Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.960
Filtrar
1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124584, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470313

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals has been suggested to contribute to the ongoing globally increasing obesity trend. The complex chemical mixtures that humans and wildlife are exposed to include a number of compounds that may have obesogenic properties. In this study we examined a mixture consisting of phthalate-monoesters, triclosan, and perfluorinated compounds. The mixture was designed within the EDC-MixRisk project based on serum levels of the compounds in pregnant women of a Swedish mother-child cohort. The compounds were negatively associated with birth weight of the children. We assessed whether developmental exposure to this mixture in combination with a calorie-rich diet affected metabolic rate, blood lipids, adipogenesis and lipid storage, and the whole-body level of neutral lipids in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Wildtype zebrafish were exposed to the mixture from 3 h post fertilization to 5, 14 or 17 days post fertilization (dpf) at water concentrations corresponding to 1, 10, 20, or 100 times the geometrical mean of the serum concentration (hsc) in the women. Exposure to the mixture at 20 times hsc lowered metabolic rate at 2-5 dpf, and increased the number of adipocytes and the amount of visceral adipose tissue at 14 and 17 dpf respectively. Also, mRNA expression of fatty acid binding protein 11a was increased at 17 dpf by 10 and 20 times hsc of the mixture. This study shows that a human-relevant mixture of environmental pollutants affects metabolic rate, adipogenesis and lipid storage in young zebrafish fed a calorie-rich diet, thus demonstrating its potential to disrupt metabolism.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Triclosan/toxicidade , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/biossíntese , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
2.
PLoS Med ; 16(11): e1002972, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is an established risk factor for low infant birth weight, but evidence on critical exposure windows and timing of fetal growth restriction is limited. Here we investigate the associations of maternal quitting, reducing, and continuing smoking during pregnancy with longitudinal fetal growth by triangulating evidence from 3 analytical approaches to strengthen causal inference. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed data from 8,621 European liveborn singletons in 2 population-based pregnancy cohorts (the Generation R Study, the Netherlands 2002-2006 [n = 4,682]) and the Born in Bradford study, United Kingdom 2007-2010 [n = 3,939]) with fetal ultrasound and birth anthropometric measures, parental smoking during pregnancy, and maternal genetic data. Associations with trajectories of estimated fetal weight (EFW) and individual fetal parameters (head circumference, femur length [FL], and abdominal circumference [AC]) from 12-16 to 40 weeks' gestation were analysed using multilevel fractional polynomial models. We compared results from (1) confounder-adjusted multivariable analyses, (2) a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using maternal rs1051730 genotype as an instrument for smoking quantity and ease of quitting, and (3) a negative control analysis comparing maternal and mother's partner's smoking associations. In multivariable analyses, women who continued smoking during pregnancy had a smaller fetal size than non-smokers from early gestation (16-20 weeks) through to birth (p-value for each parameter < 0.001). Fetal size reductions in continuing smokers followed a dose-dependent pattern (compared to non-smokers, difference in mean EFW [95% CI] at 40 weeks' gestation was -144 g [-182 to -106], -215 g [-248 to -182], and -290 g [-334 to -247] for light, moderate, and heavy smoking, respectively). Overall, fetal size reductions were most pronounced for FL. The fetal growth trajectory in women who quit smoking in early pregnancy was similar to that of non-smokers, except for a shorter FL and greater AC around 36-40 weeks' gestation. In MR analyses, each genetically determined 1-cigarette-per-day increase was associated with a smaller EFW from 20 weeks' gestation to birth in smokers (p = 0.01, difference in mean EFW at 40 weeks = -45 g [95% CI -81 to -10]) and a greater EFW from 32 weeks' gestation onwards in non-smokers (p = 0.03, difference in mean EFW at 40 weeks = 26 g [95% CI 5 to 47]). There was no evidence that partner smoking was associated with fetal growth. Study limitations include measurement error due to maternal self-report of smoking and the modest sample size for MR analyses resulting in unconfounded estimates being less precise. The apparent positive association of the genetic instrument with fetal growth in non-smokers suggests that genetic pleiotropy may have masked a stronger association in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: A consistent linear dose-dependent association of maternal smoking with fetal growth was observed from the early second trimester onwards, while no major growth deficit was found in women who quit smoking early in pregnancy except for a shorter FL during late gestation. These findings reinforce the importance of smoking cessation advice in preconception and antenatal care and show that smoking reduction can lower the risk of impaired fetal growth in women who struggle to quit.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Peso Fetal , Feto , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(12): 158524, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513924

RESUMO

Due to the insufficient fetal cholesterol synthesis, maternal cholesterol transport through the placenta becomes an important source of fetal cholesterol pool, which is essential for fetal growth and development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on fetal cholesterol levels, and explore its placental mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with dexamethasone (0.8 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 9 to 20. Results showed that dexamethasone increased maternal serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, as well as placental cholesterol synthesis and TC concentration, while reduced fetal birth weight, and serum TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Meanwhile, the expression of placental cholesterol transporters, including low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) were decreased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) were increased, while the H3K9ac and expression levels of liver X receptor α (LXRα) promoter were reduced. In human trophoblast cell line (BeWo), dexamethasone concentration-dependently decreased the expression levels of LDLR, SR-B1, ABCA1, ABCG1 as well as LXRα. Dexamethasone (2500 nM) induced GR translocation into nucleus and recruited HDAC3. Furthermore, LXRα agonist and GR inhibitor reversed respectively dexamethasone-induced the expression inhibitions of cholesterol transporter and LXRα, and HDAC3 siRNA reversed the H3K9ac level of LXRα promoter and its expression. Together, dexamethasone impaired placental cholesterol transport and eventually decreased fetal cholesterol levels, which is related to the down-regulation of LXRα mediated by GR/HDAC3/H3K9ac signaling.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Histonas/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 136-146, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520701

RESUMO

Prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) induces developmental toxicities of multiple organs in offspring, but its serum metabolic profile changes before and after birth are unclear. Here, we employed a LC-MS-based metabolomic approach to detect serum metabolites of PDE offspring rats in utero and adulthood, and explore its change characteristics and toxicological significances. Meanwhile, the bodyweight, serum index related to hepatic and renal function were detected. As compared to healthy control rats, PDE reduced offspring birthweight but caused postnatal catch-up growth accompanied by adult liver and kidney function injury. In utero, the differential metabolites in response to PDE were mainly manifested as enhanced glycolysis, increased protein breakdown and disordered lipid metabolism, and multiple metabolic pathways were changed, which displayed gender differences. In adulthood, PDE offspring showed fewer and inconsistent types of differential metabolites compared to those in utero, which exhibited significant gender differences. The main differential metabolites induced by PDE included lactic acid, carnitine, cortexolone, bile acid, phosphatidylcholine, uric acid and platelet activating factor, which may participate in dexamethasone multi-organ toxicities and multi-disease susceptibility. In conclusion, PDE could induce a gender-difference and sustainable multi-organ damage in the offspring rats via serum metabolic profile analysis, which will enhance offspring susceptibility to multiple adult diseases.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/toxicidade , Metabolômica/métodos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3626-3635, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505650

RESUMO

Arginine (Arg) is an important amino acid of pig fetal development; however, whether Arg improves postnatal performance is ill-defined. Therefore, the influence of Arg supplementation at different gestational stages on offspring performance was evaluated in a commercial swine herd. Sows (n = 548) were allocated into 4, diet by stage of gestation treatments: Control (n = 143; 0% suppl. Arg), or dietary treatments supplemented with 1% L-Arg (free-base; Ajinomoto Animal Nutrition North America, Inc., Chicago, IL): from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); 15 d of gestation to farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); and from day 85 of gestation to farrowing (n = 128; Late-Arg). All offspring were individually identified and weighed at birth; at weaning, a subset was selected for evaluation of carcass performance at market. All data were analyzed using birth weight (BiWt) and age as covariates. Wean weights (WW) and prewean (PW) ADG tended to increase (P = 0.06) in progeny from sows supplemented with Arg, as compared to progeny from Control sows. Preplanned contrast comparisons revealed an increased (P = 0.03) BiWt for pigs from sows receiving 1% L-Arg prior to day 45 of gestation (Early-Arg and Full-Arg; 1.38 kg/pig), as compared to pigs from sows not supplemented prior to day 45 of gestation (Control and Late-Arg; 1.34 kg/pig). No difference in BiWt was observed (1.36 kg/pig; P = 0.68) for Arg supplementation after day 85 of gestation (Full-Arg and Late-Arg), as compared to those not receiving Arg supplementation after day 85 (Control and Early-Arg); although WW and PW ADG were greater (P = 0.02), respectively. A 3.6% decrease (P = 0.05) in peak lean accretion ADG occurred when dams received 1% L-Arg prior to day 45 of gestation (Early-Arg and Full-Arg), however, no other significant differences were detected in finishing growth parameters or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.1). Pig mortality rates tended (P = 0.07) to decrease in progeny of dams supplemented Arg after day 85 (3.6%) compared to dams not provided additional Arg during late gestation (4.9%). Collectively, these data suggest that Arg provided during late gestation may improve WW and PW ADG, however, finishing performance was not affected. While Arg supplementation provided some moderate production benefits, further investigation is warranted to comprehensively understand the gestational timing and biological role of Arg supplementation during fetal and postnatal development in commercial production systems.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Desmame
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4208-4218, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410445

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of l-carnitine (CAR) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) inclusion in gilt gestation diets on gilt live weight, cortisol concentration, lactation feed intake, and lifetime growth of progeny. Eighty-four pregnant gilts (Large White × Landrace) were randomly assigned to a treatment at day 38 of gestation until parturition; Control (0% SBP, 0 g CAR), CAR (0.125 g/d CAR), SBP (40% SBP), and SBP plus CAR (40% SBP, 0.125 g/d CAR). Gilts were weighed and back-fat depth was recorded on day 38, day 90, and day 108 of gestation and at weaning. Gilt saliva samples were collected pre-farrowing and fecal consistency was scored from entry to the farrowing room until day 5 post-partum. The number of piglets born (total, live, and stillborn) and individual birth weight was recorded. Piglet blood glucose concentration was measured 24 h post-partum and pigs were weighed on day 1, day 6, day 14, day 26, day 76, day 110, and day 147 of life. Carcass data were collected at slaughter. There was no interaction between CAR and SBP for any variable measured. The SBP-fed gilts were heavier on day 90 and day 108 of gestation (P < 0.05) and lost more weight during lactation (P < 0.05) than control gilts. They also had a greater fecal consistency score (P < 0.01). Total farrowing duration, piglet birth interval, and lactation feed intakes were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). The number of piglets born (total, live, and stillborn) and piglet birth weight was likewise similar between treatments (P > 0.05). Piglets from CAR-fed gilts had lower blood glucose concentrations (P < 0.01), while piglets from SBP-fed gilts had greater blood glucose concentrations (P < 0.01). Piglets from CAR gilts had a lower average daily gain between day 1 and day 6 (P < 0.05) and day 14 and day 26 post-partum (P < 0.05) compared to piglets from control gilts. However, CAR gilts weaned a greater number of pigs (P = 0.07). Live weight and carcass weight at slaughter were heavier for pigs from CAR gilts (P < 0.05) and from SBP gilts (P < 0.05). Pigs from CAR gilts (P < 0.01) and SBP gilts (P < 0.05) had increased carcass muscle depth. In conclusion, no benefit was found from the combined feeding of CAR and SBP. Fed separately, CAR increased the live weight, carcass weight, and muscle depth of progeny at slaughter. Feeding a high SBP diet increased fecal consistency in gilts pre-farrowing and increased live weight and carcass muscle depth of progeny.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Carnitina/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Parto , Gravidez , Açúcares , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
7.
J Perinat Med ; 47(7): 780-784, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421045

RESUMO

Background Smoking during pregnancy still exists in daily life but the effect on the newborn in the early stage of life is still unclear. This study investigates the normal reference range of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in umbilical cord blood gas (UBG). Methods A single center retrospective cross-sectional cohort study was performed with 1172 cases. We analyzed HbCO values in umbilical cord blood, maternal smoking, birth weight percentiles, duration of amenorrhea and maternal admission duration prior to delivery. Results HbCO levels in newborns range from 0 to 7.7% with a mean of 0.6% (standard deviation 0.6). Newborns from women who smoked during pregnancy have a significant higher HbCO value compared to newborns from women who did not smoke. Birth weight is negatively correlated with HbCO (P = 0.001). Conclusion Our results show the normal reference range in this study is 0-1.2% for HbCO in the umbilical blood of newborns. Smoking prior to delivery leads to a higher HbCO value in the UBG sample of the newborn, a lower birth weight and may be potential harmful.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Sangue Fetal/química , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/sangue , Gestantes/psicologia , Fumar , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3617-3625, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298271

RESUMO

Supplemental arginine (Arg) during gestation purportedly benefits fetal development. However, the benefits of a gestational Arg dietary strategy in commercial production are unclear. Therefore, the objectives of this study examined Arg supplementation during different gestational stages and the effects on gilt reproductive performance. Pubertal gilts (n = 548) were allocated into 4 treatment groups: Control (n = 143; 0% supplemental Arg) or 1 of 3 supplemental Arg (1% as fed) treatments: from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); from 15 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); or from 85 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 128; Late-Arg). At farrowing, the number of total born (TB), born alive (BA), stillborn piglets (SB), mummified fetuses (MM), and individual piglet birth weights (BiWt) were recorded. The wean-to-estrus interval (WEI) and subsequent sow reproductive performance (to third parity) were also monitored. No significant effect of supplemental Arg during any part of P0 gestation was observed for TB, BA, SB, or MM (P ≥ 0.29). Offspring BiWt and variation among individual piglet birth weights did not differ (P = 0.42 and 0.89, respectively) among treatment groups. Following weaning, the WEI was similar among treatments (average of 8.0 ± 0.8 d; P = 0.88). Litter performance over 3 parities revealed a decrease (P = 0.02) in BA for Early-Arg fed gilts compared with all other treatments, whereas TB and WEI were similar among treatments over 3 parities (P > 0.05). There was an increased proportion of sows with average size litters (12 to 16 TB) from the Full-Arg treatment sows (76.8% ± 3.7%) when compared with Control (58.7% ± 4.2%; P = 0.01); however, the proportion of sows with high (>16 TB) and low (<12 TB) litters was not different among treatments (P = 0.20). These results suggest that gestational Arg supplementation had a minimal impact on reproductive performance in first parity sows. These data underscore the complexity of AA supplementation and the need for continued research into understanding how and when utilizing a gestational dietary Arg strategy can optimize fetal development and sow performance.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Reprodução , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade/efeitos dos fármacos , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Desmame
9.
J Perinat Med ; 47(7): 765-770, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348763

RESUMO

Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic, endocrine-disrupting compound widely used in the industry. It is also a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Its presence was confirmed in human fetuses, which results from maternal exposure during pregnancy. The mechanisms behind maternal-fetal transfer, and relationships between pregnant women and fetal exposures remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of maternal exposure to BPA on the exposure of the fetus. Methods Maternal plasma and amniotic fluid samples were collected from 52 pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. BPA was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The permeability factor - a ratio of fetal-to-maternal BPA concentration - was used as a measure delineating the transplacental transfer of BPA. Results The median concentration of maternal plasma BPA was 8 times higher than the total BPA concentration in the amniotic fluid (8.69 ng/mL, range: 4.3 ng/mL-55.3 ng/mL vs. median 1.03 ng/mL, range: 0.3 ng/mL-10.1 ng/mL). There was no direct relationship between the levels of BPA in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid levels. The permeability factor, in turn, negatively correlated with fetal development (birth weight) (R = -0.54, P < 0.001). Conclusion Our results suggest that the risk of fetal BPA exposure depends on placental BPA permeability rather than the levels of maternal BPA plasma concentration and support general recommendations to become aware and avoid BPA-containing products.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Fenóis , Placenta , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/sangue , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios não Esteroides/sangue , Estrogênios não Esteroides/química , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Exposição Materna/prevenção & controle , Permeabilidade , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/sangue , Fenóis/química , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2914-2926, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155652

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increased AA and energy intake during late gestation on reproductive performance, milk composition, and metabolic and redox status of sows. A total of 118 Yorkshire sows (third through sixth parity) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments from day 90 of gestation until farrowing. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA levels [14.7 or 20.6 g/d SID Lys, SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC (2012) recommendations] and 2 energy levels (28.24 or 33.78 MJ/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. After parturition, all sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for parameters on metabolism, redox status, and amino acid profile. The data were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed models to reveal the impact of dietary levels of energy, AA, and their interaction. Sows with increased intake of AA had greater BW gain (P < 0.01) during late gestation. Furthermore, the BW loss during lactation was increased in sows with increasing intake of energy (P < 0.05) or AA (P < 0.05). Sows fed high energy had higher total litter birth weights (20.2 kg vs. 18.4 kg, P < 0.05) and shorter duration of farrowing (261 min vs. 215 min, P < 0.05), compared with those fed low energy, which likely was due to higher (P < 0.05) plasma glucose and lower (P < 0.05) plasma lactate prior to parturition. High AA intake in late gestation increased the ADG of piglets during the following lactation (P < 0.05), and increased the concentrations of plasma urea, and the following AA: Lys, Met, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, Asp, Ser, and Arg at farrowing (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the increased intake of energy increased total litter weight of newborns and shortened the farrowing duration, which likely was due to improved energy status at farrowing. Furthermore, sows with increased intake of AA led to higher growth rate of piglets during the following lactation, accompanying with the increasing levels of plasma urea and amino acids. Therefore, the higher energy intake in late gestation appeared to improve litter weight and farrowing duration, while higher AA intake may have positive effect on piglets performance in lactation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Leite/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Nutricional , Oxirredução , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/microbiologia
11.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 699-707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108303

RESUMO

We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between prenatal cadmium (Cd) exposure and birth weight. PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases were searched for studies published before March 2019. We used a model-based method, standardizing effect size from linear regression models to include a maximum number of studies during our quantitative evaluations. As a result, 11 articles from the general population, containing 10 birth cohorts and one cross-sectional study, were included. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that a 50% increase of maternal urine Cd (UCd) would be associated with a 6.15 g decrease in neonatal birth weight (ß = -6.15 g, 95% CI: -10.81, -1.49) as well as a 50% increase of maternal blood Cd (BCd) would be associated with an 11.57 g decrease (ß = -11.57 g; 95% CI: -18.85, -4.30). Stratified analysis of UCd data indicated that the results of female newborns were statistically significant (ß = -8.92 g, 95% CI: -17.51, -0.34), as was the first trimester (ß = -11.34 g, 95% CI: -19.54, -3.14). Furthermore, increased UCd levels were associated with a higher rate of low birth weight (LBW) risk (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.22). This meta-analysis demonstrated that elevated maternal Cd levels are associated with decreased birth weight and higher LBW risk.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3487-3497, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111159

RESUMO

The current study aims to evaluate the effects of different gestation dietary Met/Lys (methionine, Met/lysine) ratios on the production performance of sows. Specifically, it measured the effect of Met on plasma urea and AA concentrations and placental vascular density of pregnant sows. A total of 325 multiparous sows (third parity, Large × White) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (n = 65) with five dietary Met/Lys ratios 0.27 (nutrient requirements of swine [NRC] 2012 level), 0.32, 0.37, 0.42, and 0.47). The litter size and weight at birth were measured and recorded. Blood samples were obtained on days 0, 40, 90, and 114 of gestation, and placenta samples were collected at parturition. The effects of different dietary Met/Lys ratios on the reproductive performance were evaluated based on the prolificacy of sows as either high (≥13 total piglets born) or low (<13 total piglets born). The results showed that dietary Met/Lys ratio had no significant effect on the reproductive performance of lower prolificacy sows (P > 0.05). However, for high-prolificacy sows, litter weight of born alive significantly increased in 0.37 Met/Lys ratios group compared with control group (P < 0.05). The gestation dietary Met/Lys ratio showed significant quadratic effects on the litter birth weight and percentage of piglets born with weight <0.9 kg (P < 0.05), and the Met/Lys ratios to achieve the best reproductive performance determined to be 0.37. Furthermore, plasma urea concentrations of sows also changed with Met/Lys ratios quadratically (P < 0.05). Increasing dietary Met/Lys ratios elevated the concentration of most plasma AA. Although the dietary Met/Lys ratio had no significant effect on the placental vascular density (P > 0.05), the gestation dietary Met/Lys ratio showed significant quadratic effects on the placental vascular density (P < 0.05). In addition, the birth weight of piglets of high-prolificacy sows was positively correlated with the placental vascular density (P < 0.01). Taken as a whole, the dietary Met/Lys ratio showed a quadratic curve relation with birth weight performance and placental angiogenesis performance, to which 0.37 ratio contributed to the best performance of high-prolificacy sows.


Assuntos
Lisina/farmacologia , Metionina/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Paridade/efeitos dos fármacos , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Suínos
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2534-2540, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067302

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of live yeast (LY) supplementation of sows during gestation and lactation and to determine the effects of supplementation of their offspring after weaning on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. A total of 40 sows were assigned to 2 dietary treatments (control vs. LY) based on parity and expected farrowing date. Birth weight, weaning weight, litter size, and mortality were measured. After weaning, 128 mixed-sex piglets (64 from each sow treatment) were selected based on their source litter and initial BW, and randomly assigned to 2 treatments (control or LY) at 4 pigs per pen (total of 32 pigs per treatment) for a 6-wk growth performance study. At the end of the growth performance trial, 2 barrows from each pen were moved to metabolism crates for total fecal collection for a digestibility trial. Addition of LY to the sow diets had no effects on birth weight, weaning weight, litter size at birth, and mortality. Piglets had greater BW on days 21 and 42 post-weaning when sows were fed diets supplemented with LY, and overall ADG was greater in piglets from sows that received LY (P < 0.05). There was no effect of sow and nursery diets on overall ADFI and G:F intake. Supplementing diets with LY during the nursery phase increased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, and phosphorus (P) during this phase. The ATTD of GE was also greater in piglets from sows that received LY. In conclusion, LY supplementation of diets during gestation and lactation and during the nursery phase could increase ADG and ATTD of DM, GE, and P in the offspring, and this may lead to a greater lifetime growth performance in the offspring.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos/fisiologia , Fermento Seco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nutrientes , Paridade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
14.
Malar J ; 18(1): 161, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation before a first pregnancy may improve the future health of mother and baby by reducing maternal anaemia. Iron supplementation could, however, increase malaria infections, notably in primigravidae who are most susceptible. The pathogenicity of other iron-utilizing pathogens could also increase, causing inflammation leading to increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. This paper reports pre-specified secondary birth outcomes from a safety trial in Burkina Faso in an area of high malaria endemicity. Primary outcomes from that trial had investigated effects of long-term weekly iron supplementation on malaria and genital tract infections in non-pregnant and pregnant women. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Nulliparous, mainly adolescent women, were individually randomized periconceptionally to receive weekly either 60 mg elemental iron and 2.8 mg folic acid, or 2.8 mg folic acid alone, continuing up to the first antenatal visit for those becoming pregnant. Secondary outcomes were ultrasound-dated gestational age, fetal growth, placental malaria, chorioamnionitis and iron biomarkers. Seasonal effects were assessed. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: 478 pregnancies occurred to 1959 women: 258/980 women assigned iron and folic acid and 220/979 women assigned folic acid alone. Malaria prevalence at the first antenatal visit was 53% (iron) and 55% (controls). Mean birthweight was 111 g lower in the iron group (95% CI 9:213 g, P = 0.033). Mean gestational ages were 264 days (iron) and 269 days (controls) (P = 0.012), with 27.5% under 37 weeks compared to 13.9% in controls (adjRR = 2.22; 95% CI 1.39-3.61) P < 0.001). One-third of babies were growth restricted, but incidence did not differ by trial arm. Half of placentae had evidence of past malaria infection. C-reactive protein > 5 mg/l was more common prior to births < 37 weeks (adjRR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.04-4.10, P = 0.034). Preterm birth incidence during the rainy season was ~ 50% in the iron arm and < 20% in controls (P = 0.001). Chorioamnionitis prevalence peaked in the dry season (P = 0.046), with no difference by trial arm (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Long-term weekly iron supplementation given to nulliparous women in a malaria endemic area was associated with higher risk of preterm birth in their first pregnancy. Trial Registration NCT01210040. Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov on 27th September 2010.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Malária/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adolescente , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Malária/complicações , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063503

RESUMO

AIM: Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with azithromycin and monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine increased the mean child weight, mid-upper arm and head circumference at four weeks of age in a rural low-income setting. Now we assess for how long these gains were sustained during 0-5 years of age. METHODS: We enrolled 1320 pregnant Malawian women in a randomized trial and treated them with two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (control) or monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as IPTp against malaria, or monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and two doses of azithromycin (AZI-SP) as IPTp against malaria and reproductive tract infections. Child weight, mid-upper arm circumference, head circumference and weight-for-height Z-score were recorded at one, six, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. RESULTS: Throughout follow-up, the mean child weight was approximately 100 g higher (difference in means 0.12 kg, 95% CI 0.04-0.20, P = 0.003 at one month; 0.19 kg, 95% CI 0.05-0.33, P = 0.007, at six months), mean head circumference 2 mm larger (0.3 cm, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5, P = 0.004 at one month) and the cumulative incidence of underweight by five years of age was lower (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, P = 0.002) in the AZI-SP group than in the control group. The 2 mm difference in the mean mid-upper arm circumference at one month (0.2 cm, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.3, P = 0.007) disappeared after three years of age. There was no difference in mean weight-for-height Z-score at any time point. CONCLUSION: In Malawi, IPTp with azithromycin and monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has a modest, 3-5-year positive impact on child weight, mid-upper arm circumference and head circumference, but not on weight-for-height Z-score.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/administração & dosagem , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Sulfadoxina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/epidemiologia , Malaui , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(15): 15677-15684, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949941

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements is an important concern for fetal growth. In our previous study, we showed the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in maternal serum from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) cohort and their relationships between PCB levels in cord serum with birth weight of newborn. Various reports on the relationship between chemical exposure and birth status have been published; however, studies that analyze the effects of both PCB and metal exposure together in one cohort are still limited. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship of maternal serum levels of PCBs and toxic and essential trace elements [mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and cadmium (Cd)], with birth weight and head circumference, in the C-MACH cohort. The median concentration of total PCBs in maternal serum around 32 gestational weeks (n = 62) was 360 pg g-1 wet wt (41 ng g-1 lipid wt). The levels of Hg, Mn, Se, and Cd in maternal serum were 0.89, 0.84, 100, and 0.024 ng g-1, respectively. In this study, the Bayesian linear model determined the relationships of the birth weight and head circumference with combinations of PCB levels, toxic and essential trace elements, and questionnaire data. We found that PCB concentrations in maternal serum were weakly and negatively related to birth weight, whereas trace elements were not associated with birth weight. Serum PCB and Mn levels were negatively associated with head circumference, whereas other trace elements were not associated with head circumference. These results showed that maternal exposure to PCBs may be related to birth weight and head circumference, while maternal exposure to Mn is related to head circumference, even when adjusted based on the exposure levels of other contaminants, and maternal and fetal characteristics. Therefore, our findings indicate that maternal exposure to PCBs and Mn might be negatively related with birth weight and head circumference.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Selênio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Cádmio/química , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Selênio/química , Oligoelementos/química
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995726

RESUMO

There is a growing body of research on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. However, people in high income countries spend most of their time indoors. Pregnant women spend much of that time at home. The aim of this study was to investigate if indoor air pollutants were associated with poor birth outcomes. Pregnant women were recruited prior to 18 weeks gestation. They completed a housing questionnaire and household chemical use survey. Indoor pollutants, formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were monitored in the women's homes at 34 weeks gestation. Gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW) and length (BL) and head circumference (HC) were collected from birth records. The associations between measured pollutants, and pollution surrogates, were analysed using general linear models, controlling for maternal age, parity, maternal health, and season of birth. Only HCHO was associated with any of the birth outcomes. There was a 0.044 decrease in BW z-score (p = 0.033) and 0.05 decrease in HC z-score (p = 0.06) for each unit increase in HCHO. Although HCHO concentrations were very low, this finding is consistent with other studies of formaldehyde and poor birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 629-637, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933760

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested a change of birth weight linked with elevated ambient air pollutant concentrations during the pregnancy. However, investigations of the influence of higher pollutant levels on birth weight change are limited. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether the air pollution of Ningbo is associated with birth weight, and which trimester could be a window period for maternal exposure to air pollution. A total of 170,008 live births were selected in the Ningbo city of Zhejiang, China, from 2015 to 2017. We estimated the association between the decreased birth weight and the increased air pollutant concentrations in the three trimesters and full gestation. The effects of interaction among pollutants were identified using a co-pollutant adjustment model. An interquartile range increases in PM2.5 (10.55 µg/m3), SO2(4.6 µg/m3), CO (125.59 µg/m3), and O3 (14.54 µg/m3) concentrations during the entire gestation were associated with 3.65 g (95% confidence interval: -6.02 g, -1.29 g), 5.02 g (-6.89 g, -3.14 g), 2.64 g (-4.65 g, -0.63 g) and 2.9 g (-4.8 g, 1 g) decreases, respectively, in birth weight. With each interquartile range increment in NO2 concentration was associated with an 8.05 g (6.24 g, 9.85 g) increase in birth weight. In the first trimester, only the PM2.5 exposure seemed to be associated with the greatest decline in birth weight. After adjustment for co-pollutant, both PM2.5 and SO2 were still associated with birth weight, except for CO for O3 adjustment, O3 for SO2 adjustment, and O3 for NO2 adjustment. Maternal exposure to air pollution may be associated with a decrease of birth weight, but the contribution of various pollutants is necessary to verify by future research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(4): 731-740, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841708

RESUMO

Objective- The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intravenous maternal sildenafil citrate (SC) administration on vascular function in growth-restricted fetal sheep. Approach and Results- Fetal growth restriction (FGR) results in cardiovascular adaptations that redistribute cardiac output to optimize suboptimal intrauterine conditions. These adaptations result in structural and functional cardiovascular changes, which may underlie postnatal neurological and cardiovascular sequelae. Evidence suggests SC, a potent vasodilator, may improve FGR. In contrast, recent clinical evidence suggests potential for adverse fetal consequence. Currently, there is limited data on SC effects in the developing fetus. We hypothesized that SC in utero would improve vascular development and function in an ovine model of FGR. Preterm lambs (0.6 gestation) underwent sterile surgery for single umbilical artery ligation or sham (control, appropriately grown) surgery to replicate FGR. Ewes received continuous intravenous SC (36 mg/24 h) or saline from surgery until 0.83 gestation. Fetuses were delivered and immediately euthanized for collection of femoral and middle cerebral artery vessels. Vessel function was assessed via in vitro wire myography. SC exacerbated growth restriction in growth-restricted fetuses and resulted in endothelial dysfunction in the cerebral and femoral vasculature, irrespective of growth status. Dysfunction in the cerebral circulation is endothelial, whereas smooth muscle in the periphery is the origin of the deficit. Conclusions- SC crosses the placenta and alters key fetal vascular development. Extensive studies are required to investigate the effects of SC on fetal development to address safety before additional use of SC as a treatment.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Lesões Pré-Natais/induzido quimicamente , Citrato de Sildenafila/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/toxicidade , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Guanilato Ciclase/análise , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Lesões Pré-Natais/fisiopatologia , Ovinos , Citrato de Sildenafila/sangue , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Environ Res ; 172: 117-126, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is both an essential element and a potential toxicant. Although a few studies have suggested a nonlinear relationship between the maternal whole blood Mn level at delivery and infant birth weight, little is known about the effects of Mn levels during pregnancy on fetal growth, particularly with regard to sex-specific differences. METHODS: In this nationwide birth cohort study, we examined the association of maternal blood Mn level during pregnancy with infant birth weight, length, and head circumference in 16,473 mother-infant pairs. Pregnant women living in 15 regions across Japan were recruited between January 2011 and March 2014. The analysis of birth size (8,484 males and 7,989 females) was conducted using a nonlinear spline, followed by the use of quadratic regression or linear regression models. The analysis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (6,962 males and 6,528 females born vaginally) was conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Additionally, subgroup analysis was conducted according to the timing of blood sampling. RESULTS: The median maternal blood Mn level during pregnancy (i.e., 2nd and 3rd trimesters) was 16.2 µg/L (range, 4.3-44.5 µg/L). A positive linear association between the log blood Mn level and head circumference was observed in both male and female infants. However, a nonlinear relationship between the log blood Mn level and birth weight was observed only in male infants, such that the birth weight increased up to a blood Mn level of 18.6 µg/L. In the subgroup analysis stratified by the timing of maternal blood sampling, this nonlinear relationship was obvious only when sampling was performed in the 3rd trimester. Male infants in the lowest blood Mn level quartile (≤ 13.2 µg/L) faced an increased risk of SGA (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.35 [1.04-1.74]), as did those in the highest blood Mn level quartile (≥ 21.0 µg/L) when sampling was performed during the 3rd trimester (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.62 [1.10 to 2.39]), compared to those in the third blood Mn level quartile (the category including 18.6 µg/L). No association of blood Mn level with birth weight was observed among female infants, and blood Mn level was not associated with birth length in either male or female infants. CONCLUSION: A low blood Mn level during pregnancy or a high blood Mn level during the 3rd trimester was associated with a lower birth weight and increased risk of SGA in male infants, but not in female infants. A low blood Mn level was found to correlate slightly with a small head circumference among infants of both sexes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Manganês , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/toxicidade , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Fatores Sexuais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA