205 bp in length, which includes three exons interrupted by two introns, and a 929 bp 5'-flanking region. Potential transcription initiation site and transcription factor binding sites were identified in the 5'-flanking region, implying a potential role in transcriptional regulation. Seventeen SNPs in the 5'-flanking region and 3'-UTR were identified, and the associations between these SNPs and growth traits were evaluated with a two-stage design. A SNPs g. -12C > G that showed a significant association with body weight was identified. Individuals with GG genotype had a significantly higher body weight than those with CC genotype (43.98 ±â€¯9.82 g vs. 34.27 ±â€¯6.87 g; P ﹤ 0.001), indicating a beneficial effect of the G allele on the growth of red swamp crayfish. The obtained MIH gene, as well as the identified SNPs, may serve as targets for molecular marker-aided selection in growth improvement of the red swamp crayfish in future studies.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astacoidea/metabolismo , Hormônios de Invertebrado/genética , Hormônios de Invertebrado/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Astacoidea/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genótipo , Hormônios de Invertebrado/química
3.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 427-437, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk is inconsistent in the normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals due to the heterogeneity of metabolic status. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status on CKD risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge databases were systematically searched up to March 2019 to identify all eligible studies investigating the CKD risk (defined as GFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and/or microalbuminuria or proteinuria) associated with the body size phenotypes which are known as metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy overweight (MHOW), metabolically unhealthy overweight, metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO). The classification of subjects in included studies as metabolically unhealthy was based on the presence of three components of metabolic syndrome. BMI categorization was based on the criteria of included studies. The risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled using random effects analysis. RESULTS: A total of 9 prospective cohort studies with 128773 participants and 4797 incident cases were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with healthy normal-weight individuals as reference, MUNW and MHO subjects showed an increased risk for CKD events with a pooled RR of 1.58 (95% CI = 1.28-1.96) in MUNW and 1.55 (95% CI = 1.34-1.79) in MHO persons. Also, MHOW was at increased risk for CKD (RR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.20-1.51). MUHO individuals were at the highest risk for the development of CKD (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.66-2.72). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with metabolic abnormality, although at normal-weight, have an increased risk for CKD. Healthy overweight and obese individuals had higher risk; refuting the notion that metabolically healthy overweight and obese phenotypes are benign conditions.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fenótipo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Risco
4.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 38, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pig and poultry breeding programs aim at improving crossbred (CB) performance. Selection response may be suboptimal if only purebred (PB) performance is used to compute genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) because the genetic correlation between PB and CB performance ([Formula: see text]) is often lower than 1. Thus, it may be beneficial to use information on both PB and CB performance. In addition, the accuracy of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance may improve when the breed-of-origin of alleles (BOA) is considered in the genomic relationship matrix (GRM). Thus, our aim was to compare scenarios where GEBV are computed and validated by using (1) either CB offspring averages or individual CB records for validation, (2) either a PB or CB reference population, and (3) a GRM that either accounts for or ignores BOA in the CB individuals. For this purpose, we used data on body weight measured at around 7 (BW7) or 35 (BW35) days in PB and CB broiler chickens and evaluated the accuracy of GEBV based on the correlation GEBV with phenotypes in the validation population (validation correlation). RESULTS: With validation on CB offspring averages, the validation correlation of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance was lower with a CB reference population than with a PB reference population for BW35 ([Formula: see text] = 0.96), and about equal for BW7 ([Formula: see text] = 0.80) when BOA was ignored. However, with validation on individual CB records, the validation correlation was higher with a CB reference population for both traits. The use of a GRM that took BOA into account increased the validation correlation for BW7 but reduced it for BW35. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that the benefit of using a CB reference population for genomic prediction of PB animals for CB performance should be assessed either by validation on CB offspring averages, or by validation on individual CB records while using a GRM that accounts for BOA in the CB individuals. With this recommendation in mind, our results show that the accuracy of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance was equal to or higher with a CB reference population than with a PB reference population for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.8, but lower for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.96. In addition, taking BOA into account was beneficial for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.8 but not for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.96.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Galinhas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Valores de Referência
5.
Gene ; 717: 143987, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362037

RESUMO

To improve the accuracy and genetic progress of blue fox breeding, the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and growth and reproductive traits of the blue fox were investigated. MC4R, MC3R, INHA and INHBA were selected as candidate genes for molecular evolution and statistical analyses. Single-factor variance analyses showed that the MC4R (g.267C > T, g.423C > T, and g.731C > A) and MC3R (g.677C > T) genotypes had significant impacts on body weight, chest circumference, abdominal perimeter and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05) in blue fox. The MC4R and MC3R combined genotypes had significant effects on the body weight and abdominal circumference. The different genotypes of INHA g.75G > A had significant effects on female fecundity, whereas the different genotypes of INHBA g.404G > T and g.467G > T and the INHA and INHBA combined genotypes had significant effects on male fecundity. The proteins encoded by the open reading frames (ORFs) of different polymorphic loci were predicted and analysed. The aims of this study were to identify genetic markers related to growth and reproduction in the blue fox and to provide an efficient, economical and accurate theoretical approach for auxiliary fox breeding.


Assuntos
Raposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raposas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , China , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Raposas/fisiologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Subunidades beta de Inibinas/química , Subunidades beta de Inibinas/genética , Inibinas/química , Inibinas/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Mutação , Receptor Tipo 3 de Melanocortina/química , Receptor Tipo 3 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/química , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética
6.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 41, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at estimating genetic parameters of sex-influenced production traits, evaluating the impact of genotype-by-sex interaction, and identifying the selection criteria that could be included in multiple-trait genetic evaluation to increase the rate of genetic improvement in both sexes. To achieve this goal, we used 10 male and 10 female phenotypes, which were measured in a population of 2111 Australian Brahman cattle genotyped at high-density. RESULTS: Heritability estimates ranged from very low (0.03 ± 0.03 for cows' days to calving at first calving opportunity, DC1), to moderate (0.33 ± 0.08 for cows' adult body weight, AWTc), and to high (0.95 ± 0.07 for cows' hip height, HHc). Genetic correlation (rg) estimates between male and female homologous traits were favorable and ranged from moderate to high values, which indicate that selection for any of the traits in one sex would lead to a correlated response with the equivalent phenotype in the other sex. However, the estimated direct response was greater than the indirect response. Moreover, Pearson correlations between estimated breeding values obtained from each sex separately and from female and male homologous traits combined into a single trait in univariate analysis ranged from 0.74 to 0.99, which indicate that small ranking variation might appear if male and female traits are included as single or separate phenotypes. Genetic correlations between male growth and female reproductive traits were not significant, ranging from - 0.07 ± 0.13 to 0.45 ± 0.65. However, selection to improve HHc and AWTc in cows may reduce the percentage of normal sperm at 24 months of age (PNS24), possibly due to correlated effects in the same traits in males, which are related to late maturing animals. CONCLUSIONS: Hip height in cows and PNS24, as well as blood insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentration in bulls at 6 months of age are efficient selection criteria to improve male growth and female reproductive traits, simultaneously. In the presence of genotype-by-sex interactions, selection for traits in each sex results in high rates of genetic improvement, however, for the identification of animals with the highest breeding value, data for males and females may be considered a single trait.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Variação Genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Reprodução/genética
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7655-7663, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255263

RESUMO

Feed efficiency has been widely studied in many areas of dairy science and is currently seeing renewed interest in the field of breeding and genetics. A critical part of determining how efficiently an animal utilizes feed is accurately measuring individual dry matter (DM) intake. Currently, multiple methods are used to measure feed intake or determine the DM content of that feed, resulting in different levels of accuracy of measurement. Furthermore, the scale at which data need to be collected for use in genetic analyses makes some methodologies impractical. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of the current methodologies used to measure both feed intake in ruminants and DM content of feedstuffs, current methods to predict individual DM intake, and applications of large-scale intake measurements. Overall, advances in milk spectral data analysis present a promising method of estimating individual DM intake on a herd scale with further validation of prediction models. Although measurements of individual feed intake rely on the same underlying principle, the methods selected are largely dictated by the costs of capital, labor, and necessary analyses. Finally, DM methodologies were synthesized into a comprehensive protocol for use in a variety of feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Ração Animal/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/economia
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7277-7281, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202647

RESUMO

Greenhouse gases originating from the dairy sector, including methane (CH4), contribute to global warming. A possible strategy to reduce CH4 production is to use genetic selection. This requires genetic parameters for CH4 production and correlations with production traits. Data were available on 184 Holstein-Friesian cows. Methane production was measured in the milking robot during milking from December 2009 to April 2010. In total 2,456 observations for CH4 production were available. Milk yield (MY) and body weight (BW) were obtained at every milking from November 2008 to October 2010. In total 4,567 observations for milk yield and 4,570 observations for BW were available. Restricted maximum likelihood, using random regression models, was used to analyze the data. Heritability (standard error given in parentheses) for CH4 production ranged from 0.12 (0.16) to 0.45 (0.11), and genetic correlations with MY ranged from 0.49 (0.12) to 0.54 (0.26). The positive genetic correlation between CH4 production and milk yield indicates that care needs to be taken when genetically selecting for lower CH4 production, to avoid a decrease in MY at the animal level. However, this study shows that CH4 production is moderately heritable and therefore progress through genetic selection is possible.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Metano/biossíntese , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Hereditariedade , Lactação , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão
9.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(4): 366-372, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046426

RESUMO

1. In current breeding programmes, uniformity of end products and producing animals that are robust to environmental challenges are desirable. Several studies have provided evidence of the presence of genetic heterogeneity of residual variance and proposed that it could be possible to increase uniformity of livestock productions by selection. The present study aimed to define the micro environmental sensitivity of dual-purpose chickens for body weight at hatch. 2. The data set consisted of 24,321 female and 21,547 male chickens' records of hatch weight from 19 consecutive generations of Mazandaran fowl. The statistical analysis was carried out in a two-step approach: first, an animal model was fitted to the data and then, the impact of additive genetic effects on the residual variance of the studied trait was investigated. 3. The estimate of heritability for body weight at hatch was in the range of 0.23-0.25 for female and 0.14-0.16 for male offspring, respectively. The proportion of maternal environmental variance to phenotypic variance ranged from 0.24 to 0.27 for female and 0.17 to 0.24 for male offspring. Heritabilities in females were higher than males. Estimates of the heritability of residual variance ranged between 0.067 and 0.090. The genetic coefficients of variation were high ranging between 0.83 and 0.86. Genetic correlations between hatch weight and its residual variance estimates from bivariate analysis were -0.39 and -0.44 in females and males, respectively. 4. The results suggest that there is an opportunity to simultaneously improve body weight and the uniformity of body weight by selecting for lower residual variance in native chickens.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 151: 169-176, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004671

RESUMO

AIMS: Glucose tolerance normalizes postpartum in most women with gestational diabetes (GDM), which may provide false reassurance and decrease weight-reducing behaviours. We evaluated whether awareness of normal postpartum glucose tolerance was associated with higher weight retention than being unaware of glucose tolerance. METHODS: This cohort study of women with GDM collected survey data during pregnancy and in the first and second postpartum year. We compared women who reported normal glucose tolerance ('aware, normal') in the first year to those reporting no testing or unsure of results ('unaware'). The primary outcome was self-reported weight in the second year compared between groups using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Among 319 women, 110 (34.5%) were 'aware, normal'; 183 (57.4%) were 'unaware'; and 26 (8.2%) were 'aware, abnormal'. After adjusting for baseline weight and covariates, women with normal results had a mean 3.66 kg higher weight (CI 1.08-6.24 kg, p = 0.0056) by the second year than those unaware of results. CONCLUSIONS: Women with GDM with normal postpartum glucose tolerance had significantly higher weight by the second year than those unaware of their results. Normal glucose tolerance after pregnancy may be misinterpreted as resolution of diabetes risk and decrease risk-reducing behaviours.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Appl Genet ; 60(2): 199-207, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997664

RESUMO

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) regulates many key developmental processes during vertebrate limb development, fat formation, and skeletal tissue regeneration. Current whole genome sequencing data have identified a copy number variation mapping to bovine Sonic Hedgehog gene (SHH-CNV). The object of this study was to characterize the SHH-CNV distributions in 648 individuals from 11 Chinese cattle populations and further to investigate the associations of the copy number changes with gene expression and cattle growth traits. The SHH-CNV showed a high variance within Chinese indigenous yellow cattle. Compared to yak and dairy cattle, the beef cattle like Luxi and Xianan breed had significantly higher median copy numbers, suggesting the diversity of SHH-CNV in beef cattle selections. The negative correlation of SHH-CNV with SHH transcriptional level in adult adipose tissue (P < 0.01) indicated the dosage effects of SHH-CNV related to bovine fat formation. Association analysis of SHH-CNV and body size traits was conducted in five breeds. The results revealed that the copy number gain type of SHH-CNV exhibited significantly better chest depth in 24 months old Qinchuan cattle, and better body weight, body length, and chest girth in 18 months old Nanyang cattle, whereas the normal copy number had superior chest girth and body weight in adult Jinnan cattle (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In summary, this research uncovered meaningful effects of SHH-CNV on gene expression and cattle phenotypic traits, indicating its potential applications for genetic improvement of beef cattle.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carne Vermelha
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 1987-1995, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877764

RESUMO

Danish and European legislation recommend mink breeding programs that include selection for "confidence," defined as exploratory activity in a standardized behavioral test. Although this recommendation may improve mink welfare, farmers may consider this criterion risky due to possible negative consequences on other traits. The overall objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of exploratory/fearful behavior and to identify genetic correlations with other traits of major economic importance in mink fur production. Various aspects of social influence on exploratory/fearful behavior, such as effects of the mother and litter siblings before weaning, the mother's age, and cage mates after weaning, were analyzed. In total, 26,371 1-yr-old Brown mink (Neovison vison) individuals born during the period of 2013 to2016 were included in the study. Exploratory/fearful behavior was the main trait analyzed. The production traits analyzed were live pelt quality and body weight. Both of these traits were assessed during live grading in November. Pelt length and quality were determined using the dried pelts of nonbreeders. Fertility data were obtained from the Fur Farm database. Linear mixed models were run using the restricted maximum-likelihood method. The genetic correlation between female and male behavior was 0.95 (SE = 0.06), indicating similar genetic backgrounds for both sexes (P = 0.40). For both sexes, the estimated heritability of behavior was 0.19 (SE = 0.03). We found no significant genetic correlation between behavior and production/fertility traits (P > 0.05). Common litter variance indicated a preweaning effect of litter mates and/or dam on postweaning temperament. There was a tendency for offspring from older mothers to explore more than offspring from 1-yr-old mothers. This trend was especially pronounced for males of 2-yr-old mothers (P = 0.05) and females of 4-yr-old mothers (P = 0.06). We conclude that confidence may be selected for among farm mink without detrimental effects on economically important production traits, such as pelt quality and fertility.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Fertilidade/genética , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Vison/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Fazendas , Feminino , Masculino , Vison/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vison/fisiologia , Parto/genética , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Temperamento , Desmame
13.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 507-516, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842678

RESUMO

Quantitative changes in leptin concentration lead to alterations in food intake and body weight, but the regulatory mechanisms that control leptin gene expression are poorly understood. Here we report that fat-specific and quantitative leptin expression is controlled by redundant cis elements and trans factors interacting with the proximal promoter together with a long noncoding RNA (lncOb). Diet-induced obese mice lacking lncOb show increased fat mass with reduced plasma leptin levels and lose weight after leptin treatment, whereas control mice do not. Consistent with this finding, large-scale genetic studies of humans reveal a significant association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region of human lncOb with lower plasma leptin levels and obesity. These results show that reduced leptin gene expression can lead to a hypoleptinemic, leptin-responsive form of obesity and provide a framework for elucidating the pathogenic mechanism in the subset of obese patients with low endogenous leptin levels.


Assuntos
Leptina/genética , Obesidade/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leptina/metabolismo , Leptina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 28, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan acting as a co-receptor for cytokines and growth factors mediating developmental, immunological and angiogenic processes. In human, the uteroplacental localization of Syndecan-1 and its reduced expression in pregnancy-associated pathologies, such as the intrauterine growth restriction, suggests an influence of Syndecan-1 in embryo-maternal interactions. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of a reduced expression of Syndecan-1 on the reproductive phenotype of mice and their progenies. METHODS: Reproductive characteristics have been investigated using animals with reduced Syndecan-1 and their wildtype controls after normal mating and after vice versa embryo transfers. Female mice were used to measure the estrus cycle length and the weight gain during pregnancy, as well as for histological examination of ovaries. Male mice were examined for the concentration, motility, viability and morphology of spermatozoa. Organs like heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, brain and ovaries or testes and epididymis of 6-month-old animals were isolated and weighed. Statistical analyses were performed using two-tailed students t-test with P < .05 and P < .02, chi square test (P < .05) and Fisher's Exact Test (P < .05). A linear and a non-linear mixed-effects model were generated to analyze the weight gain of pregnant females and of the progenies. RESULTS: Focusing on the pregnancy outcome, the Syndecan-1 reduced females gave birth to larger litters. However, regarding the survival of the offspring, a higher percentage of pups with less Syndecan-1 died during the first postnatal days. Even though the ovaries and the testes of Syndecan-1 reduced mice showed no histological differences and the ovaries showed a similar number of primary and secondary follicles and corpora lutea, the spermatozoa of Syndecan-1 reduced males showed more tail and midpiece deficiencies. Concerning the postnatal and juvenile development the pups with reduced Syndecan-1 expression remained lighter and smaller regardless whether carried by mothers with reduced Syndecan-1 or wildtype foster mothers. With respect to anatomical differences kidneys of both genders as well as testes and epididymis of male mice with reduced syndecan-1 expression weighed less compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal that the effects of Syndecan-1 reduction are rather genotype- than parental-dependent.


Assuntos
Estro/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estro/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Sindecana-1/genética
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 33, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although family factors can greatly impact adult health, little is known about the extent to which family factors are related to body weight gain (BWG) in adulthood. This study aimed to examine the associations between family factors and BWG from 20 years old. METHODS: Among the 6395 possible participants aged 35 to 79 years, 2884 men and 2171 women were eligible for the study. Present body mass indexes (BMI) were measured, and family factors and body weight from 20 years old (i.e., BMI_20yr) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The differences between BMI and BMI_20yr were calculated, and those with increases of BMI ≥2.5 kg/m2 (i.e., ≥7.5 and 6.0 kg in men and women, respectively) were defined as 'cases' of BWG. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] and p for trend) were estimated. RESULTS: In the men, no association was found. In the women, the ORs were 0.31, 1.00 and 0.77 (0.17-0.58, [reference], and (0.52-1.29), p < 0.001) as per their marital status: unmarried, married, and bereaved/divorced, respectively. Although no association was found with family structure (i.e., single, couple, and two and three generations living together), for familial relationships, the ORs were 1.00, 1.11 and 1.86 ([reference], 0.85-1.46, and 1.25-2.79, p < 0.01) for 'good', 'somewhat good', and 'not so good/not good', respectively. Even if a 'case' of BWG was ≥3.5 kg/m2, nearly the same risks remained. CONCLUSION: Marital status and family relationships were associated with decreased and increased risks of BWG only in the female participants. Family factors should be considered when advising women on body weight control.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Características da Família , Ganho de Peso/genética , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 2202-2219, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789654

RESUMO

This experiment was to evaluate a suite of biological traits likely to be associated with genetic variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in Angus cattle. Twenty nine steers and 30 heifers bred to be divergent in postweaning RFI (RFIp) and that differed in midparent RFIp-EBV (RFIp-EBVmp) by more than 2 kg DMI/d were used in this study. A 1-unit (1 kg DM/d) decrease in RFIp-EBVmp was accompanied by a 0.08 kg (SE = 0.03; P < 0.05) increase in ADG, a 0.58 kg/d (0.17; P < 0.01) decrease in DMI, a 0.89 kg/kg (0.22; P < 0.001) decrease in FCR, and a 0.62 kg/d (0.12; P < 0.001) decrease in feedlot RFI (RFIf). Ultrasonically scanned depths of subcutaneous fat at the rib and rump sites, measured at the start and end of the RFI test, all had strong positive correlations with RFIp-EBVmp, DMI, and RFIf (all r values ≥0.5 and P < 0.001). Variation in RFIp-EBVmp was significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with flight speed (r = -0.32), number of visits to feed bins (r = 0.45), and visits to exhaled-emission monitors (r = -0.27), as well as the concentrations of propionate (r = -0.32) and valerate (r = -0.31) in rumen fluid, white blood cell (r = -0.51), lymphocyte (r = -0.43), and neutrophil (r = -0.31) counts in blood. RFIp-EBVmp was also correlated with the cellular immune response to vaccination (r = 0.25; P < 0.1) and heat production in fasted cattle (r = -0.46; P < 0.001). Traits that explained significant variation (P < 0.05) in DMI over the RFI test were midtest metabolic-BW (44.7%), rib fat depth at the end of test (an additional 18%), number of feeder visits (additional 5.7%), apparent digestibility of the ration by animals (additional 2.4%) and white blood-cell count (2.1%), and the cellular immune response to vaccine injection (additional 1.1%; P < 0.1), leaving ~23% of the variation in DMI unexplained. The same traits (BW excluded) explained 33%, 12%, 3.6%, 3.7%, and 3.1%, and together explained 57% of the variation in RFIf. This experiment showed that genetic variation in RFI was accompanied by variation in estimated body composition, behavior, rumen, fasted heat production, hematology, and immune competence traits, and that variation in feedlot DMI and RFIf was due to differences in BW, scanned fatness, and many other factors in these cattle fed ad libitum and able to display any innate differences in appetite, temperament, feeding behavior, and activity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Composição Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Variação Genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Rúmen , Termogênese
17.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(4): 1165-1173, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737239

RESUMO

Experimental populations of model organisms provide valuable opportunities to unravel the genomic impact of selection in a controlled system. The Virginia body weight chicken lines represent a unique resource to investigate signatures of selection in a system where long-term, single-trait, bidirectional selection has been carried out for more than 60 generations. At 55 generations of divergent selection, earlier analyses of pooled genome resequencing data from these lines revealed that 14.2% of the genome showed extreme differentiation between the selected lines, contained within 395 genomic regions. Here, we report more detailed analyses of these data exploring the regions displaying within- and between-line genomic signatures of the bidirectional selection applied in these lines. Despite the strict selection regime for opposite extremes in body weight, this did not result in opposite genomic signatures between the lines. The lines often displayed a duality of the sweep signatures, where an extended region of homozygosity in one line, in contrast to mosaic pattern of heterozygosity in the other line. These haplotype mosaics consisted of short, distinct haploblocks of variable between-line divergence, likely the results of a complex demographic history involving bottlenecks, introgressions and moderate inbreeding. We demonstrate this using the example of complex haplotype mosaicism in the growth1 QTL. These mosaics represent the standing genetic variation available at the onset of selection in the founder population. Selection on standing genetic variation can thus result in different signatures depending on the intensity and direction of selection.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Mosaicismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(3): 889-899, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718274

RESUMO

Pedigree-derived relationships for individuals from an intercross of several lines cannot easily account for the segregation variance that is mainly caused by loci with alternative alleles fixed in different lines. However, when all founders are genotyped for a large number of markers, such relationships can be derived for descendants as expected genomic relationships conditional on the observed founder allele frequencies. A tabular method was derived in detail for autosomes and the X-chromosome. As a case study, we analyzed litter size and body weights at three different ages in an advanced mouse intercross (29 generations, total pedigree size 19,266) between a line selected for high litter size (FL1) and a highly inbred control line (DUKsi). Approximately 60% of the total genetic variance was due to segregation variance. Estimated heritability values were 0.20 (0.03), 0.34 (0.04), 0.23 (0.03), 0.41 (0.03) and 0.47 (0.02) for litter size, litter weight and body weight at ages of 21, 42 and 63 days, respectively (standard errors in brackets). These values were between 12% and 65% higher than observed in analyses that treated founders as unrelated. Fields of applications include experimental populations (selection experiments or advanced intercross lines) with a limited number of founders, which can be genotyped at a reasonable cost. In principle any number of founder lines can be treated. Additional genotypes from individuals in later generations can be combined into a joint relationship matrix by capitalizing on previously published approaches.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Efeito Fundador , Frequência do Gene , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Animais , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Camundongos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(4): 1501-1512, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785187

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to quantify the genetic and non-genetic contributors to variability in both carcass dressing percentage and dressing difference (i.e., the difference between carcass weight and live weight immediately prior to slaughter) in young animals and cows. The datasets contained 18,479 young animals from 653 herds, and 2,887 cows from 665 herds. Live weight records within 7 d of slaughter and associated carcass weight were available for all animals. Association analyses were undertaken using linear mixed models with fixed effects for the model of young animals consisting of animal breed, days between the date of last recorded live weight and slaughter date, heterosis and recombination loss coefficients, dam parity, a 3-way interaction between whether the animal originated in a dairy or beef herd, animal sex, and age at slaughter, as well as a 2-way interaction between calendar year of slaughter and month of slaughter; contemporary group was included as a random effect. Fixed effects in the cow model were cow breed, the number of days between the date of last recorded live weight and slaughter date, heterosis and recombination loss coefficients, the number of days postcalving, parity of the cow, and a 2-way interaction between calendar year of slaughter and month of slaughter; contemporary group was included as a random effect. The mean dressing percentage (phenotypic standard deviation in parentheses) and dressing difference in young animals were 55.86% (3.21%) and 280.03 kg (41.44 kg), respectively. Steers had the heaviest dressing difference at 34.18 and 60.44 kg heavier than a 16-mo old bull and 22-mo old heifer, respectively. Dressing difference for 30-mo old Simmental steers (breed with heaviest dressing difference) was 41.66 kg heavier than 30-mo old Belgian Blue steers (breed with lightest dressing difference). The heritability of dressing percentage (0.48) and dressing difference (0.35) in young animals was relatively similar to each other, in contrast to dressing percentage (0.08) in cows which was considerably lower than dressing difference (0.28). Considerable genetic variability existed in dressing difference amongst young animals (genetic standard deviation of 15.03 kg), despite the near unity genetic correlation (0.93) between carcass weight and live weight. This therefore indicates that genetic selection for increased saleable product can be achieved by selecting for increased carcass weight while concurrently selecting for lighter animals although the opportunity is limited by the strong part-whole relationships that exists between carcass weight, live weight, and dressing difference.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Seleção Genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Vigor Híbrido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez
20.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 4, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight (BW) at different ages are of increasing importance in dairy cattle breeding schemes, because of their strong correlation with energy efficiency traits, and their impact on cow health, longevity and farm economy. In total, 15,921 dairy cattle from 56 large-scale test-herds with BW records were genotyped for 45,613 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This dataset was used for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in order to localize potential candidate genes for direct and maternal genetic effects on BW recorded at birth (BW0), at 2 to 3 months of age (BW23), and at 13 to 14 months of age (BW1314). RESULTS: The first 20 principal components (PC) of the genomic relationship matrix ([Formula: see text]) grouped the genotyped cattle into three clusters. In the statistical models used for GWAS, correction for population structure was done by including polygenic effects with various genetic similarity matrices, such as the pedigree-based relationship matrix ([Formula: see text]), the [Formula: see text]-matrix, the reduced [Formula: see text]-matrix LOCO (i.e. exclusion of the chromosome on which the candidate SNP is located), and LOCO plus chromosome-wide PC. Inflation factors for direct genetic effects using [Formula: see text] and LOCO were larger than 1.17. For [Formula: see text] and LOCO plus chromosome-wide PC, inflation factors were very close to 1.0. According to Bonferroni correction, ten, two and seven significant SNPs were detected for the direct genetic effect on BW0, BW23, and BW1314, respectively. Seventy-six candidate genes contributed to direct genetic effects on BW with four involved in growth and developmental processes: FGF6, FGF23, TNNT3, and OMD. For maternal genetic effects on BW0, only three significant SNPs (according to Bonferroni correction), and four potential candidate genes, were identified. The most significant SNP on chromosome 19 explained only 0.14% of the maternal de-regressed proof variance for BW0. CONCLUSIONS: For correction of population structure in GWAS, we suggest a statistical model that considers LOCO plus chromosome-wide PC. Regarding direct genetic effects, several SNPs had a significant effect on BW at different ages, and only two SNPs on chromosome 5 had a significant effect on all three BW traits. Thus, different potential candidate genes regulate BW at different ages. Maternal genetic effects followed an infinitesimal model.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteoglicanas/genética , Troponina T/genética
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