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1.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 26(4): 259-260, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370498

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to generate threats to occupational health, safety, and well-being. As a result, it presents an opportunity to deepen the field's insights into occupational health psychology (OHP), and to offer practical guidance that may help workers, organizations, and society mitigate the pandemic's negative effects. This special section of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (JOHP) addresses several implications of the pandemic for well-being and work behavior. The pandemic raises many additional questions deserving of research attention. Such topics include the implications of organizations' evolving workforce and workplace decisions, and work as a mechanism for public health and societal well-being. OHP research also has the potential to generate ideas that may prove useful for addressing future crises. A greater consideration of context may help the field achieve such aims. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Psicologia Industrial , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Psicologia Industrial/organização & administração , Psicologia Industrial/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
3.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 620425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408619

RESUMO

Objectives: Over the last 2 decades, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a global strategy and initiatives to establish a Health Research System (HRS) focusing on Health Research Quality and Standardization (HRQS), Health Research Knowledge Transfer and Dissemination (HRKTD), and Health Research Translation and Utilization into Health Care Decisions and Policies (HRTUDP). Despite the increase in health research productivity over the past several decades, HRS Capacity (HRSC) in Palestine and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has rarely been objectively evaluated. This study aims at eliciting the perceptions of HRS performers in Palestine in order to understand the status of HRSC, identify gaps, and generate policies and solutions capable of strengthening HRSC in Palestine. Methods: Key informants from three sectors, namely government, academia, and local and international organizations, were selected purposively based on different sampling methods: criterion, critical case, snowball, and homogeneous sampling. Fifty-two in-depth interviews with key informants and a total of fifty-two individuals, participating in six focus groups, were conducted by the principal investigator in Palestine. Data were analyzed by using MAXQDA 12. Results: The overall pattern of the Palestinian HRSC is relatively weak. The key findings revealed that while HR productivity in Palestine is improving, HRQS is at an average level and quality guidelines are not followed due to paucity of understanding, policies, and resources. HRKTD is a central challenge with both a dearth of conceptualization of translational science and inadequate implementation. The factors related to inadequate HRKTD include lack of awareness on the part of the researchers, inadequate regulatory frameworks and mechanisms for both communication and collaboration between and among researchers and policy-makers and clinicians, and lack of availability of, and credibility in, systematized and reliable HR data. Despite the limited knowledge translation, in general, HRTUDP is not considered an essential decision-making methodology mainly due to the lack of interface between knowledge producers (researchers) and users (policymakers), understanding level, HR credibility and availability of applied research, and governance, resources, and political fluctuations. Recommendations to strengthen HRS in Palestine include: a consolidated research regulatory framework and an effective capacity strengthening strategy overseen by Palestinian authorities; the promotion of HRQS and concepts and practices of translational science; and, most importantly, the use of findings for evidence-based policies and practice. Conclusion: Strengthening HRSC is both an imperative step and an opportunity to improve the Palestinian health system and ensure it is based on research evidence and knowledge. Building a successful HRS characterized by capacities of high-quality research and well-disseminated and translated knowledge is a prerequisite to effective health systems and services. This can be achieved by political commitment to support such strengthening, a consolidated leadership and governance structure, and a strong operational capacity strengthening strategy.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Fortalecimento Institucional , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Oriente Médio
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 36, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422159

RESUMO

The evolution and contemporary challenges of health research (HR) in Madagascar are poorly documented. We aim to gain insights on the factors that shape Madagascar's National Health Research System (NHRS) to better understand their influence. We conducted a qualitative case study, which included a documentary review and semi-structured interviews with 38 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis and used the WHO/AFRO NHRS Barometer to structure the presentation of the results. There is no legislative framework to support HR activities and institutions. There is, however, a policy document outlining national priorities for HS. Human resources for HR are insufficient, due to challenges in training and retaining researchers. International collaboration is almost the only source of HR funding. Collaborations contribute to developing human and institutional capacity, but they are not always aligned with research carried out locally and the country's priority health needs. Incomplete efforts to improve regulation and low public investment in research training and research implementation reflect an insufficient commitment to HR by the government. Negotiating equitable international partnerships, the availability of public funding, and aligning HR with national health priorities would constitute a solid basis for the development of the NHRS in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Entrevistas como Assunto , Madagáscar , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração
6.
Global Health ; 17(1): 84, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The initial research requirements in pandemics are predictable. But how is it possible to study a disease that is so quickly spreading and to rapidly use that research to inform control and treatment? MAIN BODY: In our view, a dilemma with such wide-reaching impact mandates multi-disciplinary collaborations on a global scale. International research collaboration is the only means to rapidly address these fundamental questions and potentially change the paradigm of data sharing for the benefit of patients throughout the world. International research collaboration presents significant benefits but also barriers that need to be surmounted, especially in low- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSION: Facilitating international cooperation, by building capacity in established collaborative platforms and in low- and middle-income countries, is imperative to efficiently answering the priority clinical research questions that can change the trajectory of a pandemic.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Fortalecimento Institucional , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
7.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(8): 896-897, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196670

RESUMO

Importance: Emerging vision scientists who have yet to be awarded their first independent funding may have their research careers disproportionately affected by early COVID-19-related disruptions. In September 2020, the Alliance for Eye and Vision Research convened a panel of 22 such scientists (nominated by their academic institutions) to communicate to the US Congress about the importance of vision research. As part of the effort, interviews were conducted with scientists about the effect of the pandemic on their research. Observations: Qualitative areas of adverse consequences from the early months of COVID-19 disruptions included striking interruptions of patient-based research, limits on other types of clinical research, loss of research time for scientists with young children (especially women), challenges with animal colonies and cell cultures, impediments to research collaborations, and loss of training time. Conclusions and Relevance: The early months during the COVID-19 pandemic increased career stress on many early-stage investigators in the vision field and delayed (and may potentially derail) their ability to attract their first independent research funding grant. As a result, federal and private granting agencies may need to take these factors into account to retain talented, early-stage vision researchers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19/complicações , Escolha da Profissão , Oftalmologia/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/educação , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmologia/educação , Quarentena/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 16(3): 188-192, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973824

RESUMO

The first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient in the state of New Jersey (NJ) was admitted on March 2, 2020. With the number of hospitalized patients increasing exponentially in the following days and no established treatment approaches, research was to play a significant role in this fight. To facilitate review of all COVID-19 research proposals in a large health care network in NJ, we established the COVID-19 Research Review Committee (RRC) and implemented a peer-review process prior to the Institutional Review Board submission. The RRC was tasked with processing, soliciting, reviewing, and prioritizing research proposals and was comprised of a multidisciplinary group of reviewers. Within a 9-week period, three network-wide requests for proposals were released with 238 proposals submitted and 93 approved, an approval rate of 39%. The establishment of the RRC helped ensure scientific merit, better utilization of resources, collaborations across disciplines and network hospitals, and compliance with applicable regulatory and ethical standard.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19 , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Am J Nurs ; 121(6): 56-60, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009166

RESUMO

Editor's note: This is the fourth article in a series on clinical research by nurses. The series is designed to give nurses the knowledge and skills they need to participate in research, step by step. Each column will present the concepts that underpin evidence-based practice-from research design to data interpretation. The articles will be accompanied by a podcast offering more insight and context from the authors. To see all the articles in the series, go to http://links.lww.com/AJN/A204.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Competência Profissional , Humanos
18.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 376-383, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961516

RESUMO

The Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed serious restrictions for academic institutions to maintain their research and teaching practical subjects. Universities have implemented adaptive measures to maintain educational activities and achieve the learning objectives for undergraduate and postgraduate students by shifting to online teaching and learning. Although such approaches have enabled delivering the theoretical content of courses during the pandemic, universities have faced serious difficulties in running practicals with actual research experiments and teaching hand-on skills because such activities potentially override the required safety guidelines. Here, we report an adaptive measure, implemented at Monash University, to run home-based studies in cognitive neuroscience and achieve learning objectives, which are normally delivered in face-to-face practicals. We introduce two specifically designed short-term research projects and describe how different aspects of these projects, such as tutorials, experiments, and assessments, were modified to meet the required social distancing. The results of cognitive tests were closely comparable between the laboratory-based and home-based experiments indicating that students followed the guidelines and the required procedures for a reliable data collection. Our assessments of students' performance and feedback indicate that the majority of our educational goals were achieved, while all safety guidelines and distancing requirements were also met.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19 , Neurociência Cognitiva/educação , Educação à Distância/normas , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina
19.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(8): 1605-1611, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic has created a need for timely data from the healthcare systems for research. To meet this need, several large new data consortia have been developed that require frequent updating and sharing of electronic health record (EHR) data in different common data models (CDMs) to create multi-institutional databases for research. Traditionally, each CDM has had a custom pipeline for extract, transform, and load operations for production and incremental updates of data feeds to the networks from raw EHR data. However, the demands of COVID-19 research for timely data are far higher, and the requirements for updating faster than previous collaborative research using national data networks have increased. New approaches need to be developed to address these demands. METHODS: In this article, we describe the use of the Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resource (FHIR) data model as a canonical data model and the automated transformation of clinical data to the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (PCORnet) and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDMs for data sharing and research collaboration on COVID-19. RESULTS: FHIR data resources could be transformed to operational PCORnet and OMOP CDMs with minimal production delays through a combination of real-time and postprocessing steps, leveraging the FHIR data subscription feature. CONCLUSIONS: The approach leverages evolving standards for the availability of EHR data developed to facilitate data exchange under the 21st Century Cures Act and could greatly enhance the availability of standardized datasets for research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19 , Data Warehousing , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Interoperabilidade da Informação em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação , Elementos de Dados Comuns , Gerenciamento de Dados/organização & administração , Humanos
20.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 106: 106438, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000408

RESUMO

With billions of dollars in research and development (R&D) funding continuing to be invested, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become into a singular focus for the scientific community. However, the collective response from the scientific communities have seen poor return on investment, particularly for therapeutic research for COVID-19, revealing the existing weaknesses and inefficiencies of the clinical trial enterprise. In this article, we argue for the importance of structural changes to existing research programs for clinical trials in light of the lessons learned from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/economia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
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