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2.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 253-261, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723928

RESUMO

Parabiosis is a surgical method of animal modeling with a long history. It has been widely used in medical research, particularly in the fields of aging, stem cells, neuroscience, and immunity in the past two decades. The protocols for parabiosis have been improved many times and are now widely accepted. However, researchers need to consider many details, from surgical operation to perioperative management, to reduce mortality and maintain the parabiosis union. Although parabiosis has certain inevitable limitations, it still has broad application prospects as an irreplaceable animal model in the medical research field.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Parabiose , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Longevidade
3.
Mol Cell ; 81(6): 1120-1121, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740469

RESUMO

We talk to co-first authors Man Yu and Zhengxin Peng about their paper "Interferon- gamma induces tumor resistance to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy by promoting YAP phase separation" (in this issue of Molecular Cell), the challenges of the project, and the collaborations and support systems that were important to overcome them.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Neoplasias , Animais , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Retratos como Assunto
4.
Mol Cell ; 81(6): 1122-1125, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740470

RESUMO

Here, we talk to first author Susanne Zellner about her paper, "Systematically defining selective autophagy receptor-specific cargo using autophagosome content profiling," and the challenges of finishing it during the pandemic. We also hear from collaborator Martina Schifferer and chat with corresponding author Christian Behrends about running his lab.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Retratos como Assunto
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 13, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528820

RESUMO

From 1950 to 1952, statisticians W.G. Cochran, C.F. Mosteller, and J.W. Tukey reviewed A.C. Kinsey and colleagues' methodology. Neither the history-and-philosophy of science literature nor contemporary theories of interdisciplinarity seem to offer a conceptual model that fits this forced interaction, which was characterized by significant power asymmetries and disagreements on multiple levels. The statisticians initially attempted to exclude all non-technical matters from their evaluation, but their political and personal investments interfered with this agenda. In the face of McCarthy's witch hunts, negotiations with Kinsey and his funding institutions became integral to the review group's work. This paper analyzes the heavy burden of emotional and affective labor in this collaboration, the conflicts caused by competing visions of objectivity, and the uses of statistical knowledge to gain and sustain authority. Kinsey's refusal to adopt the recommended probability sample damaged his already precarious position even further and marked him as a biased researcher who put his personal agenda above methodological rigor. Kinsey's uncooperative demeanor can be explained by distrust resulting from numerous adverse reactions to his work and by fear of having his sexuality exposed. This case study illustrates that the very concept of valid numbers can become an arena for power struggles and that quantification alone does not guarantee productive exchanges across disciplines. It calls for a deeper conceptual analysis of the prerequisites for successful scientific collaborations.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Bioestatística/história , Psiquiatria/história , Comportamento Sexual , Bioestatística/métodos , História do Século XX , Humanos
10.
An Real Acad Farm ; 86(4): 281-286, oct.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199662

RESUMO

La relación entre la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia y la Sociedad Española de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular ha sido, desde la fundación de la Sociedad, un claro exponente del compromiso mantenido entre un número elevado de personas al pertenecer simultáneamente a ambas, en algunos casos además desempeñando cargos de relevancia y responsabilidad. Como muestra se citan algunas de las personas más representativas. La relación entre ambas instituciones se ha visto recientemente reforzada y consolidada con la firma el 17 de noviembre de 2020 de un Convenio de Colaboración entre ambas. Este hecho debe estimular a investigadoras e investigadores jóvenes y de gran valía -ya miembros de las dos instituciones- a intervenir en las actividades promovidas por ambas. Estrechar lazos en iniciativas e intereses comunes será sin duda enormemente beneficioso para las dos instituciones


The relationship between the Royal National Academy of Pharmacy and the Spanish Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology has been, since the foundation of the Society, a clear exponent of the commitment that is maintained among a large number of people for simultaneously belonging to both, in some cases also occupying positions of relevance and responsibility. Some of the most representative people are cited. This relationship has recently been strengthened and consolidated with the signing on November 17, 2020 of a Collaboration Agreement between both institutions. This fact should stimulate young and valuable researchers - and members of the two institutions - to participate in the activities promoted by both. Undoubtedly, closing ties in initiatives and common interests will be enormously beneficial for the two institutions


Assuntos
História do Século XVIII , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Academias e Institutos/história , Sociedades/história , Bioquímica/história , Biologia Molecular/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/história
12.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 33(3-4): 34-35, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308593

RESUMO

As a junior colleague of Dr. D. E. Strandness, Jr., for almost 30 years, I had the unique professional opportunity to witness the development of duplex ultrasonography at the University of Washington. "Gene" as he liked to be called, was a surgeon with a persistent curiosity about vascular disease. He led the multidisciplinary team that developed the technique of duplex ultrasound, measured its diagnostic accuracy, and performed research studies to reduce stroke due to carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. My reflections on the legacy of Dr. Strandness are offered with gratitude for the curiosity "bug" he nurtured in me, which continues today.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Comportamento Exploratório , Cirurgiões/história , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/história , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação
15.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 143-150, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921484

RESUMO

After the first successful public demonstration of modern anesthesia in 1846, most female anesthetists were nurses by trade since none were yet allowed to attend medical school to become physicians. The turn of the twentieth century, however, brought about greater opportunity for female physician-anesthetists. We explore the life and career of Barbara E. Waud (1931-), a pioneering woman physician and researcher in the field of anesthesiology. Waud chose to pursue a career in medicine at a time when most women did not even attend college, and for most of her training and practice, she was the only woman in her department. Personal interviews with Waud, her daughter, and her colleagues highlight her rebellious and resilient nature that helped her overcome the obstacles put forth by male colleagues, and the judgment she received from female acquaintances for being a working mother. Waud's impressive career of dedicated clinical practice and ground-breaking research spanned four decades and inspired generations of physicians.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/história , Docentes de Medicina/história , Médicas/história , Anestesiologia/educação , Anestesiologia/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Canadá , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Massachusetts , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Sexismo/história
20.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 461-489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822548

RESUMO

This paper uses the history of kidney transplantation in South Africa as a lens through which to write a racialized, micro history that illustrates the politics of medical discoveries and medical research at one of South Africa's most prestigious medical research universities, the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) in Johannesburg. Between 1966 and the 1980s, the Wits team became the most advanced and prolific kidney transplant unit in the country. Yet the racist, oppressive Apartheid system fundamentally shaped these developments. Transplantation, as this paper shows, became an elite medical procedure, performed by a select group of white doctors on mostly white patients. For these doctors, transplantation showed their medical prowess and displayed the technical advancements they were able to make in research and clinical practice as they strove to position South Africa as a significant international player in medical research, despite academic boycotts and increasing sanctions. Transplantation became a symbol of white supremacy in a country where the black majority were excluded from anything but the most basic health care.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/história , Apartheid/história , Ética Médica/história , Transplante de Rim/história , Racismo/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Transplante de Coração/ética , Transplante de Coração/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Imunossupressão/história , Transplante de Rim/ética , África do Sul
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