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2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1510-1511, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438206

RESUMO

We leverage Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) to produce synthetic free-text medical data with low re-identification risk, and apply these to replicate machine learning solutions. We trained GAN models to generate free-text cancer pathology reports. Decision models were trained using synthetic datasets reported performance metrics that were statistically similar to models trained using original test data. Our results further the use of GANs to generate synthetic data for collaborative research and re-use of machine learning models.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Pesquisa Biomédica
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2169-2197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota play a positive role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: This study aims to elucidate the "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis and to provide guidance for prevention and intervention in CRC. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from their inceptions to August 2018, and 75 articles and 25 conference abstracts were included and analysed after identification and screening. RESULTS: The concentrations of SCFAs in CRC patients and individuals with a high risk of CRC were higher than those in healthy individuals. The protective mechanism of SCFAs against CRC has been described in three aspects: epigenetics, immunology and molecular signalling pathways. Many food and plant extracts that were fermented by microorganisms produced SCFAs that play positive roles with preventive and therapeutic effects on CRC. The "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis was constructed by summarizing the pertinent literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the basic research and practical application of SCFAs by assessing the protective effect of SCFAs on CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(7): 668-676, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412182

RESUMO

Knowledge gained from observational cohort studies has dramatically advanced the prevention and treatment of diseases. Many of these cohorts, however, are small, lack diversity, or do not provide comprehensive phenotype data. The All of Us Research Program plans to enroll a diverse group of at least 1 million persons in the United States in order to accelerate biomedical research and improve health. The program aims to make the research results accessible to participants, and it is developing new approaches to generate, access, and make data broadly available to approved researchers. All of Us opened for enrollment in May 2018 and currently enrolls participants 18 years of age or older from a network of more than 340 recruitment sites. Elements of the program protocol include health questionnaires, electronic health records (EHRs), physical measurements, the use of digital health technology, and the collection and analysis of biospecimens. As of July 2019, more than 175,000 participants had contributed biospecimens. More than 80% of these participants are from groups that have been historically underrepresented in biomedical research. EHR data on more than 112,000 participants from 34 sites have been collected. The All of Us data repository should permit researchers to take into account individual differences in lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, environment, and biologic characteristics in order to advance precision diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medicina de Precisão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(supp 3): e20190132, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365608

RESUMO

With the recent changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases in Brazil, research funding has been changing in a manner that does not properly consider biodiversity and poverty-related diseases. The burden of disease and the affected neglected populations need to be part of the equation in developeding countries with limited funding.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Medicina Tropical , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/classificação , Humanos
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180414, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411255

RESUMO

The deep sea remains the least known biome. Despite this fact, anthropic activities have affected these regions in various ways. The objective of this study was to outline the scientific production scenario based on deep sea research and to analyze trends present in the literature. For this, the bibliographical resources available from the Web of Science (WoS) were surveyed. Between 1987 and 2016, 11,079 articles on the deep sea were published. Growth was over 100% from the first to second decade and 75% from the second to third. The most productive countries were the USA, Germany, France, England and Japan. Of the 404 journals that published articles on the deep sea, 10% accounted for approximately 60% of the total published articles. The keyword with the highest occurrence was "diversity". In the first two decades, the keywords with the greatest "strength" were related to research on mining, especially for hydrocarbons. The description of new species and the analysis of the effects of climate change appear to be emerging trends in deep sea research. Mining continues to be primarily responsible for driving the development of deep sea research.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oceanos e Mares , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Biodiversidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Mudança Climática , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Alemanha , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Água do Mar , Estados Unidos
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 298-302, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437933

RESUMO

Research data generated in large projects raise challenges about not only data analytics but also data quality assessments and data governance. The provenance of a data set - that is the history of data sets - holds information relevant to technicians and non-technicians and is able to answer questions regarding data quality, transparency, and more. We propose an implementation roadmap to extract, store, and utilize provenance records in order to make provenance available to data analysts, research subjects, privacy officers, and machines (machine readability). Each aspect is tackled separately, resulting in the implementation of a provenance toolbox. We aim to do so within the context of HiGHmed, a research consortium established within the medical informatics initiative in Germany. In this testbed of federated IT-infrastructures, the toolbox shall assist each stakeholder in answering domain-specific and domain-agnostic questions regarding the provenance of data sets. This way, we will improve data re-use, transparency, and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Informática Médica , Alemanha , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 308-312, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437935

RESUMO

Exploring the topical evolution patterns and temporal trends of hypertension can promote knowledge communication among experts, and is of great significance to understand the profile and frontiers of chronic disease. Current popular topic detection mainly focuses on two directions: one is based on social network analysis (SNA), the other is based on the topic models. Aiming at distinguishing their similarities and differences, this paper adopts the community detection method and expanded topic model Dirichlet-multinomial regression (DMR) respectively to detect the topic distribution and evolution trends of hypertension research. A total of 26,717 articles in the PubMed database were used as examples to construct the MeSH Terms co-occurrence matrix. It is found that hypertension literature is mainly concentrated on three communities and five research topics. MeSH Terms obtained from SNA are more specific and clearer, while the DMR has an advantage in exploring the evolution patterns of various themes.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pesquisa Biomédica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , PubMed
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 328-332, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the scientific reproducibility of biomedical research studies by query and analysis of semantic provenance graphs generated from provenance metadata terms extracted from PubMed articles. METHODS: We develop a new semantic provenance graph generation algorithm that uses a provenance ontology developed as part of the Provenance for Clinical and Health Research (ProvCaRe) project. The ProvCaRe project has processed and extracted provenance metadata from more than 1.6 million full text articles from the PubMed database. RESULTS: The semantic provenance graph generation algorithm is evaluated using provenance terms extracted from 75 selected articles describing sleep medicine research studies. In addition, we use eight provenance queries to evaluate the quality of semantic provenance graphs generated by the new algorithm. CONCLUSION: The ProvCaRe project has created a unique resource to characterize the reproducibility of biomedical research studies and the semantic provenance graph generation algorithm enables users to effectively query and analyze the provenance metadata in the ProvCaRe knowledge repository.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Pesquisa Biomédica , Metadados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Semântica
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 363-367, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437946

RESUMO

Methods for cardiac tissue engineering and application in experiments are core technologies developed at the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology in Göttingen. As is the case in many academic research laboratories data capture and documentation may be improved to latest methods of digital research. A comprehensive information system infrastructure is the foundation of further advances toward automation of lab processes. A data management system concept is proposed and prototypically deployed that enables traceability of assets within the lab and reproducibility of published assays and results. The prototype integrates existing electronic lab notebook, experiment result database, and a newly introduced research data management system by means of a custom developed portal and integration component. The architecture concept and developed integration tools explore connection of routine experimental work in a biomedical research lab to a universal infrastructure of data.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Engenharia Tecidual , Gestão do Conhecimento , Laboratórios , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1398-1402, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438156

RESUMO

Efficient access to clinical data by investigators is critical for data-driven biomedical research. Mediated query is commonly adopted to facilitate data access for investigators. However, the query mediation process remains a black-box. This study analyzed the email-based dialogues between investigators and clinical data query mediators from three institutions. We identify discussion topics and their frequencies, model task flows, and analyze user needs for query mediation support revealed from the dialogues. While the datasets between different institutions are distinct in some notable respects, we find that together they provide common insights for streamlining data access. From our findings, we conclude an intelligent dialogue-based query support model is feasible to automate human-mediated clinical data access for investigators and stakeholders.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Pesquisadores , Humanos
14.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(28): 2166-2168, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434387
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1530-1531, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438216

RESUMO

Exposomics is a field of research which is receiving growing attention. In this work, we characterize the exposome research landscape and update our previous study of formal knowledge representation approaches to this field. We applied a deductive analysis using the National Center for Biomedical Ontology Recommender for comparability of the results generated from a literature dataset and newly available ontologies with our previously published work. We highlight the changes in ontology recommendations.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Pesquisa Biomédica
16.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 72-75, jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010417

RESUMO

In the clinical research process, the formulation of a well-founded hypothesis and objectives concordant with the research question are key to the proper conduct of the project. The following article reviews the fundamental principles for the adequate formulation of hypotheses and objectives of clinical research projects, providing practical recommendations and examples.


En el proceso de investigación clínica, la formulación de una hipótesis bien fundamentada y objetivos concordantes con la pregunta de investigación, son claves para la adecuada conducción del proyecto. El siguiente artículo revisa los principios fundamentales para la formulación adecuada de hipótesis y objetivos de proyectos de investigación clínica, proporcionando recomendaciones prácticas y ejemplos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Testes de Hipótese , Pesquisa Biomédica , Metas
17.
Rev. Hosp. El Cruce ; (24): 13-18, 18/07/2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1006633

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: comparar la calidad de la presentación escrita del Trabajo de Investigación Bibliográfica (TIBI) de las cohortes 2010 (c10) y 2013 (c13). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo. Se analizó: ortografía, nomenclatura microbiológica (NM) sintaxis y léxico; número de citas bibliográficas, presentación según Vancouver (NV), adecuación entre número de citas, publicaciones periódicas y libros respecto de la guía (GR). Se resumió en media, y porcentaje; chi2e IC 95%, p <0,05. RESULTADOS: n: 107 planillas. En ortografía, NM, sintaxis y léxico se evidenció diferencia favorable a la c10. Promedio de citas en c10: 25,74, en c13: 28,61, p<0,05. El 27% y el 72,7% de cada cohorte cumplió con el número de publicaciones. El 84,1% y 90,9% de cada cohorte cumplió con los libros. El 15,9% y el 25% cumplieron con la presentación según NV. CONCLUSIONES: Se observa empeoramiento en la c13, por una disminución en el seguimiento de la GR.


OBJECTIVE: to compare the quality of the written presentation of the Bibliographic Research Work (TIBI) of the cohorts 2010 (c10) and 2013 (c13). METHODS: Retrospective study. We analyzed: spelling, microbiological nomenclature (NM), syntax and lexicon; number of bibliographic citations, presentation according to Vancouver (NV), adequacy between number of citations, periodical publications and books regarding the guide (GR). It was summarized in average, and percentage; chi2 and 95% CI, p <0.05. RESULTS: n: 107 forms. In spelling, SL, syntax and vocabulary, a favorable difference was evidenced with the c10. Average citations in c10: 25.74, in c13: 28.61, p <0.05. 27% and 72.7% of each cohort met the number of publications. 84.1% and 90.9% of each cohort complied with the books. 15.9% and 25% complied withthe presentation according to NV. CONCLUSIONS: We observed worsening in c13, due to a decrease in the follow-up of the GR.


Assuntos
Competência Profissional , Pesquisa Biomédica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina
20.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 71-73, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299844

RESUMO

Background: Medical colleges should be the engines of medical research in India however sadly it is far from that. Materials and Methods: Articles published in English literature from 1990's were reviewed along with personal experience of more than 30 years of interacting with various medical institutions of India. Results: Six to ten medical colleges publish more than 60% of research papers in indexed journals out of existing 450 medical colleges in India. There are many reasons why there is very little or poor quality research in medical colleges in India. Poor mentorship, severe patients load, lack of research interest, lack of funding and lack of multicentric co-ordinates research activity, lack of incentive for research, are some of the reasons. Discussion and Conclusion: Many of the reasons cited above for good quality research needs are correction. However generous funding should be available as a research fund to the medical colleges both by state and by central government. Both undergraduate and postgraduate curricula needs to be modified to reflect that good medical research is part of good medical practice.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Índia
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