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2.
F1000Res ; 9: 1193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082937

RESUMO

Background: Never before have clinical trials drawn as much public attention as those testing interventions for COVID-19. We aimed to describe the worldwide COVID-19 clinical research response and its evolution over the first 100 days of the pandemic. Methods: Descriptive analysis of planned, ongoing or completed trials by April 9, 2020 testing any intervention to treat or prevent COVID-19, systematically identified in trial registries, preprint servers, and literature databases. A survey was conducted of all trials to assess their recruitment status up to July 6, 2020. Results: Most of the 689 trials (overall target sample size 396,366) were small (median sample size 120; interquartile range [IQR] 60-300) but randomized (75.8%; n=522) and were often conducted in China (51.1%; n=352) or the USA (11%; n=76). 525 trials (76.2%) planned to include 155,571 hospitalized patients, and 25 (3.6%) planned to include 96,821 health-care workers. Treatments were evaluated in 607 trials (88.1%), frequently antivirals (n=144) or antimalarials (n=112); 78 trials (11.3%) focused on prevention, including 14 vaccine trials. No trial investigated social distancing. Interventions tested in 11 trials with >5,000 participants were also tested in 169 smaller trials (median sample size 273; IQR 90-700). Hydroxychloroquine alone was investigated in 110 trials. While 414 trials (60.0%) expected completion in 2020, only 35 trials (4.1%; 3,071 participants) were completed by July 6. Of 112 trials with detailed recruitment information, 55 had recruited <20% of the targeted sample; 27 between 20-50%; and 30 over 50% (median 14.8% [IQR 2.0-62.0%]). Conclusions: The size and speed of the COVID-19 clinical trials agenda is unprecedented. However, most trials were small investigating a small fraction of treatment options. The feasibility of this research agenda is questionable, and many trials may end in futility, wasting research resources. Much better coordination is needed to respond to global health threats.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estados Unidos
3.
F1000Res ; 9: 1043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145011

RESUMO

In only a matter of months, the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world. The global impact of the disease has caused significant and repeated calls for quick action towards new medicines and vaccines. In response, researchers have adopted open science methods to begin to combat this disease via global collaborative efforts. We summarise here some of those initiatives, and have created an updateable list to which others may be added. Though open science has previously been shown as an accelerator of biomedical research, the COVID-19 crisis has made openness seem the logical choice. Will openness persist in the discovery of new medicines, after the crisis has receded?


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008902, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035262

RESUMO

The first cluster of patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified on December 21, 2019, and as of July 29, 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been linked with 664,333 deaths and number at least 16,932,996 worldwide. Unprecedented in global societal impact, the COVID-19 pandemic has tested local, national, and international preparedness for viral outbreaks to the limits. Just as it will be vital to identify missed opportunities and improve contingency planning for future outbreaks, we must also highlight key successes and build on them. Concomitant to the emergence of a novel viral disease, there is a 'research and development gap' that poses a threat to the overall pace and quality of outbreak response during its most crucial early phase. Here, we outline key components of an adequate research response to novel viral outbreaks using the example of SARS-CoV-2. We highlight the exceptional recent progress made in fundamental science, resulting in the fastest scientific response to a major infectious disease outbreak or pandemic. We underline the vital role of the international research community, from the implementation of diagnostics and contact tracing procedures to the collective search for vaccines and antiviral therapies, sustained by unique information sharing efforts.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
5.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 040202, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021207

RESUMO

In contrast to blood and urine samples, breath is invisible and ubiquitous in the environment. Different precautions are now necessary beyond the usual 'Universal Precautions'. In the era of COVID-19, breath (especially the aerosol fraction) can no longer be considered as harmless in the clinic or laboratory. As Journal of Breath Research is a primary resource for breath-related research, we (the editors) are presently developing safety guidance applicable to all breath research , not just for those projects that involve known COVID-19 infected subjects. We are starting this process by implementing requirements on reporting safety precautions in research papers and notes. This editorial announces that authors of all new submissions to JBR henceforth must state clearly the procedures undertaken for assuring laboratory and clinical safety, much like the existing requirements for disclosing Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board protocols for studies on human subjects. In the following, we additionally make some recommendations based on best practices drawn from our experience and input from the JBR Editorial Board.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Testes Respiratórios , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Saúde Pública , Risco , Segurança
9.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020508, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110591

RESUMO

Background: The currently prevailing global threat of COVID-19 caused the publication numbers on coronaviruses to explode. The awareness of the scientific and public community is enormous. But what about the sense of all these undertakings and what can be learned about the future for a better understanding? These questions were answered with established bibliometric analyses of the time until the avalanche of publications unfolded. Methods: Chronological, geographical aspects of publication output on coronavirus were also evaluated under the influence of epidemiological and socio-economic parameters. Results: The trend in publication and citation numbers shows the strong influence of the past pandemics SARS and MERS with an untypical decline afterward. Research is becoming increasingly multidisciplinary over time. The USA and China, as the countries with the highest number of publications, are being displaced by other countries in the consideration of socio-economic and epidemiological aspects, which shows the effect of regional interest in corona research. A significant correlation was found between the number of SARS cases per country and related publications, while no correlation was found for MERS cases and articles. Conclusions: The results underline the need for sustainable and forward-looking approaches that should not end with the containment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Previsões/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111750

RESUMO

Scientists have increasingly recognised that low methodological and analytical rigour combined with publish-or-perish incentives can make the published scientific literature unreliable. As a response to this, large-scale systematic replications of the literature have emerged as a way to assess the problem empirically. The Brazilian Reproducibility Initiative is one such effort, aimed at estimating the reproducibility of Brazilian biomedical research. Its goal is to perform multicentre replications of a quasi-random sample of at least 60 experiments from Brazilian articles published over a 20-year period, using a set of common laboratory methods. In this article, we describe the challenges of managing a multicentre project with collaborating teams across the country, as well as its successes and failures over the first two years. We end with a brief discussion of the Initiative's current status and its possible future contributions after the project is concluded in 2021.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Projetos de Pesquisa , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22849, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused heavy burdens and brought tremendous challenges to global public health. This study aimed to investigate collaboration relationships, research topics, and research trends on COVID-19 using scientific literature. METHOD: COVID-19-related articles published from January 1 to July 1, 2020 were retrieved from PubMed database. A total of 27,370 articles were included. Excel 2010, Medical Text Indexer (MTI), VOSviewer, and D3.js were used to summarize bibliometric features. RESULTS: The number of the COVID-19 research publications has been continuously increasing after its break. United States was the most productive and active country for COVID-19 research, with the largest number of publications and collaboration relationships. Huazhong University of Science and Technology from China was the most productive institute on the number of publications, and University of Toronto from Canada ranked as Top 1 institute for global research collaboration. Four key research topics were identified, of which the topic of epidemiology and public health interventions has gathered highest attentions. Topic of virus infection and immunity has been more focused during the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak compared with later stage. The topic popularity of clinical symptoms and diagnosis has been steady. CONCLUSIONS: Our topic analysis results revealed that the study of drug treatment was insufficient. To achieve critical breakthroughs of this research area, more interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, and global research collaborations are needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Editoração/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008583, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970783

RESUMO

The prospect of universal influenza vaccines is generating much interest and research at the intersection of immunology, epidemiology, and viral evolution. While the current focus is on developing a vaccine that elicits a broadly cross-reactive immune response in clinical trials, there are important downstream questions about global deployment of a universal influenza vaccine that should be explored to minimize unintended consequences and maximize benefits. Here, we review and synthesize the questions most relevant to predicting the population benefits of universal influenza vaccines and discuss how existing information could be mined to begin to address these questions. We review three research topics where computational modeling could bring valuable evidence: immune imprinting, viral evolution, and transmission. We address the positive and negative consequences of imprinting, in which early childhood exposure to influenza shapes and limits immune responses to future infections via memory of conserved influenza antigens. However, the mechanisms at play, their effectiveness, breadth of protection, and the ability to "reprogram" already imprinted individuals, remains heavily debated. We describe instances of rapid influenza evolution that illustrate the plasticity of the influenza virus in the face of drug pressure and discuss how novel vaccines could introduce new selective pressures on the evolution of the virus. We examine the possible unintended consequences of broadly protective (but infection-permissive) vaccines on the dynamics of epidemic and pandemic influenza, compared to conventional vaccines that have been shown to provide herd immunity benefits. In conclusion, computational modeling offers a valuable tool to anticipate the benefits of ambitious universal influenza vaccine programs, while balancing the risks from endemic influenza strains and unpredictable pandemic viruses. Moving forward, it will be important to mine the vast amount of data generated in clinical studies of universal influenza vaccines to ensure that the benefits and consequences of these vaccine programs have been carefully modeled and explored.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia
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