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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 43-81, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006356

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable, heterogeneous, and complex pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder (PND) characterized by distinctive abnormalities of human cognitive functions, social interaction, and speech development.Nowadays, several genetic changes including chromosome abnormalities, genetic variations, transcriptional epigenetics, and noncoding RNA have been identified in ASD. However, the association between these genetic modifications and ASDs has not been confirmed yet.The aim of this review is to summarize the key findings in ASD from genetic viewpoint that have been identified from the last few decades of genetic and molecular research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18971, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We analyzed the scientific outputs of global atrial fibrillation (AF) researches, developed a model to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the AF research productions from 2004 to 2018. METHODS: The data was retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection (WOSCC) on June 15, 2019. Bibliometrics tools-CiteSpace V (Drexel university, Chaomei Chen) and VOSviewer (Leiden University, van Eck NJ) --were used for bibliometric analyzing published outputs and finding research hotspots. RESULTS: There were a total of 21,839 research articles on AF, and the annual publication rate increased over time from 2004 to 2018. The Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology published the greatest number of articles, and the leading country was the United States. The leading institution was the Mayo Clinic, and the most productive researchers were: LIP GYH, Natale A, Chen SA, DI Biase L, and Kuck KH. The keywords analysis showed that catheter ablation, risk, heart failure, stroke, and management were research hotspots. CONCLUSION: Bibliometric analysis of the literature shows that research on AF continues to be a hot spot, and the clinical treatment of AF is an important research frontier. However, further research and collaboration are needed worldwide. Our findings aim to provide valuable information for the editors of journals that publish research on arrhythmia, and to help researchers identify new perspectives for future researches.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Bibliometria , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(1): 3-8, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937056

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a major irreversible blindness-causing disease. Traditional Chinese Medicine literature have mentioned glaucoma since Qin and Han Dynasties. Progress has been made since 1949, especially in these 50 years. Since 1990, rapid progress has been achieved in the field of glaucoma, including the research of pathogenesis, education, training and establishment of diagnosis and treatment standard for glaucoma. Nowadays, Chinese glaucoma specialists are giving out more and more voice in the international platform. Though the outcome is delightful, we realize that we are still lack of original innovations. After all, the road is still long and rugged, more efforts should be put into the fight against glaucoma.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 3-8).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Cegueira/etiologia , Glaucoma , Oftalmologia/tendências , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Humanos
4.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 285-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335582

RESUMO

This article serves as the introduction to "25 Years On: The State and Continuing Development of LGBTQ Studies Programs." It begins by placing the current issue in a commemorative context: marking the anniversary of a 1993 special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality dedicated to the emergence of "Gay and Lesbian Studies" and edited by Howard L. Minton. The introduction continues by providing an overview of early phases of academic transformations, primarily in the United States, with notes on particular legacies. This is followed by a brief survey of scholarship published since 1993 that pays particular attention to curricular and pedagogical concerns. It concludes by identifying themes articulated by the essays selected for this issue as well as commentary on their individual, yet richly interrelated, contributions.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Educação/tendências , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Estados Unidos
6.
Semin Oncol ; 46(4-5): 346-350, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699443

RESUMO

Research in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has played an integral part in learning about cancer biology and treatment. Here we provide examples of past research performed in the VHA focusing on hematologic malignancies, and identify future opportunities for areas of research in this group of uncommon diseases that have specific importance for Veterans and the VHA. Veterans treated in the VHA and in the private sector deserve information that is focused on them, and is not an extrapolation from the larger population. Only by building upon and expanding existing research within the VHA can Veteran-specific results be collected and best practices be developed. In turn, such advances will benefit Veterans affected by these cancers with an improved quality of life and a longer lifespan.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Oncologia , Saúde dos Veteranos , Veteranos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde dos Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde dos Veteranos/tendências
7.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(11): 801-805, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715675

RESUMO

Medical artificial intelligence (AI) promotes technological revolution and industrial transformation in the medical field, and the medical level of orbital disease will also be improved with the in-depth development of AI diagnosis and treatment. The problems should be solved in the orbital disease AI research at the initial stage include: the complex knowledge system of orbital disease requires cross-disciplinary knowledge to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment; the early diagnosis and treatment of orbital disease is absent, and effective technical methods are needed to crack the screening dilemma; the operation of the disease is difficult, and special mechanical devices are needed to break through the boundaries of surgical technique; the medical team of orbital disease is scarce, and it is necessary to share the medical resources effectively. In order to solve the problems mentioned above, the following research directions of orbital disease AI diagnosis and treatment should be included: the orbital disease AI diagnosis system, the orbital disease AI screening platform, the orbital surgery robot and the orbital disease telemedicine. Through the development of multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment, the in-depth exploration of interdisciplinary basic research, the extensive implementation of clinical research, and the extensive integration of industry and academic communication, the AI diagnosis and treatment of orbital disease is approaching a new era. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2019, 55: 801-805).


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Doenças Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Orbitárias/terapia , Telemedicina , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1167: 1-14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520346

RESUMO

Cancer is a cumulative manifestation of several complicated disease states that affect multiple organs. Over the last few decades, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, has become a successful model for studying human cancers. The genetic simplicity and vast arsenal of genetic tools available in Drosophila provides a unique opportunity to address questions regarding cancer initiation and progression that would be extremely challenging in other model systems. In this chapter we provide a historical overview of Drosophila as a model organism for cancer research, summarize the multitude of genetic tools available, offer a brief comparison between different model organisms and cell culture platforms used in cancer studies and briefly discuss some of the latest models and concepts in recent Drosophila cancer research.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster , Neoplasias , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 385-391, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559790

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arthropod-borne viruses are important causes of human morbidity worldwide. However, the available literatur and the epidemiological data concerning the importation to Poland of globally emerging arboviral infections, such as DENV, CHIKV, WNV, or ZIKV, are scarce. Only few seroepidemiologic studies concerning WNV in animals or humans in Poland have been published. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review paper is to summarize and present the current state of knowledge and the perspectives for research concerning the importation and the risk posed by the introduction to Poland of the four above-mentioned arboviral diseases. CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Climate change may facilitate the northward expansion of both the vectors for diseases previously unseen in Europe, as well as of the viruses themselves, resulting in autochthonous cases of diseases previously exclusively imported. Little is known about the importation of arboviral diseases to Poland because of the frequently asymptomatic or self-limiting course of the disease, lack of epidemiologic studies or effective disease reporting, as well as inadequate access to diagnostic methods. CONCLUSIONS: Further epidemiologic studies in Polish travellers are necessary in order to prevent importation or introduction of the above-mentioned viruses, and to act against potential problems related to blood transfusion or organ transplantation from infected donors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/sangue , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/imunologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Conhecimento , Polônia/epidemiologia
14.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(11): 656-661, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562390

RESUMO

Research into the gut microbiota and its role in health and disease has expanded rapidly in the past two decades. However, much of the early focus has been on cataloguing the microorganisms present, identifying correlations between microbial species and disease and using preclinical animal models to understand phenotypes. Now efforts are under way to provide functional insights into the gut microbiota and its mechanisms of action, improve understanding of the role of the microbiota beyond the gut and advance the development of microbiota-based therapeutics so that the microbiome can be harnessed in the clinic. In this Viewpoint article, we asked a selection of scientists and clinicians working in the gut microbiome field for their opinions on the major advances in and the challenges and solutions for translating gut microbiome research to the clinic, and where they expect progress to be made in the future.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17027, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TB is one of the top 10 causes of death and the leading cause from a single infectious agent. The study characterize the developmental trends and collaboration features in the field of tuberculosis (TB) at the national level and identify high-impact countries. METHODS: Scientometrics and social network analysis methods were used to analyze the research situation and collaboration behaviors based on TB research indexed in Web of Science from 1998 to 2017. RESULTS: The publication output, national collaborative rate, and collaborative level have steadily increased from 1998 to 2017. However, domestic publications still account for a substantial proportion of a nation's publications. Over time, the numbers of national publications and international collaborative publications have increased in total, but the growth trend of their share as a proportion of total national publications is not significant. The United States of America has the largest number of highly cited publications, while Denmark, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden have higher values of average relative citation than do other countries. Notably, the United Kingdom and South Africa have established the strongest and most stable collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: There was increasing research activity and collaboration in the field of TB during the period 1998 to 2017, but growth shows wide variability between countries. Further comprehensive and full collaboration should be promoted.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Cooperação Internacional , Tuberculose , Bibliometria , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Comunicação Acadêmica
17.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(9): 718-721, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550842
18.
Helicobacter ; 24 Suppl 1: e12644, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486236

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori infection is a critical factor in the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Central to this inflammation is the initiation of pro-inflammatory signaling cascades within epithelial cells, in particular those mediated by two sensors of bacterial cell wall components, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and alpha-protein kinase 1 (ALPK1). H pylori is, however, also highly adept at mitigating inflammation in the host, thereby restricting tissue damage and favoring bacterial persistence. H pylori modulates host immune responses by altering cytokine signaling in epithelial and myeloid cells, which results in increased proliferation of regulatory T cells and downregulation of effector T-cell responses. H pylori vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) has been shown to play an important role in the dampening of immune responses and induction of immune tolerance capable of protecting against asthma. It is also possible to generate protective immune responses by immunization with various H pylori antigens or their epitopes, in combination with an adjuvant, though this for now has only been shown in mouse models. Novel non-toxic adjuvants, consisting of modified bacterial enterotoxins or nanoparticles, have recently been developed that may not only enhance vaccine efficacy, but also help translate candidate vaccines to the clinic. This review will summarize the main discoveries in the past year regarding host immune responses to H pylori infection, as well as the design of new vaccine approaches against this infection.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vacinas Bacterianas/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/microbiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
19.
Helicobacter ; 24 Suppl 1: e12643, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486238

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) was responsible for over 1 000 000 new cases in 2018 and an estimated 783 000 deaths, making it still the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths in both sexes worldwide. Divergent trends for GC incidence were observed in the USA. Incidence rates, particularly for non-cardia GC, were stable or increasing among persons aged <50 years. In an analysis of data from a public hospital database in Hong Kong, treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection was associated with a lower risk of GC, particularly in older subjects who received treatment ≥10 years before. Based on the results of a 16-year endoscopy-based follow-up eradication trial, patients with incomplete-type intestinal metaplasia (IM) should receive endoscopic surveillance upon H. pylori eradication therapy. Updated guidelines on the endoscopic surveillance of preneoplastic conditions of the stomach (MAPS II) have been published. In the RAINFALL trial, the addition of ramucirumab to a backbone chemotherapy as a first-line regimen failed to improve overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic disease. Also, pembrolizumab did not prolong OS when compared to paclitaxel in the second-line treatment of patients with advanced GC or esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer. Trifluridine/tipiracil improved OS by 2.1 months in the third or further treatment line of patients with advanced GC. In a systematic investigation conducted on Chinese patients with GC, CLDN18-ARHGAP26/6 fusion was associated with signet-ring cell content and was prognostic for a worse outcome and predictive for no benefit from oxaliplatin/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Organoid cultures represent an appealing model that may be applied for therapy response testing in the near future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , China/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Helicobacter ; 24 Suppl 1: e12642, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486241

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the third deadliest cancer in the world, and the absolute number of cases is increasing every year due to aging and growing of high-risk populations. This disease is a consequence of the complex interaction of microbial agents, with environmental and host factors, resulting in the dysregulation of multiple oncogenic and tumor-suppressing signaling pathways. Despite the advances in our understanding of carcinogenesis, there are still reduced therapeutic options for patients with gastric cancer. In recent years, genomic analyses of gastric tumors have emphasized their molecular heterogeneity. The distinction of gastric cancer molecular subtypes may be a key to identify novel therapeutic targets, to predict patient outcome and response to therapy, and to guide early diagnosis strategies. In this review, we summarize the most recent updates on the relationship between microbial agents and gastric cancer, in particular, Helicobacter pylori, the non-H pylori microbiome, and Epstein-Barr virus. We also highlight the main advances made in the past year regarding the molecular characterization of gastric cancer, especially the signatures with potential clinical utility.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/fisiopatologia
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