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1.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48227

RESUMO

A Iniciativa Brasileira de Reprodutibilidade é uma iniciativa multicêntrica para estimar a reprodutibilidade da ciência biomédica brasileira. Financiada pelo Instituto Serrapilheira, nossa meta é reproduzir uma amostra de 60 a 80 experimentos de artigos brasileiros, inicialmente em 3 técnicas diferentes: ensaio de viabilidade celular por MTT, PCR quantitativo - RT-PCR e labirinto elevado em cruz). O sitio web traz informação sobre publicações, atividades, parcerias, eventos e outros projetos do grupo


Assuntos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa Biomédica
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086823

RESUMO

The magnitude and nature of the COVID-19 pandemic prevents public health policies from relying on coercive enforcement. Practicing social distancing, wearing masks and staying at home becomes voluntary and conditional on the behavior of others. We present the results of a large-scale survey experiment in nine countries with representative samples of the population. We find that both empirical expectations (what others do) and normative expectations (what others approve of) play a significant role in compliance, beyond the effect of any other individual or group characteristic. In our vignette experiment, respondents evaluate the likelihood of compliance with social distancing and staying at home of someone similar to them in a hypothetical scenario. When empirical and normative expectations of individuals are high, respondents' evaluation of the vignette's character's compliance likelihood goes up by 55% (relative to the low expectations condition). Similar results are obtained when looking at self-reported compliance among those with high expectations. Our results are moderated by individuals' trust in government and trust in science. Holding expectations high, the effect of trusting science is substantial and significant in our vignette experiment (22% increase in compliance likelihood), and even larger in self-reported compliance (76% and 127% increase before and after the lockdown). By contrast, trusting the government only generates modest effects. At the aggregate level, the country-level trust in science, and not in government, becomes a strong predictor of compliance.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Motivação , Pandemias , Política Pública , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Mol Cell ; 81(11): 2261-2265, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087174

RESUMO

COVID-19 altered our lives and pushed scientific research to operate at breakneck speed, leading to significant breakthroughs in record time. We asked experts in the field about the challenges they faced in transitioning, rapidly but safely, to working on the virus while navigating the shutdown. Their voices converge on the importance of teamwork, forging new collaborations, and working toward a shared goal.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Poesia como Assunto
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065637

RESUMO

Sensitivity, which denotes the proportion of subjects correctly given a positive assignment out of all subjects who are actually positive for the outcome, indicates how well a test can classify subjects who truly have the outcome of interest. Specificity, which denotes the proportion of subjects correctly given a negative assignment out of all subjects who are actually negative for the outcome, indicates how well a test can classify subjects who truly do not have the outcome of interest. Positive predictive value reflects the proportion of subjects with a positive test result who truly have the outcome of interest. Negative predictive value reflects the proportion of subjects with a negative test result who truly do not have the outcome of interest. Sensitivity and specificity are inversely related, wherein one increases as the other decreases, but are generally considered stable for a given test, whereas positive and negative predictive values do inherently vary with pre-test probability (e.g., changes in population disease prevalence). This article will further detail the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values using a recent real-world example from the medical literature.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063505

RESUMO

The psychedelic effects of some plants and fungi have been known and deliberately exploited by humans for thousands of years. Fungi, particularly mushrooms, are the principal source of naturally occurring psychedelics. The mushroom extract, psilocybin has historically been used as a psychedelic agent for religious and spiritual ceremonies, as well as a therapeutic option for neuropsychiatric conditions. Psychedelic use was largely associated with the "hippie" counterculture movement, which, in turn, resulted in a growing, and still lingering, negative stigmatization for psychedelics. As a result, in 1970, the U.S. government rescheduled psychedelics as Schedule 1 drugs, ultimately ending scientific research on psychedelics. This prohibition on psychedelic drug research significantly delayed advances in medical knowledge on the therapeutic uses of agents such as psilocybin. A 2004 pilot study from the University of California, Los Angeles, exploring the potential of psilocybin treatment in patients with advanced-stage cancer managed to reignite interest and significantly renewed efforts in psilocybin research, heralding a new age in exploration for psychedelic therapy. Since then, significant advances have been made in characterizing the chemical properties of psilocybin as well as its therapeutic uses. This review will explore the potential of psilocybin in the treatment of neuropsychiatry-related conditions, examining recent advances as well as current research. This is not a systematic review.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Psilocibina/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Alucinógenos/química , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Psilocibina/química , Psilocibina/farmacologia
7.
Fam Med ; 53(6): 461-466, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Scholarship is recognized as a challenge in many family medicine residency programs. Among evaluations of scholarship curricula, few describe resident experiences of such interventions. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we measured resident confidence, satisfaction, and participation before and after implementing a new scholarship curriculum. METHODS: The redesigned curriculum included a structured project timeline, resident research in progress meetings, faculty mentorship, scholarly skills workshops, and mentored journal clubs. We conducted a curriculum evaluation via surveys of residents prior to implementation and after years 1 and 2, measuring satisfaction with the scholarly environment and opportunities, and confidence and participation in specific scholarly activities using Likert scales from 1 (least confidence) to 5. RESULTS: Compared to baseline (n=28), after 2 years (n=27) of the curriculum, residents reported increased mean confidence in critical appraisal of scientific articles (2.6±1.1 to 3.3±0.7, P=.007), carrying out a scholarly project (2.5±0.8 to 3.4±1.0, P=.005), and writing an abstract (3.0±0.8 to 3.8±0.7, P=.002). As compared to the first year, more residents in the second year participated in quality improvement projects (7.1% vs 29.6%, P=.031) and wrote conference abstracts (10.7% vs 37.0%, P=.022). Over the same period, those very satisfied with the scholarly environment increased from 0 (0%) to 8 (29.6%, P=.017). The June 2020 survey identified increased interest in scholarship because of the antiracism movement (51.9%) and COVID-19 pandemic (40.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a redesigned scholarship curriculum was associated with increases in family medicine resident scholarship confidence and satisfaction.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Bolsas de Estudo/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Competência Profissional , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 638605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095051

RESUMO

Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOP) provide structured frameworks for the systematic organization of research data and knowledge. The AOP framework follows a set of key principles that allow for broad application across diverse disciplines related to human health, including toxicology, pharmacology, virology and medical research. The COVID-19 pandemic engages a great number of scientists world-wide and data is increasing with exponential speed. Diligent data management strategies are employed but approaches for systematically organizing the data-derived information and knowledge are lacking. We believe AOPs can play an important role in improving interpretation and efficient application of scientific understanding of COVID-19. Here, we outline a newly initiated effort, the CIAO project (https://www.ciao-covid.net/), to streamline collaboration between scientists across the world toward development of AOPs for COVID-19, and describe the overarching aims of the effort, as well as the expected outcomes and research support that they will provide.


Assuntos
Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(2): 112-114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105134

RESUMO

This is the first of an ongoing series to provide a background into reading medical research literature for the SOF medic.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Militares , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0234221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956834

RESUMO

This study compared the results of data collected from a longitudinal query analysis of the MEDLINE database hosted on multiple platforms that include PubMed, EBSCOHost, Ovid, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The goal was to identify variations among the search results on the platforms after controlling for search query syntax. We devised twenty-nine cases of search queries comprised of five semantically equivalent queries per case to search against the five MEDLINE database platforms. We ran our queries monthly for a year and collected search result count data to observe changes. We found that search results varied considerably depending on MEDLINE platform. Reasons for variations were due to trends in scholarly publication such as publishing individual papers online first versus complete issues. Some other reasons were metadata differences in bibliographic records; differences in the levels of specificity of search fields provided by the platforms and large fluctuations in monthly search results based on the same query. Database integrity and currency issues were observed as each platform updated its MEDLINE data throughout the year. Specific biomedical bibliographic databases are used to inform clinical decision-making, create systematic reviews, and construct knowledge bases for clinical decision support systems. They serve as essential information retrieval and discovery tools to help identify and collect research data and are used in a broad range of fields and as the basis of multiple research designs. This study should help clinicians, researchers, librarians, informationists, and others understand how these platforms differ and inform future work in their standardization.


Assuntos
Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , MEDLINE , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Ferramenta de Busca/métodos
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 May 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042088

RESUMO

The impact and the universality of the pandemic by SARS-CoV-2 has caused the need to have information quickly and accessible for the benefit of decision-making among healthcare professionals. In 10 months the scientific production on this new coronavirus has exceeded the number of 66 thousand articles, according to the LitCovid database, created by the National Library of Medicine, doubling and tripling every few weeks. This same urgency has characterized some of the main features of this voluminous production, in addition to its continuous and exponential growth, such as greater dissemination in open access and preprint repositories, a certain acceleration in the manuscript review process by editorials and an abundance of opinion articles, recommendations or comments compared to a smaller number of original articles with clinical data from large groups of patients.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , COVID-19 , Editoração/tendências , Acesso à Informação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias
13.
MEDICC Rev ; 23(2): 12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974610

RESUMO

Cuba has five COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials and is on track to receive emergency use authorization from the country's regulatory agency to begin mass vaccination with two of those candidates: Abdala and SOBERANA 02. Results from phase 1 and 2 trials of these vaccines, the first developed and produced in Latin America, have been encouraging, both in terms of safety and immunogenicity. The ongoing phase 3 trials will continue to look at safety, together with efficacy; parallel intervention studies involving over a million people in Havana will begin generating data on effectiveness. Coordination between Cuba's biotechnology sector and its public health system-particularly throughout the different levels of primary care-to control and treat COVID-19 is a cornerstone of the Cuban strategy and one that could serve as a blueprint for future pandemics. Another Cuban product, itolizumab, is showing positive results mitigating cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Developed in collaboration with Biocon (India), itolizumab is administered under an expanded access program to treat vulnerable populations in Cuba. Marshaling complementary capacities of dozens of institutions belonging to BioCubaFarma-the country's biotech conglomerate-and developing therapies, vaccines and medical technologies together, is another cornerstone of Cuba's strategy to combat COVID-19 and improve population health. The Molecular Immunology Center (CIM) is a key player in this strategy. Founded in 1992, CIM is a powerhouse in monoclonal antibody research and production, with 6 registered products and 22 in the pipeline. Known for several novel therapeutic cancer treatments, CIM has over two decades' experience producing complex recombinant proteins in mammalian cells on an industrial scale. Once Cuba's Innovation Committee (convened in January 2020 as part of the National COVID-19 Prevention & Control Plan) determined Cuban researchers would pursue protein subunit vaccine candidates, they turned to CIM to produce the required receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, among other responsibilities. CIM's General Director, Dr Eduardo Ojito-Magaz, is a chemical engineer and holds a master's degree in biotechnology. He spoke with MEDICC Review just days before 1.7 million Havana residents began participating in the country's largest intervention study with the COVID-19 vaccines his center helped make possible.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Biotecnologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuba/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int Heart J ; 62(3): 465-469, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053997

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of healthcare professionals, especially vulnerable physicians such as young or female cardiologists. In Japan, they are facing the fear of not only infection but also weak and unstable employment, difficulties in medical practice and training anxiety, implications for research and studying abroad, as well as worsened mental health issues due to social isolation. Conversely, some positive aspects are seen through the holding of remote meetings and conferences. Here, we suggest a new working style for cardiologists, as well as offer solutions to the medical employment problems that have been taken place in Japan.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Cardiologistas/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Médicas/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cardiologistas/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Saúde Mental , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Distanciamento Físico , Sexismo/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Populações Vulneráveis
18.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(1): 148-153, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health emergency is vulnerable time where maintaining ethical principles is obligatory while doing research, on the other hand, it is the same time when breach in ethics is much likely whenever a researcher is unaware, unprepared or hastens to do research. The aim of this study was to assess ethical issues of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related research proposals submitted during the early stages of pandemic in Nepal. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of COVID-19 related research proposals and their informed consent document submitted to the ethical review board at Nepal Health Research Council was done for the study. The analysis was done as per the National Ethical Guidelines, Standard Operating Procedure for Health Research in Nepal and World Health Organization guidelines for infectious disease outbreak, 2016 under ethically relevant headings. Descriptive data were analyzed in SPSS v24. RESULTS: The major issues were observed in the informed consent documents where 55% were lacking principal investigator's contact information, 68% not having participant selection criteria, 70% without clear informed consent taking process, 57% without explanation of possible risks. Similarly, 68% of the interventional studies' consent form didn't mention possible adverse events and mitigation mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the research proposals related to COVID-19 were devoid of major ethical elements which took longer time for receiving approval and eventually delayed the opportunity for evidence generation in critical time. More attention is needed to increase awareness and to develop capacity of researchers, reviewers, ethics committees and relevant stakeholders at the time of health emergencies.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Revisão Ética , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 779-783, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042684

RESUMO

The data produced during a research project are too often collected for the sole purpose of the study, therefore hindering profitable reuse in similar contexts. The growing need to counteract this trend has recently led to the formalization of the FAIR principles that aim to make (meta)data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable, for humans and machines. Since their introduction, efforts are ongoing to encourage FAIR principles adoption and to implement solutions based on them. This paper reports on the FAIR-compliant registry we developed to collect and serve metadata describing clinical trials. The design of the registry is based on the FAIR Data Point (FDP) specifications, the state-of-the-art reference for FAIRified metadata sharing. To map the metadata relevant to our use case, we have extended the DCAT-based semantic model of the FDP adopting well-established ontologies in the biomedical and clinical domain, like the Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO). Current implementation is based on the Molgenis software and provides both a user interface and a REST API for metadata discovering. At present the registry is being loaded with the metadata of the 18 clinical studies included in the 'I FAIR Program', a project finalised to the dissemination of FAIR best practices among the clinical researchers in Sardinia (Italy). After a testing phase, the registry will be publicly available, while the new model and the source code will be released open source.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Metadados , Humanos , Itália , Sistema de Registros , Software
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 233-237, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042740

RESUMO

Pseudonymization plays a vital role in medical research. In Germany, the Technologie- und Methodenplattform für die vernetzte medizinische Forschung e.V. (TMF) has developed guidelines on how to create pseudonyms and how to handle personally identifiable information (PII) during this process. An open-source implementation of a pseudonymization service following these guidelines and therefore recommended by the TMF is the so-called "Mainzelliste". This web application supports a REST-API for (de-) pseudonymization. For security reasons, a complex session and tokening mechanism for each (de-) pseudonymization is required and a careful interaction between front- and backend to ensure a correct handling of PII. The objective of this work is the development of a library to simplify the integration and usage of the Mainzelliste's API in a TMF conform way. The frontend library uses JavaScript while the backend component is based on Java with an optional Spring Boot extension. The library is available under MIT open-source license from https://github.com/DanielPreciado-Marquez/MainzelHandler.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Software
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