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1.
Gut ; 69(1): 7-17, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium met in 2018 to update its consensus recommendations for the management of individuals with increased risk of pancreatic cancer based on family history or germline mutation status (high-risk individuals). METHODS: A modified Delphi approach was employed to reach consensus among a multidisciplinary group of experts who voted on consensus statements. Consensus was considered reached if ≥75% agreed or disagreed. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 55 statements. The main goals of surveillance (to identify high-grade dysplastic precursor lesions and T1N0M0 pancreatic cancer) remained unchanged. Experts agreed that for those with familial risk, surveillance should start no earlier than age 50 or 10 years earlier than the youngest relative with pancreatic cancer, but were split on whether to start at age 50 or 55. Germline ATM mutation carriers with one affected first-degree relative are now considered eligible for surveillance. Experts agreed that preferred surveillance tests are endoscopic ultrasound and MRI/magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, but no consensus was reached on how to alternate these modalities. Annual surveillance is recommended in the absence of concerning lesions. Main areas of disagreement included if and how surveillance should be performed for hereditary pancreatitis, and the management of indeterminate lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic surveillance is recommended for selected high-risk individuals to detect early pancreatic cancer and its high-grade precursors, but should be performed in a research setting by multidisciplinary teams in centres with appropriate expertise. Until more evidence supporting these recommendations is available, the benefits, risks and costs of surveillance of pancreatic surveillance need additional evaluation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Carcinoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 3-8, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Achieving a standard of clinical research at the pinnacle of the evidence pyramid is historically expensive and logistically challenging. Research collaboratives have delivered high-impact prospective multicentre audits and clinical trials by using trainee networks with a range of enabling technology. This review outlines such use of technology in the UK and provides a framework of recommended technologies for future studies. METHODS: A review of the literature identified technology used in collaborative projects. Additional technologies were identified through web searches. Technologies were grouped into themes including access (networking and engagement), collaboration and event organisation. The technologies available to support each theme were studied further to outline relative benefits and limitations. FINDINGS: Thirty-three articles from trainee research collaboratives were identified. The most frequently documented technologies were social media applications, website platforms and research databases. The Supportive Technologies in Collaborative Research framework is proposed, providing a structure for using the technologies available to support multicentre collaboration. Such technologies are often overlooked in the literature by established and start-up collaborative project groups. If used correctly, they might help to overcome the physical, logistical and financial barriers of multicentre clinical trials.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comunicação , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Internet , Redes Sociais Online , Estudantes de Medicina
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18221, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subtype of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with a potentially progressive course to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis with its complications, or even hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a rapidly growing chronic liver disease, with a global prevalence of about 25%, with a significant increase in the last 2 decades, changing the landscape of hepatology. This study aimed to undertake a bibliometric global analysis of research literature focusing on NASH. METHODS: We searched the Scopus database to identify all articles pertaining to "non-alcoholic steatohepatitis" or "NASH" - the 2 keywords used to search in the title or abstract within the time period 1980 to 2018. The collected data included document type, author, journal, publication year, citation reports, country, and were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word. RESULTS: A total number of 6632 articles published in 1355 journals were retrieved. English was the predominant language of publication, USA being the most productive with 1937 articles published (29.2% of the total number of publications), followed by Japan with 909, representing 13.7% of publications. Hepatology, Journal of Hepatology and World Journal of Gastroenterology were the most active journals. Research articles were the most common type of publications (4524; 68.22%), followed by review articles (1359; 20.49%). The total number of citations received by all publications was 274,041, with an average of 41.32 per article (range: 0-4384). The average number of authors per article has increased in the last 2 decades, whereas the trend of single- (or few) authored publications has decreased. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that NASH is a significant topic in the hepatology research, as proved by the huge number of publications, recording an exponential growth in the last 2 decades. The USA stands out as by far the most productive country.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Humanos
5.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(11): 1033-1036, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633383

RESUMO

Introduction: In the era of 'precision' oncology, novel clinical trial designs have emerged, in order to better address the final goal of translating the above-mentioned preclinical discoveries into the clinic. Nonetheless, in aiming to achieve the greatest clinical benefit to patients, some limitations of these novel approaches from the statistical, methodological and practical point of view need to be overcome.Areas covered: In the present review, a short overview of basket trials, umbrella trials and platform trials are discussed, in particular advantages and disadvantages of such experimental approaches.Expert opinion: Master protocols represent the future of clinical oncology research. The possibility of investigating multiple biomarkers and therapeutic regimens under one study is a strong advantage over traditional trials, and it can lead to quick implementation of new, promising treatments or biomarkers into the clinic.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos
7.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 187, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many agree that the biopsychosocial contributions to psychopathology are complex, yet it is unclear how we can make sense of this complexity. One approach is to reduce this complexity to a few necessary and sufficient biopsychosocial factors; although this approach is easy to understand, it has little explanatory power. Another approach is to fully embrace complexity, proposing that each instance of psychopathology is caused by a partially unique set of biopsychosocial factors; this approach has high explanatory power, but is impossible to comprehend. Due to deficits in either explanatory power or comprehensibility, both approaches limit our ability to make substantial advances in understanding, predicting, and preventing psychopathology. Thus, how can we make sense of biopsychosocial factor complexity? MAIN TEXT: There is a third possible approach that can resolve this dilemma, with high explanatory power and high comprehensibility. This approach involves understanding, predicting, and preventing psychopathology in terms of a small set of psychological primitives rather than biopsychosocial factors. Psychological primitives are the fundamental and irreducible elements of the mind, mediating all biopsychosocial factor influences on psychopathology. All psychological phenomena emerge from these primitives. Over the past decade, this approach has been successfully applied within basic psychological science, most notably affective science. It explains the sum of the evidence in affective science and has generated several novel research directions. This approach is equally applicable to psychopathology. The primitive-based approach does not eliminate the role of biopsychosocial factors, but rather recasts them as indeterminate causal influences on psychological primitives. In doing so, it reframes research away from factor-based questions (e.g., which situations cause suicide?) and toward primitive-based questions (e.g., how are suicidality concepts formed, altered, activated, and implemented?). This is a valuable shift because factor-based questions have indeterminate answers (e.g., infinite situations could cause suicide) whereas primitive-based questions have determinate answers (e.g., there are specific processes that undergird all concepts). CONCLUSION: The primitive-based approach accounts for biopsychosocial complexity, ties clinical science more directly to basic psychological science, and could facilitate progress in understanding, predicting, and preventing psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Fatores Sociológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Previsões , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida
11.
Urology ; 134: 45-50, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if article Altmetric scores correlate with journal impact factor and citation count in the urologic literature. METHODS: We identified the top 10 most-cited articles for the 15 urology journals with the highest impact factor in 2013 and 2016. Citation count and Altmetric scores were recorded for each of the articles. The journal impact factor and date of Twitter account development were recorded for each of the journals. The variables were analyzed in Microsoft excel using Pearson's correlation testing. RESULTS: A total of 300 articles were analyzed. In 2013, Altmetric scores and citation number showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.164, P = .045), although Altmetric scores did not correlate with journal impact factor (r = 0.005, P = .957). In 2016, there was significant positive correlation between Altmetric scores and citation number (r = 0.268, P = .0009), as well as between Altmetric scores and journal impact factor (r = 0.201, P = .014). The total citation count decreased from 15,235 in 2013 to 8622 in 2016 while the total Altmetric score increased from 1135 in 2013 to 2563 in 2016. Older Twitter accounts were not associated with increasing correlations between Altmetric score and bibliometrics in either 2013 (r = 0.221, P = .54) or 2016 (r = 0.083, P = .819). CONCLUSION: At this point in time, Altmetric score is only weakly correlated with citation counts in the urology literature. Altmetrics and traditional bibliometrics should be viewed as complements to one another rather than surrogates when determining research dissemination and impact.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Urologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Urologia/educação , Urologia/métodos
14.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(7): 519-525, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492459

RESUMO

The Editors' Network of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) provides a dynamic forum for editorial discussions and endorses the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) to improve the scientific quality of biomedical journals. Authorship confers credit and important academic rewards. Recently, however, the ICMJE emphasized that authorship also requires responsibility and accountability. These issues are now covered by the new (fourth) criterion for authorship. Authors should agree to be accountable and ensure that questions regarding the accuracy and integrity of the entire work will be appropriately addressed. This review discusses the implications of this paradigm shift on authorship requirements with the aim of increasing awareness on good scientific and editorial practices.


Assuntos
Autoria , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Cardiologia , Políticas Editoriais , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Humanos
16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2169-2197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota play a positive role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: This study aims to elucidate the "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis and to provide guidance for prevention and intervention in CRC. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from their inceptions to August 2018, and 75 articles and 25 conference abstracts were included and analysed after identification and screening. RESULTS: The concentrations of SCFAs in CRC patients and individuals with a high risk of CRC were higher than those in healthy individuals. The protective mechanism of SCFAs against CRC has been described in three aspects: epigenetics, immunology and molecular signalling pathways. Many food and plant extracts that were fermented by microorganisms produced SCFAs that play positive roles with preventive and therapeutic effects on CRC. The "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis was constructed by summarizing the pertinent literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the basic research and practical application of SCFAs by assessing the protective effect of SCFAs on CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
19.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(6): 547-562, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368734

RESUMO

Quantitative methods remain the fundamental approach for hypothesis testing, but in approaches to data analysis there is substantial evidence of a gap between what is optimal and what is typical. It is clear that diffusion and dissemination alone are not maximally effective at improving data analytic practices in clinical psychological science. Amid declines in quantitative psychology training, and growing demand for advanced quantitative methods, applied researchers are increasingly called upon to conduct and evaluate research using methods in which they lack expertise. This "research-to-practice" gap in which rigorously developed and empirically supported quantitative methods are not applied in practice has received little attention. In this article, we describe how implementation science, which aims to reduce the research-to-practice gap in health care, offers a promising set of methods for closing the gap for quantitative methods. By identifying determinants of practice (i.e., barriers and facilitators of change), implementation strategies can be selected to increase adoption and high-fidelity application of new quantitative methods to improve scientific inferences and policy and practice decisions in clinical psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Bioestatística , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Ciência da Implementação , Psicologia Clínica , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Bioestatística/métodos , Humanos , Psicologia Clínica/métodos , Psicologia Clínica/normas
20.
Pediatrics ; 144(2)2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363070

RESUMO

Physician-scientists represent a critical component of the biomedical and health research workforce. However, the proportion of physicians who spend a significant amount of effort on scientific research has declined over the past 40 years. This trend has been particularly noticeable in pediatrics despite recent scientific work revealing that early life influences, exposures, and health status play a significant role in lifelong health and disease. To address this problem, the Duke University Department of Pediatrics developed the Duke Pediatric Research Scholars Program for Physician-Scientist Development (DPRS). The DPRS is focused on research training during pediatric residency and fellowship. We aim to provide sufficient research exposure and support to help scholars develop a research niche and scholarly products as well as identify the career pathways that will enable them to achieve their research goals. Herein, we describe the DPRS's organizational structure, core components, recruitment strategies, and initial results, and we discuss implementation challenges and solutions. Additionally, we detail the program's integration with the department's residency and fellowship training programs (with particular reference to the challenges of integrating research into small- to medium-sized residency programs) and describe the development and integration of related initiatives across Duke University School of Medicine. The program served as the basis for 2 successful National Institutes of Health Stimulating Access to Research in Residency (R38) applications, and we hope it will serve as a model to integrate formalized research training for residents and fellows who wish to pursue research careers in academic medicine.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/educação , Pediatras/educação , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/tendências , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/tendências , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/tendências , Pediatras/tendências
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