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3.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 040202, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021207

RESUMO

In contrast to blood and urine samples, breath is invisible and ubiquitous in the environment. Different precautions are now necessary beyond the usual 'Universal Precautions'. In the era of COVID-19, breath (especially the aerosol fraction) can no longer be considered as harmless in the clinic or laboratory. As Journal of Breath Research is a primary resource for breath-related research, we (the editors) are presently developing safety guidance applicable to all breath research , not just for those projects that involve known COVID-19 infected subjects. We are starting this process by implementing requirements on reporting safety precautions in research papers and notes. This editorial announces that authors of all new submissions to JBR henceforth must state clearly the procedures undertaken for assuring laboratory and clinical safety, much like the existing requirements for disclosing Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board protocols for studies on human subjects. In the following, we additionally make some recommendations based on best practices drawn from our experience and input from the JBR Editorial Board.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Testes Respiratórios , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Saúde Pública , Risco , Segurança
5.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050601

RESUMO

The coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic emerged at the end of 2019, and was caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has resulted in an unprecedented health and economic crisis worldwide. One key aspect, compared to other recent pandemics, is the level of urgency, which has started a race for finding adequate answers. Solutions for efficient prevention approaches, rapid, reliable, and high throughput diagnostics, monitoring, and safe therapies are needed. Research across the world has been directed to fight against COVID-19. Biomedical science has been presented as a possible area for combating the SARS-CoV-2 virus due to the unique challenges raised by the pandemic, as reported by epidemiologists, immunologists, and medical doctors, including COVID-19's survival, symptoms, protein surface composition, and infection mechanisms. While the current knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited, various (old and new) biomedical approaches have been developed and tested. Here, we review the current status and future perspectives of biomedical science in the context of COVID-19, including nanotechnology, prevention through vaccine engineering, diagnostic, monitoring, and therapy. This review is aimed at discussing the current impact of biomedical science in healthcare for the management of COVID-19, as well as some challenges to be addressed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
7.
Bull Cancer ; 107(10): 991-998, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy is a core modality for cancer treatment. Around 40% of cancer cures include the use of radiotherapy, either as a single strategy or combined with other treatments. In the past decade, substantial technical advances and novel insights into radiobiological properties have considerably improved patients' outcomes. This study overviewed the landscape of clinical research at our radiotherapy department. METHODS: We surveyed our institutional database of clinical trials to collect information for completed or ongoing radiation therapy clinical trials, from 2005 to December 2017 at the Lucien Neuwirth cancer institute. RESULTS: A total of 31 clinical trials were undertaken during the study period, of which 4 studies (12.9%) were industry-sponsored and 3 studies (9.7%) were launched by our radiotherapy unit. The vast majority of clinical trials (83.9%) were dedicated to unique organ localization, especially urological cancer (prostate or bladder) (42%). We also observed a shift towards more phase II trials during the study period as well as a special focus on elderly population. Over the last decade, the number of included patients increased by a 5.3 fold input, with 135 inclusions before 2011 and 720 inclusions after 2011. DISCUSSION: This study provided an observational and comprehensive analysis of radiotherapy research. From a monocentric point-of-view, these results reflected the on-going progress of worldwide radiotherapy research. Based on a 13-years' experience, this study aimed at highlighting essential cues to ensure efficient and perennial research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Humanos
11.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 737-740, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993257

RESUMO

Liver transplantation(LT) is the "crown" of surgery and is also an important manifestation of national medical standards. In the past half century, China has made remarkable progress in LT. Currently, China is the second largest country of LT world widely and presents an international advanced level in the efficacy of LT. However, it is notable that there are still many bottlenecks to be solved in China. In the era of precision medicine and big data, the basic research of LT is largely lagging behind and unable to meet the rapid development of clinical needs. Strengthen the basic research of LT is a breakthrough strategy in rejuvenating the country through science and technology in the new era. A high-quality professional research team should be built through multi-disciplinary cooperation and superior resources gathering. Researcher's innovative thinking and strategic vision should be cultivated via the learning of new technologies (e.g., single-cell exploration and multi-omics analysis) and new courses (e.g., transplant oncology and transplant immunology). Government investment also needs to be increased to speed up the nurturing of high-level talents and get great achievements. Basic research is the driving force for China to become a leading country in LT.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Transplante de Fígado , China , Humanos , Invenções , Transplante de Fígado/normas
13.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769091

RESUMO

Proponents of the use of gain-of-function (GOF) experiments with pathogens with pandemic potential (PPP) have argued that such experiments are necessary because they reveal important facets of pathogenesis and can be performed safely. Opponents of GOF experiments with PPP have argued that the risks outweigh the knowledge gained. The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the vulnerability of human societies to a new PPP, while also validating some arguments of both camps, questioning others, and suggesting the need to rethink how we approach this class of experiments.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Bioterrorismo , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/ética , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
16.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 204, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103539

RESUMO

Como parte de la evaluación de la asignatura Bioética e Investigación de la Maestría en Bioética, se solicitó a los estudiantes de la VI Cohorte que realizarán un análisis comparativo de las Pautas CIOMS 2016 con documentos anteriores. En esta segunda parte, se presentan las pautas relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, la recolección, almacenamiento y uso de materiales biológicos y datos relacionados, así como la rendición pública de cuentas y la publicación de las investigaciones. Estas pautas son fundamentales para la realización de investigaciones científicas en seres humanos por eso el objetivo de estos trabajos es proporcionar a los investigadores un aporte en su formación y una rápida adaptación a la nueva propuesta CIOMS(AU)


As part of the evaluation of the Bioethics and Research subject of the Master in Bioethics, students of the VI Cohort were asked to make a comparative analysis of the CIOMS 2016 Guidelines with previous documents. In this second part, the guidelines related to informed consent, collection, storage and use of biological materials and related data, as well as public accountability and publication of research are presented. These guidelines are fundamental for carrying out scientific research on human beings, and for this reason the objective of this work is to provide researchers with a contribution in their training and a rapid adaptation to the new CIOMS proposal(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bioética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Defesa do Paciente , Faculdades de Medicina , Direitos Humanos
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the WHO released a Global Research Roadmap in an effort to coordinate and accelerate the global research response to combat COVID-19 based on deliberations of 400 experts across the world. Three months on, the disease and our understanding have both evolved significantly. As we now tackle a pandemic in very different contexts and with increased knowledge, we sought to build on the work of the WHO to gain a more current and global perspective on these initial priorities. METHODS: We undertook a mixed methods study seeking the views of the global research community to (1) assess which of the early WHO roadmap priorities are still most pressing; (2) understand whether they are still valid in different settings, regions or countries; and (3) identify any new emerging priorities. RESULTS: Thematic analysis of the significant body of combined data shows the WHO roadmap is globally relevant; however, new important priorities have emerged, in particular, pertinent to low and lower middle-income countries (less resourced countries), where health systems are under significant competing pressures. We also found a shift from prioritising vaccine and therapeutic development towards a focus on assessing the effectiveness, risks, benefits and trust in the variety of public health interventions and measures. Our findings also provide insight into temporal nature of these research priorities, highlighting the urgency of research that can only be undertaken within the period of virus transmission, as well as other important research questions but which can be answered outside the transmission period. Both types of studies are key to help combat this pandemic but also importantly to ensure we are better prepared for the future. CONCLUSION: We hope these findings will help guide decision-making across the broad research system including the multilateral partners, research funders, public health practitioners, clinicians and civil society.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Global , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisa , Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Humanos
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