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1.
JAMA ; 323(7): 672, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068808
2.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 285-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335582

RESUMO

This article serves as the introduction to "25 Years On: The State and Continuing Development of LGBTQ Studies Programs." It begins by placing the current issue in a commemorative context: marking the anniversary of a 1993 special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality dedicated to the emergence of "Gay and Lesbian Studies" and edited by Howard L. Minton. The introduction continues by providing an overview of early phases of academic transformations, primarily in the United States, with notes on particular legacies. This is followed by a brief survey of scholarship published since 1993 that pays particular attention to curricular and pedagogical concerns. It concludes by identifying themes articulated by the essays selected for this issue as well as commentary on their individual, yet richly interrelated, contributions.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Educação/tendências , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Estados Unidos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569703

RESUMO

Among the array of structurally and toxicologically diverse mycotoxins, aflatoxins have attracted the most interest of scientific research due to their high toxicity and incidence in foods and feeds. Despite the undeniable progress made in various aspects related to aflatoxins, the ultimate goal consisting of reducing the associated public health risks worldwide is far from being reached due to multiplicity of social, political, economic, geographic, climatic, and development factors. However, a reasonable degree of health protection is attained in industrialized countries owing to their scientific, administrative, and financial capacities allowing them to use high-tech agricultural management systems. Less fortunate situations exist in equatorial and sub-equatorial developing countries mainly practicing traditional agriculture managed by smallholders for subsistence, and where the climate is suitable for mould growth and aflatoxin production. This situation worsens due to climatic change producing conditions increasingly suitable for aflatoxigenic mould growth and toxin production. Accordingly, it is difficult to harmonize the regulatory standards of aflatoxins worldwide, which prevents agri-foods of developing countries from accessing the markets of industrialized countries. To tackle the multi-faceted aflatoxin problem, actions should be taken collectively by the international community involving scientific research, technological and social development, environment protection, awareness promotion, etc. International cooperation should foster technology transfer and exchange of pertinent technical information. This review presents the main historical discoveries leading to our present knowledge on aflatoxins and the challenges that should be addressed presently and in the future at various levels to ensure higher health protection for everybody. In short, it aims to elucidate where we come from and where we should go in terms of aflatoxin research/development.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Microbiologia de Alimentos/história , Micotoxicose/história , Venenos/toxicidade , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aflatoxinas/química , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Mudança Climática , Países em Desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , História do Século XVII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Micotoxicose/diagnóstico , Micotoxicose/etiologia , Micotoxicose/terapia , Venenos/análise , Venenos/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública/história , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Brain Behav Evol ; 93(2-3): 70-81, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416085

RESUMO

Rodents as standardized test animals were developed for commercial distribution in the USA between 1910 and the 1930s. The selective breeding of rats (Rattus norvegicus) and pure-bred mice (Mus musculus) at the Wistar Institute and the Jackson Memorial Laboratories eventually led to a decline in the diversity of species used in American medical and life sciences. The early driving figures, science administrator Milton Greenman and the scientists Henry Donaldson and Clarence Little, sought to standardize animals to render science and its application to humanity more precise. But their efforts were exaggerated in the USA through an expanding industrial and engineering ideal, culminating in a preference for Big Science. I explore the nineteenth century origins of this ideal in Emil Du Bois-Reymond's neurophysiology. This foundation later merged with increasing standardization, American commercialism, and the success of Big Science to transform animal laboratory "standards" into "model animals." Recent accounts of research with commercially bred mice reveal how findings can be co-constructed using human clinical data, as animal research is applied to humans. The neglect of evolutionary perspectives and the dominance of "models" may even have begun with the government's post-war emphasis on funding greater species access for large-scale biomedical research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Modelos Animais , Fisiologia , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Camundongos , Fisiologia/história , Ratos
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2018: 1-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228150

RESUMO

The laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, has been used in biomedical research for more than 150 years, and in many cases remains the model of choice for studies of physiology, behavior, and complex human disease. This book provides detailed information on a number of methodologies that can be used in rat. This chapter gives an introduction to rat as a species and as a biomedical model, providing historical information, a brief introduction to the current state of rat research, and a perspective on the future of rat as a model for human disease.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Modelos Animais , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Ratos
20.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(4): 284-290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164389

RESUMO

Part I provides the historiographical context and examines the causes which led to the creation of the first independent research ethics committee (REC) at Porton Down, Britain's biological and chemical warfare establishment, in operation since the First World War. The papers in part I and part II argue that the introduction of RECs in the UK stemmed from concerns about legal liability and research ethics among scientists responsible for human experiments, and from the desire of the UK military medical establishment to create an external organisation which would function both as an ' internal space ' for ethical debate and as an ' external body ' to share moral and legal responsibility. The paper asks: What factors were responsible for causing military scientists and government officials to contemplate the introduction of formalised structures for ethical review within the UK military? It argues that Porton may have been exempt from public scrutiny, but it was not above the law of the land. By the mid-1960s evidence of serious ill effects among staff members and service personnel involved in tests could no longer be ignored. Whereas the security of the British realm had previously trumped almost any other argument in contentious debates about chemical warfare, the role of medical ethics suddenly moved to the forefront of Porton's deliberations, so much so that tests with incapacitants were temporarily suspended in 1965. It was this crisis, examined in detail in part II, which functioned as a catalyst for the creation of the Applied Biology Committee as the responsible body, and first point of call, for authorising human experiments at Porton Down.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Ética Médica/história , Guerra Biológica , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Guerra Química , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/história , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/organização & administração , História do Século XX , Humanos , Medicina Militar , Militares , Reino Unido
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