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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946500

RESUMO

Malnutrition is a huge problem in Burundi. In order to improve the health system response, the Ministry of Health piloted the introduction of malnutrition prevention and care indicators within its performance-based financing (PBF) scheme. Paying for units of services and for qualitative indicators is expected to enhance provision and quality of these nutrition services. The objective of this study is to assess the impacts of this intervention, on both child acute malnutrition recovery rates at health centre level and prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition among children at community level. This study follows a cluster-randomized controlled evaluation design: 90 health centres (HC) were randomly selected for the study, 45 of them were randomly assigned to the intervention and received payment related to their performance in malnutrition activities, while the other 45 constituted the control group and got a simple budget allocation. Data were collected from baseline and follow-up surveys of the 90 health centres and 6,480 households with children aged 6 to 23 months. From the respectively 1,067 and 1,402 moderate and severe acute malnutrition transcribed files and registers, findings suggest that the intervention had a positive impact on moderate acute malnutrition recovery rates (OR: 5.59, p = 0.039 -at the endline, 78% in the control group and 97% in the intervention group) but not on uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition recovery rate (OR: 1.16, p = 0.751 -at the endline, 93% in the control group and 92% in the intervention group). The intervention also had a significant increasing impact on the number of children treated for acute malnutrition. Analyses from the anthropometric data collected among 12,679 children aged 6-23 months suggest improvements at health centre level did not translate into better results at community level: prevalence of both acute and chronic malnutrition remained high, precisely at the endline, acute and chronic malnutrition prevalence were resp. 8.80% and 49.90% in the control group and 8.70% and 52.0% in the intervention group, the differences being non-significant. PBF can contribute to a better management of malnutrition at HC level; yet, to address the huge problem of child malnutrition in Burundi, additional strategies are urgently required.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Reembolso de Incentivo/economia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Burundi/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Reembolso de Incentivo/tendências , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238955, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997668

RESUMO

Cell shape change is one of the driving forces of animal morphogenesis, and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has played a significant role in analyzing the underlying mechanisms involved. The analysis of cell shape change requires quantification of cellular shape descriptors, a method known as cellular morphometry. However, standard C. elegans live imaging methods limit the capability of cellular morphometry in 3D, as spherical aberrations generated by samples and the surrounding medium misalign optical paths. Here, we report a 3D live imaging method for C. elegans embryos that minimized spherical aberrations caused by refractive index (RI) mismatch. We determined the composition of a refractive index matching medium (RIMM) for C. elegans live imaging. The 3D live imaging with the RIMM resulted in a higher signal intensity in the deeper cell layers. We also found that the obtained images improved the 3D cell segmentation quality. Furthermore, our 3D cellular morphometry and 2D cell shape simulation indicated that the germ cell precursor P4 had exceptionally high cortical tension. Our results demonstrate that the RIMM is a cost-effective solution to improve the 3D cellular morphometry of C. elegans. The application of this method should facilitate understanding of C. elegans morphogenesis from the perspective of cell shape changes.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Refratometria/métodos , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Forma Celular/fisiologia , Células Germinativas , Morfogênese
3.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1205-1214, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Administrative data are increasingly used in research and evaluation yet lack standardized guidelines for constructing measures using these data. Body weight measures from administrative data serve critical functions of monitoring patient health, evaluating interventions, and informing research. This study aimed to describe the algorithms used by researchers to construct and use weight measures. METHODS: A structured, systematic literature review of studies that constructed body weight measures from the Veterans Health Administration was conducted. Key information regarding time frames and time windows of data collection, measure calculations, data cleaning, treatment of missing and outlier weight values, and validation processes was collected. RESULTS: We identified 39 studies out of 492 nonduplicated records for inclusion. Studies parameterized weight outcomes as change in weight from baseline to follow-up (62%), weight trajectory over time (21%), proportion of participants meeting weight threshold (46%), or multiple methods (28%). Most (90%) reported total time in follow-up and number of time points. Fewer reported time windows (54%), outlier values (51%), missing values (34%), or validation strategies (15%). CONCLUSIONS: A high variability in the operationalization of weight measures was found. Improving methods to construct clinical measures will support transparency and replicability in approaches, guide interpretation of findings, and facilitate comparisons across studies.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/provisão & distribução , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tape measurement is a commonly used method in the clinical assessment of lymphedema. However, few studies have assessed the precision and reliability of tape measurement in assessing head and neck lymphedema. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and precision of using tape measurement, performed by different evaluators, for the assessment of head and neck lymphedema. METHODS: This study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer hospital. Between January and December 2019, 50 patients with head and neck cancers and 50 normal subjects were enrolled. Each subject was examined using tape measurements for 7 point-to-point distances of facial landmarks, 3 circumferences of the neck (upper, middle, and lower), and 2 circumferences of the face (vertical and oblique) by 3 random examiners. Test precision and reliability were assessed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. RESULTS: Overall, the standard deviation of the tape measurements varied in the range of 4.6 mm to 18.3 mm. The measurement of distance between the tragus and mouth angle (Sw: 4.6 mm) yielded the highest precision, but the reliability (ICC: 0.66) was moderate. The reliabilities of neck circumference measurements (ICC: 0.90-0.95) were good to excellent, but the precisions (Sw: 8.3-12.3 mm) were lower than those of point-to-point facial measurements (Sw: 4.6-8.8 mm). CONCLUSIONS: The different methods of tape measurements varied in precision and reliability. Thus, clinicians should not rely on a single measurement when evaluating head and neck lymphedema.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Linfedema/patologia , Adulto , Antropometria/instrumentação , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/instrumentação , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/normas , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Feminino , Cabeça/patologia , Humanos , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1215-1218, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the roles of frequency and consistency of self-weighing in promoting weight-loss maintenance. METHODS: Participants were 74 adults who completed a 3-month internet-based weight-loss program followed by a 9-month no-intervention maintenance period. Frequency of self-weighing was defined as the number of days that participants self-weighed during the maintenance period via a study-provided smart scale. Consistency was defined as the number of weeks that participants self-weighed at a certain frequency, with multiple minimum thresholds examined. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess associations among frequency, consistency, and weight change during the maintenance period. RESULTS: Greater consistency was significantly associated with less weight regain when defined as the number of weeks that participants self-weighed on ≥6 d/wk or 7 d/wk (P values < 0.05). Contrary to hypotheses, frequency was not associated with weight change (P = 0.141), and there was not a significant interaction between frequency and consistency. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that consistency of self-weighing may be more important than total frequency for preventing weight regain after the end of a weight-loss program. Further, results suggest that a high level of consistency (self-weighing for ≥6 d/wk or 7 d/wk) may be necessary to promote successful weight-loss maintenance.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recidiva , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271790

RESUMO

Early identification of children <5 years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a high priority to reduce child mortality and improved health outcomes. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for SAM recommend a Mid-Upper-Arm Circumference (MUAC) of less than 115 mm to identify children with SAM, but this cut-off does not identify a significant number of children with a weight-for-height Z-score <-3. To establish new specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 25,755 children from 49 SMART recent surveys in Ethiopia (2016-2019). Sensitivity, proportion of false positive, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. MUAC below 115mm alone identified 55% of children with SAM identified with both methodologies. MUAC was worse in identifying older children (21%), those from a pastoral region (42%) and boys (41%). Using current WHO cut-offs, the sensitivity (Se) of MUAC below 115mm to identify the children severly malnourished screened through Weight-for-height below-3 was 16%. Analysing the ROC curve and Youden Index, Se and Specificity (Sp) were maximal at a MUAC < 133 mm cut-off to identify SAM (respectively Se 61.1%, Sp 81.4%). However, given the high proportion of false-positive children, according to gender, region and age groups, a cut-off around 125 mm to screen SAM could be the optimal one. In Ethiopia, implementation of a MUAC-only screening program for the identification of severe acute malnutrition with the actual cut-off of 115 mm would be unethical as it will lead to many children remaining undiagnosed and untreated. In addition, future study on implementation challenge on screening children with a higher cut-off or gender/age sensitive ones should be assessed with the collection of mortality and morbidity data to ensure that the most in need are being taking care of.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Viés , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Sci Justice ; 60(2): 145-150, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111287

RESUMO

Footwear may be found at crime scenes as physical evidence. Such footwear often has impression features of the wearer's foot on the insole of the shoe. Scientific research and literature have established that footprints are distinct. This study compares two-dimensional measurements on bare footprints to foot impressions on insoles to determine if significant differences or similarities exist. Dynamic footprints were collected from 51 donors using theIdenticator® Inkless Shoe Print Model LE 25P system. Seven foot length and width measurements were taken based on the Reel linear measurement method. Footprint measurements between bare footprints and foot impressions on the insoles were compared. Only two differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the various bare footprint and insole foot impression measurements on the right and left side for most of the measurements, CALC (p < 0.001) and A1 (p = 0.04). Bare footprint and insole A5 measurements on the left side were also significantly different (p = 0.015). The results of the study have implications in the forensic analysis of foot impression evidence on insoles in footwear in assisting with identifying the wearer of said footwear. Situations may arise in the forensic context when comparing the foot impression on the insole of footwear to a suspect's bare footprint or a footprint from post-mortem remains. This study contributes to the scant literature available on the topic and to understanding the similarities and differences observed in the various linear measurements that may be utilized in the comparison process of footprint impressions on shoe insoles to bare footprints.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Sapatos , Adulto , Feminino , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(6): 1058-1064, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging (CSI) may be clinically unnecessary in the evaluation of pectus excavatum (PE). The purpose of our study was to prospectively evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the modified percent depth (MPD), derived from caliper-based external measurements, in identifying PE. METHODS: Children 11-21 years old presenting for evaluation of PE or to obtain thoracic cross-sectional imaging for other indications were measured to derive the Modified Percent Depth. The Haller Index (HI) and Correction Index (CI) were calculated from CSI. Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of MPD, HI, and CI. Interrater reliability was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and Cohen's Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Of 199 patients, 76 (38%) had severe PE. Median age was 16 years (range = 11-21). The median Modified Percent Depth was 21.4% (IQR = 16.2-26.3) among those with PE versus 4.1% (IQR = 1.7-6.4) in those without (p < 0.001). MPD ≥ 11% exhibited similar sensitivity and specificity to HI ≥ 3.25 and CI ≥ 10 for identifying PE (ROC 0.98 vs. 0.97 vs. 0.98, respectively, p = 0.41). With respect to interrater reliability, independent clinicians' caliper measurements exhibited 87% agreement when identifying MPD ≥ 11% (p < 0.001) with excellent correlation (Spearman's ρ > 0.71, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Caliper-based, physical examination measurements of the Modified Percent Depth reliably identify pectus excavatum and represent an alternative to CSI-based measurements for the assessment of PE. TYPE OF STUDY: Diagnostic test. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Tórax em Funil/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Físico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) percentile, waist circumference (WC) percentile, waist-height ratio, and waist-hip ratio for identifying cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese children and adolescents stratified by sex and BMI categories. METHODS: We measured anthropometric indices, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile and blood pressure for 15698 participants aged 6-17 in a national survey between September and December 2013. The predictive accuracy of anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic risk factors was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The DeLong test and Z test were used for the comparisons of areas under ROC curves (AUCs). RESULTS: The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, hypertension and cluster of risk factors were 2.9%, 27.3%, 10.5% and 5.7% respectively. The four anthropometric indices showed poor to fair discriminatory ability for cardiometabolic risk factors with the AUCs ranging from 0.53-0.72. Each index performed significantly better AUCs for dyslipidemia (0.59-0.63 vs. 0.56-0.59), hypertension (0.62-0.70 vs. 0.55-0.65) and clustered risk factors (0.70-0.73 vs. 0.60-0.64) in boys than that in girls. BMI percentile performed the best accuracy for hypertension in both sexes; WC percentile had the highest AUC for dyslipidemia and BMI percentile and waist-height ratio performed similarly the best AUCs for clustered risk factors in boys while BMI percentile, WC percentile and waist-height ratio performed similar and better AUCs for dyslipidemia and clustered risk factors in girls; whereas waist-hip ratio was consistently the poorest predictor for them regardless of sex. Though the anthropometric indices were more predictive of dyslipidemia, hypertension and clustered risk factors in overweight/obese group compared to their normal BMI peers, the AUCs in overweight/obese group remained in the poor range below 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indices are not effective screening tools for pediatric cardiometabolic risk factors, even in overweight/obese children.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Urology ; 137: 183-189, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the bulbospongiosus muscle (BSM) in patients with bulbar urethral strictures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 21 patients divided into 2 groups: Stricture Group (n = 14; mean age = 62.00 years) with bulbar stricture submitted to open urethroplasty; and Control Group (n = 7; mean age = 60.14 years) with penile strictures (hypospadias cripples, penile cancer and/or penile infection) who were submitted to perineal urethrostomy. Samples of the BSM were dissected and histologic sections were stained by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Histomorphometric analyzes were performed on photomicrographs. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired Student t test and the Mann-Whitney test (P <.05). RESULTS: The etiology of bulbar urethral stricture was idiopathic in 2 cases (14.29%), post-TURP in 6 (42.86%), post open radical prostatectomy in 5 (35.71%) and post open prostatectomy in 1 case (7.14%). The average length of the stricture was 2.08 cm. The only parameter analyzed with significant difference between the groups was the vessels (significant difference between the control group: 5.11 ± 1.98% and stricture group: 3.57 ± 1.32%, P = .0460). The quantitative analysis of collagen (Control Group: 10.63 ± 5.37% and Stricture Group: 10.83 ± 4.55%, P = .9296); diameter of BSM muscle fibers (Control Group: 41.71 ± 14.63 µm and Stricture Group: 40.11 ± 8.59 µm, P = .76 and elastic system fibers (Control Group; 3.83 ± 1.54% and Stricture Group: 5.43 ± 2.90%, P = .2601) showed no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Histologic analysis showed a significant decrease of the BSM vessels in urethral stricture, without changes in elastic fibers, collagen, nerves, and muscle fiber diameter. These findings show that the bulbar urethral stricture causes minimal alterations in the structure of the BSM.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pênis , Pênis , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Uretra , Estreitamento Uretral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Brasil , Constrição Patológica , Correlação de Dados , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Pênis/diagnóstico , Doenças do Pênis/etiologia , Pênis/patologia , Pênis/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Uretra/irrigação sanguínea , Uretra/inervação , Uretra/patologia , Uretra/cirurgia , Estreitamento Uretral/diagnóstico , Estreitamento Uretral/epidemiologia , Estreitamento Uretral/etiologia , Estreitamento Uretral/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(6): 1315-1323, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191151

RESUMO

Introduction: currently, there is no consensus regarding accurate and low-cost methods for diagnosing lipodystrophy in people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLWHA). The aim of this study was to propose anthropometric cutoff points for the diagnosis of lipodystrophy among PLWHA. Methods: we included 106 PLWHA (men = 65, women = 41) who are under antiretroviral therapy and have been clinically classified into either a "lipodystrophy" or "non-lipodystrophy" group. Anthropometric measurements included 19 regions of body perimeters and 6 skinfold thickness measures. The Youden index was used to establish anthropometric cutoff points for the diagnosis of lipodystrophy, using the mean values of the anthropometric data (referred to as "original") along with the "Z index" (ZI) values, which were adjusted by the "Phantom Strategy." The cutoff points were proposed when "original" anthropometric measurements and ZI values had a statistical significance of p < 0.01 and an area under the curve (AUC) higher than 70%. The size effect was assessed to verify the influence of lipodystrophy on each anthropometric measure. Results: our data analysis proposes sex-specific cutoff points for the diagnosis of lipodystrophy in PLWHA - 17 points using the "original" anthropometric measurements, and 20 using the ZI values (average effect size between 1.0 and 1.1, and AUC = 76.7% and 78%). Conclusions: our study proposes accurate cutoff points for the diagnosis of lipodystrophy using "original" anthropometric measurements and ZI values adjusted by the "Phantom Strategy." Our findings support the use of anthropometric measurements as a simplified method for diagnosing lipodystrophy and monitoring body composition alterations in people living with HIV/AIDS


Introducción: no existe consenso con respecto a métodos precisos y de bajo coste para diagnosticar la lipodistrofia en personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). El objetivo de este estudio es proponer puntos de corte antropométricos para el diagnóstico de lipodistrofia entre las PVVS. Métodos: se incluyeron 106 PVVS (hombres = 65, mujeres = 41) en tratamiento antirretroviral que se clasificaron clínicamente en dos grupos de "lipodistrofia" o "no lipodistrofia". Las mediciones antropométricas incluyeron 19 regiones de parámetros corporales y 6 medidas de pliegues cutáneos. El índice de Youden se utilizó para establecer puntos de corte antropométricos para el diagnóstico de lipodistrofia utilizando la media de los datos antropométricos (denominados "originales") junto con los valores del "índice Z" (IZ), que fueron ajustados por la "estrategia Phantom". Los puntos de corte se propusieron cuando las mediciones antropométricas "originales" y los valores de IZ fueron estadísticamente significativos con un valor p < 0,01 y un área bajo la curva (AUC) superior al 70%. Se evaluó el tamaño del efecto para verificar la influencia de la lipodistrofia en cada medida antropométrica. Resultados: se propusieron puntos de corte específicos según el sexo para el diagnóstico de lipodistrofia en PVVS: 17 puntos usando las medidas antropométricas "originales" y 20 usando los valores de IZ (tamaño del efecto promedio entre 1.0 y 1.1, y AUC = 76.7% y 78%). Conclusiones: se propusieron puntos de corte antropométricos para el diagnóstico de lipodistrofia. Las mediciones antropométricas son un método simplificado para diagnosticar y monitorear los cambios de composición corporal en las PVVS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Lipodistrofia Associada ao HIV/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19309, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848435

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in sella dimensions and shape between growing patients with Class I, Class II, and Class III skeletal malocclusions, evaluated through morphometric analysis. Seventy-eight subjects aged between 9 and 13 years were selected and assigned to either the Class I, Class II, or Class III groups according to the measured ANB angle (the angle between the Nasion, skeletal A-point and skeletal B-point). Six landmarks were digitised to outline the shape of the sella turcica. Linear measurements of the sella length and depth were also performed. Procrustes superimposition, principal component analysis, and canonical variate analysis were used to evaluate the differences in sella shape between the three groups. A one-way MANOVA and Tukey's or Games-Howell tests were used to evaluate the presence of differences in sella dimensions between the three groups, gender, and age. The canonical variate analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in sella shape between the Class I and the Class II groups, mostly explained by the CV1 axis and related to the posterior clinoidal process and the floor of the sella. No differences were found regarding linear measurements, except between subjects with different age. These differences in sella shape, that are present in the earlier developmental stages, could be used as a predictor of facial growth, but further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe I/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe I/fisiopatologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/fisiopatologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/fisiopatologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Sela Túrcica/fisiopatologia
13.
Obes Facts ; 12(6): 606-617, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight control through lifestyle interventions represents a suitable strategy to avoid the metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive comorbidities associated with overweight and obesity. Reduced testosterone (T) levels are a worsening factor in overweight males. However, prognostic parameters of long-term weight loss are not readily available. Here, we tested the prognostic value of early variations of anthropometric and hormonal parameters, with a focus on ultrasound stratigraphy (US) and the reduction in body mass index (BMI) associated with nutritional counseling/lifestyle interventions at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: Ninety-five male subjects (BMI 25-34.9 kg/m2) who had undergone nutritional/lifestyle interventions, were retrospectively analyzed for: body weight and composition; US evaluation at the triceps (TRC), abdominal (ABD), and thigh (THI) areas; and circulating levels of T, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Sixty patients (63.2%) completed the 6-month follow-up program. RESULTS: At 6 months, a significant reduction in BMI (26.38 ± 1.55 vs. 31.5 ± 5.0 basal, p < 0.001) and increase in T levels (18 ± 5.4 vs. 9.5 ± 2.3 nmol/L basal, p = 0.04) were observed. Subjects in the highest quartile of the BMI reduction at 6 months (ΔBMI 6 mo), compared to the lowest, showed a significant difference at the 2-month follow-up variation of BMI (p = 0.025), and fat and muscle thickness at the TRC (both p < 0.001) and ABD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) areas. Variation of TRC muscle thickness at 2 months was the only independent predictor of ΔBMI 6 mo in the multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: BMI evaluation and US represent useful monitoring tools in the follow-up of nutritional/lifestyle interventions for overweight-to-mildly obese patients. The important effects on motivation and adherence to the intervention program are to be considered.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/terapia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
14.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 58(5): 865-869, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474399

RESUMO

Currently available methods for analysis and planning of post-traumatic or congenital deformity correction of the foot have some limitations. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish reference lines and angles (RLAs), and the resulting ratios, based on reproducible anatomic points on sagittal feet radiographs. The key starting point of our evaluation was the previously undescribed length and position of the talus joint line (TJL), from the border of the articular surface of the talus and the posterior process of talus. First, we calculated the relationships between the TJL and the axes of the foot, particularly the anatomic and mechanical lateral talometatarsal angle axes of the first metatarsal. Then, we assessed the relationships with the calcaneus, particularly the lateral heel angle. Finally, we calculated the parameters (angles and coefficients k) derived from the TJL and the foot-bearing points (foot quadrilateral). A total of 64 normal radiographs from 55 patients were analyzed. The values that resulted are as follows: anatomic lateral talometatarsal angle = 28.5° ± 4.5°, mechanical lateral talometatarsal angle = 23.6° ± 3.2°, lateral heel angle = 15.2° ± 3.4°, foot quadrilateral: abc = 144.6° ± 9.4°, bcd = 31.3° ± 2.6°, cda = 79.2° ± 9.8°, dab = 105.0° ± 8.3°, k1 = 3.09 ± 0.4, k2 = 3.77 ± 0.78, and k3 = 1.56 ± 0.24. Sagittal plane reference lines and angles are proposed, providing quantitative values for reference. These parameters have the potential to be easily implemented in foot deformity analysis and correction planning.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Deformidades do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Deformidades do Pé/cirurgia , Tálus/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações Tarsianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Deformidades do Pé/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106145, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514922

RESUMO

This aim of this study was to assess the relationship, if any, of scrotal surface temperature gradient (SSTG), scrotal circumference (SC) and testicular covering thickness (TCT) with semen quality in Murrah buffalo breeding bulls. For this, buffalo breeding bulls (n = 130) were selected from four different semen centres. The ejaculates of each bull were evaluated for ejaculate volume (EV), mass motility (MM); concentration (SPC), motility (SM), viability and abnormalities (SA). The SSTG, SC and TCT of individual bulls were quantified using digital infrared thermography, measuring tape and ultrasonography, respectively. The bulls were divided into three groups on the basis of SSTG (≤ 4 °C, 4.1 to 6.4 °C and ≥ 6.5 °C), and SC (<31, 31 to 35 and> 35 cm) and into two groups on the basis of TCT (5 to 7.2 and 7.4 to 10.4 mm). Results indicated the bulls with a larger temperature gradient and larger SC produced greater quality semen than those with a lesser temperature gradient. The MM (P < 0.01) and SPC (P < 0.05) varied among the groups along with SSTG. Among the SC groups the EV, MM, SPC and SM (P < 0.01), and viability (P < 0.05) varied as did the SC. The bulls with a lesser TCT had a lesser SA (P < 0.05) as compared to the group with the greater TCT. Buffalo bulls having a greater SSTG, SC and lesser TCT produced semen of greater quality and these variables may be used as criteria for breeding soundness evaluation.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Raios Infravermelhos , Escroto/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Termografia/métodos , Animais , Biometria , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Búfalos/anatomia & histologia , Índia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Escroto/anatomia & histologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Termografia/veterinária
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5683-5689, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Due to lack of normal reference values of forward and lateral reach tests for Saudi young adults, this study aimed to formulate normative values of the forward reach test and lateral reach test and to assess the correlation between the demographic variables and the reach test results. MATERIAL AND METHODS We randomly assigned 240 normal young Saudi adults ages 20-23 years to assess reach test scores in forward and lateral directions. All the subjects had been measured for distance reached in forward and lateral direction on graph paper fixed to a white board. RESULTS The mean and standard deviation of forward and lateral reach distances were 25±8.14 cm and 19.78±5.70 cm, respectively. Significant differences were found between males and females for forward reach and lateral reach scores (p<0.001). Forward reach and lateral reach values showed a moderate correlation with height, lower limb length, and upper limb length. The intra-rater reliability assessed by intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.91 and 0.92 for the forward and lateral reach test scores, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study established reference values of forward and lateral reach scores for Saudi young adults ages 20-23 years. Height, upper limb length, and lower limb length were moderately correlated with the reach distances in forward and lateral directions. Males performed longer reach distances than females.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Antropometria/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Psicometria , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 45(10): 2819-2829, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375217

RESUMO

Precise measurement of luminal diameter in arteries is important when planning interventional vascular procedures in patients. Measuring wall volume may be important in detecting early artery disease and in the assessment of treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. An ex vivo phantom using porcine arteries was used to evaluate the accuracy with which (i) B-mode ultrasound, (ii) 3-D tomographic ultrasound (tUS), (iii) computed tomography (CT) and (iv) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured length, diameters and volume. The mean error in inner-to-inner diameter measurements by B mode, tUS, CT and MRI were 0.08 ± 0.26, -0.73 ± 0.96 mm, 0.09 ± 0.55 and 0.60 ± 1.01 mm, respectively. The mean error in outer-to-outer diameter measurements by B mode, tUS, CT and MRI were -1.33 ± 0.61, -1.03 ± 0.35, 0.02 ± 1.00 and -0.47 ± 1.32 mm, respectively. The mean error in volume measurements by B mode, tUS, CT and MRI were -0.54 ± 0.62, -0.06 ± 0.09, 0.01 ± 0.18 and -0.20 ± 0.32 cm3, respectively. Errors in length and diameters remain within clinically acceptable thresholds where MRI was the least accurate. tUS was the most accurate method of volume measurement.


Assuntos
Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Artérias Carótidas/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Torácica Interna/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Animais , Imagens de Fantasmas , Artéria Renal/anatomia & histologia , Suínos
18.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(4): 239-244, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182764

RESUMO

Objetivos: Validar distintos métodos destinados a estimar el peso en pacientes pediátricos en urgencias. Metodología: Serie de casos prospectivo con análisis transversal en pacientes de 1 mes hasta 14 años de edad en dos hospitales terciarios en el País Vasco (España). Se aplicaron 9 herramientas distintas de estimación de peso y se comparó el resultado con el peso real, calculando índices de concordancia (CCI), media de la diferencia y proporción de mediciones con un error del peso estimado inferior al 10% y 20% con respecto al peso real. Resultados: Se realizaron mediciones en 515 pacientes pediátricos. Todas las estimaciones presentaron una alta concordancia con respecto al peso real. La estimación parental del peso resultó la estrategia con menor margen de error (86,5% de mediciones con error < 10%), seguida de la Regla RCP del Hospital del Niño Jesús (63,5% de mediciones con error <10%). Las fórmulas de estimación basadas en edad o antropometría no ofrecieron proporciones superiores al 40% de mediciones con un error < 10%. Conclusiones: La estimación parental es una herramienta válida para la estimación del peso en niños. Cuando no está disponible esa opción, la Regla de RCP del Hospital del Niño Jesús sería la herramienta de elección


Objectives: To determine the validity of different ways of estimating body weight in children attended in the emergency department. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study of a series of patients between 1 month and 14 years of age attended in 2 tertiary care hospitals in the Basque Country, Spain. We used 9 different ways to estimate body weight and compared the estimates to real weight by calculating the mean intraclass correlation coefficient, the mean difference between real and estimated weights, and the proportion of measurements within 10% and 20% of the real weight. Results: Five hundred fifteen pediatric patients were weighed and their weights estimated. All estimates had a high degree of agreement with real weight. A parent's weight estimate performed best: 86.5% of parental estimates were within 10% of the real weight. The next best estimate was achieved with the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rule developed at Hospital del Niño Jesús: 65% of the estimates were within the 10% margin. Fewer than 40% of the weight estimates based on formulas using anthropometric measurements were within the 10% margin. Conclusions: A parent's estimate of weight is a valid approximation in children of all ages. When this estimate is not available, the CPR rule of Hospital del Niño Jesús would be the method of choice


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/métodos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/organização & administração , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 41(4): 213-218, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183098

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: La medición de la movilidad torácica tiene importancia en la valoración clínica de niños con afecciones del sistema respiratorio; sin embargo, se sabe que los valores pueden cambiar de acuerdo con las características de la población de cada país. El objetivo del estudio fue describir los valores de la movilidad torácica en niños colombianos. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 2 colegios de la ciudad de Cali (Colombia) mediante un muestreo aleatorizado simple con asignación proporcional por grupo etario. Se evaluó la movilidad torácica con cirtometría y se tomaron las medidas antropométricas peso, talla e IMC para la edad. Resultados: Se incluyó a 79 niños y 72 niñas que, en su mayoría, tuvieron un IMC normal para la edad (62,3%). Los promedios de cirtometría axilar y xifoidea fueron 4,3 ± 1,1 cm y 4,1 ± 1,1 cm respectivamente. Los niños de 11años tuvieron una cirtometría axilar mayor que las niñas de esa misma edad (4,3 ± 0,5 vs. 3,7 ± 0,9; p = 0,006). En las niñas, la cirtometría axilar desciende a medida que aumenta la edad (p = 0,040). Conclusiones: En las edades estudiadas la movilidad torácica difiere entre niños y niñas, probablemente porque el desarrollo de la composición corporal varía durante la pubertad y es diferencial por sexo


Background and objective: Although the measurement of thoracic mobility is important in the clinical assessment of children with respiratory system disorders, it is known that the values can change according to the characteristics of the population of each country. The aim of the study was to report the thoracic mobility values in healthy Colombian children between 8 and 11 years old. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 2schools in the city of Cali, Colombia, using simple random sampling with proportional allocation by age group. The thoracic mobility was measured with cirtometry (measurement of circumferences), and the anthropometric measurements recorded for weight, height, and BMI-for-age. Results: A total of 79 boys and 72 girls were included. Most of them had a normal BMI-for-age (62.3%), with mean axillary and xiphoid cirtometry being 4.3 ± 1.1 cm and 4.1 ± 1.1 cm, respectively. Eleven-year-old boys had a higher axillary cirtometry than girls of the same age (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 3.7 ± 0.9, p = .006). In girls, axillary cirtometry decreased as age increased (p = .040). Conclusions: At the ages studied, thoracic mobility differs between boys and girls, probably because the development of body composition varies during puberty and is differentiated by gender


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Parede Torácica/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Colômbia , Análise de Dados , Análise de Variância
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(6): e00065618, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291419

RESUMO

The study's objectives: compare self-report measures of weight and height with direct measures; assess the impact of these discrepancies on body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity; and apply correction models to the self-report measures and assess the degree of improvement in the corrected measures produced with the use of these models. A cross-sectional study was performed, assessing 4,151 adults (18 to 60 years) participating in the São Paulo Megacity Epidemiological Study. Linear regression models stratified by sex were proposed for correction of self-reported measures. Agreement was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient for the direct measures, self-report measures, and corrected measures, and kappa coefficient for BMI classification categories. Self-reported weight and the resulting BMI were underestimated, while height was overestimated, compared to direct measures. With all the correction models, the corrected measures were closer to the direct measures. Prevalence rates for excess weight, calculated by self-report measures, were underestimated by 24% in men and by 28% in women; with corrections, the underestimation decreased to 8% and 10%, respectively. The results showed moderate agreement for self-report measures and substantial agreement for corrected measures compared to direct measures. The use of correction equations for self-report data proved to be a useful method for producing more trustworthy estimates of prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population, usually estimated from self-report measures of weight and height in population surveys.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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