Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.537
Filtrar
6.
Behav Neurosci ; 135(5): 601-609, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096743

RESUMO

Understanding the brain requires us to answer both what the brain does, and how it does it. Using a series of examples, I make the case that behavior is often more useful than neuroscientific measurements for answering the first question. Moreover, I show that even for "how" questions that pertain to neural mechanism, a well-crafted behavioral paradigm can offer deeper insight and stronger constraints on computational and mechanistic models than do many highly challenging (and very expensive) neural studies. I conclude that purely behavioral research is essential for understanding the brain-especially its cognitive functions-contrary to the opinion of prominent funding bodies and some scientific journals, who erroneously place neural data on a pedestal and consider behavior to be subsidiary. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Encéfalo , Cognição
7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(5): 550-556, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986518

RESUMO

Human activities are degrading ecosystems worldwide, posing existential threats for biodiversity and humankind. Slowing and reversing this degradation will require profound and widespread changes to human behaviour. Behavioural scientists are therefore well placed to contribute intellectual leadership in this area. This Perspective aims to stimulate a marked increase in the amount and breadth of behavioural research addressing this challenge. First, we describe the importance of the biodiversity crisis for human and non-human prosperity and the central role of human behaviour in reversing this decline. Next, we discuss key gaps in our understanding of how to achieve behaviour change for biodiversity conservation and suggest how to identify key behaviour changes and actors capable of improving biodiversity outcomes. Finally, we outline the core components for building a robust evidence base and suggest priority research questions for behavioural scientists to explore in opening a new frontier of behavioural science for the benefit of nature and human wellbeing.


Assuntos
Ciências do Comportamento , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Pesquisa Comportamental , Humanos
8.
J Fam Psychol ; 35(7): 983-993, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939453

RESUMO

Social scientists have long utilized observations of human behavior in research designs. For researchers studying couples, observation of romantic partners has led to important discoveries about how such behavior is associated with physical, mental, and family health. Historically, these methods have been used in in-person laboratory paradigms that place notable limitations on reach and inclusion. This has, in turn, restricted the generalizability of such research to couples who may not attend an in-person laboratory assessment. Transferring the observational laboratory into an online format has the potential to expand the capabilities of these methods to include more diverse couples. This article presents two empirical studies that used online methods to conduct observational behavioral research with sexual and gender minority couples, populations that could be difficult to reach using traditional methods in many places. We demonstrate that we were able to reach, recruit, and enroll diverse couples that more closely resemble the population of same-sex couples in the United States than likely would have been reached in-person. Further, we show that the quality of the observational data collected via the internet allowed for over 94% of collected data to be coded, with acceptable interrater reliabilities and convergent validity. These studies provide a proof-of-concept of online observational methods, accompanied by a tutorial for using such methods. We discuss possible extensions of these online methods, their limitations, and the potential to help further the field of close relationships by reaching more diverse relationships and increasing the generalizability of our research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Coleta de Dados , Internet , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(6): 611-620, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adolescents of color are underrepresented in behavioral health research. Study aims were to quantify the amount and types of outreach effort needed to recruit young Black adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their primary caregiver into a clinical trial evaluating a parenting intervention and to determine if degree of recruitment difficulty was related to demographic, diabetes-related, or family characteristics. METHODS: Data were drawn from a multi-center clinical trial. Participants (N = 155) were recruited from seven pediatric diabetes clinics. Contact log data were used to quantify both number/type of contacts prior to study enrollment as well as length of time to enrollment. Families were coded as having expedited recruitment (ER) or prolonged recruitment (PR). Baseline study data were used to compare ER and PR families on sociodemographic factors, adolescent diabetes management and health status and family characteristics such as household organization and family conflict. RESULTS: Mean length of time to recruit was 6.6 months and mean number of recruitment contacts was 10.3. Thirty-nine percent of the sample were characterized as PR. These families required even higher levels of effort (mean of 9.9 months to recruit and 15.4 contacts). There were no significant between-group differences on any baseline variable for ER and PR families, with the exception of family income. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers need to make persistent efforts in order to successfully enroll adolescents of color and their caregivers into clinical trials. Social determinants of health such as family resources may differentiate families with prolonged recruitment within such samples.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Pesquisa Comportamental , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Humanos , Renda , Poder Familiar
13.
Alcohol ; 92: 25-34, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609635

RESUMO

Wrist-worn alcohol biosensor technology has developed rapidly in recent years. These devices are light, easy to wear, relatively inexpensive, and resemble commercial fitness trackers. As a result, they may be more suitable for a wide range of clinical and research applications. In this paper, we describe three pilot projects examining the associations between reported drinking behavior and transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) derived from a new, wrist-worn alcohol biosensor (BACtrack Skyn) in diverse participant groups and settings. Study 1 (N = 3) compared Skyn-derived TAC with that from an ankle-worn alcohol sensor (SCRAM CAM) and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) in a laboratory setting. Study 2 (N = 10) compared Skyn TAC with BrAC during a naturalistic drinking episode in the field. Study 3 (N = 12) used the Skyn to monitor alcohol use in the field for 2 weeks. Studies 2 and 3 also collected usability and acceptability data from participants. The results of Study 1 showed that the Skyn produced a TAC curve that closely resembled that of the validated SCRAM CAM anklet. In Study 2, Skyn detected drinking for all 10 participants (peak BrAC range: 0.02-0.21) with an average delay of 35.6 ± 10.2 min after the start of self-reported drinking. In Study 3, Skyn reliably recorded continuous TAC data showing multiple drinking episodes over the monitoring period. Participants in Studies 2 and 3 both reported Skyn as highly acceptable. Collectively, the results of these pilot studies show that the Skyn was able to reliably detect drinking events in the laboratory and natural environments. We offer suggestions for further refinements of alcohol biosensors and accompanying analytic software that may facilitate adoption of these devices as cost-effective, user-friendly, and reliable tools to passively and accurately assess alcohol use in the field.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Punho , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pesquisa Comportamental , Etanol , Humanos
14.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(2): 466-471, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593121

RESUMO

Egon Brunswik coined the term ecological validity to refer to the correlation between perceptual cues and the states and traits of a stimulus. Martin Orne adapted the term to refer to the generalization of experimental findings to the real world outside the laboratory. Both are legitimate uses of the term because the ecological validity of the cues in an experiment determines the ecological validity of the experiment itself.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(2): 358-376, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400613

RESUMO

Heterogeneity emerges when multiple close or conceptual replications on the same subject produce results that vary more than expected from the sampling error. Here we argue that unexplained heterogeneity reflects a lack of coherence between the concepts applied and data observed and therefore a lack of understanding of the subject matter. Typical levels of heterogeneity thus offer a useful but neglected perspective on the levels of understanding achieved in psychological science. Focusing on continuous outcome variables, we surveyed heterogeneity in 150 meta-analyses from cognitive, organizational, and social psychology and 57 multiple close replications. Heterogeneity proved to be very high in meta-analyses, with powerful moderators being conspicuously absent. Population effects in the average meta-analysis vary from small to very large for reasons that are typically not understood. In contrast, heterogeneity was moderate in close replications. A newly identified relationship between heterogeneity and effect size allowed us to make predictions about expected heterogeneity levels. We discuss important implications for the formulation and evaluation of theories in psychology. On the basis of insights from the history and philosophy of science, we argue that the reduction of heterogeneity is important for progress in psychology and its practical applications, and we suggest changes to our collective research practice toward this end.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Psicologia/normas , Psicologia/tendências
18.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(4): 816-826, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440127

RESUMO

The current debate about how to improve the quality of psychological science revolves, almost exclusively, around the subordinate level of statistical significance testing. In contrast, research design and strict theorizing, which are superordinate to statistics in the methods hierarchy, are sorely neglected. The present article is devoted to the key role assigned to manipulation checks (MCs) for scientific quality control. MCs not only afford a critical test of the premises of hypothesis testing but also (a) prompt clever research design and validity control, (b) carry over to refined theorizing, and (c) have important implications for other facets of methodology, such as replication science. On the basis of an analysis of the reality of MCs reported in current issues of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, we propose a future methodology for the post-p < .05 era that replaces scrutiny in significance testing with refined validity control and diagnostic research designs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Psicologia/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Personalidade , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia Social , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(4): 827-843, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513312

RESUMO

In the face of unreplicable results, statistical anomalies, and outright fraud, introspection and changes in the psychological sciences have taken root. Vibrant reform and metascience movements have emerged. These are exciting developments and may point toward practical improvements in the future. Yet there is nothing so practical as good theory. This article outlines aspects of reform and metascience in psychology that are ripe for an injection of theory, including a lot of excellent and overlooked theoretical work from different disciplines. I review established frameworks that model the process of scientific discovery, the types of scientific networks that we ought to aspire to, and the processes by which problematic norms and institutions might evolve, focusing especially on modeling from the philosophy of science and cultural evolution. We have unwittingly evolved a toxic scientific ecosystem; existing interdisciplinary theory may help us intelligently design a better one.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Psicologia/métodos , Psicologia/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa Comportamental/tendências , Evolução Cultural , Humanos , Filosofia , Psicologia/tendências
20.
AIDS Behav ; 25(3): 709-720, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915328

RESUMO

Improving HIV testing rates and increasing early detection among men who have sex with men (MSM) are critical strategies for enhancing overall health and decreasing HIV transmission. Remote testing and phone delivery of HIV test results may reduce barriers such as geographic isolation or HIV-related stigma. In 2018-19, 50 MSM completed qualitative interviews about their experience receiving a positive HIV test result via phone through their participation in a research study that included remote HIV testing. Interview topics included the acceptability of, and concerns about, phone delivery of HIV results, as well as suggestions for improvement. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Overall, participants reported high acceptability of phone delivery of HIV-positive results. Participants praised the support and information provided by study staff. Benefits identified included increased convenience compared to in-person medical visits, allowing participants to emotionally process their test results privately, as well as receiving the results from supportive and responsive staff members. A few participants indicated drawbacks to phone-based HIV test result delivery, such as logistical concerns about receiving a phone call during the day (e.g., while at work), reduced confidentiality, and the lack of in-person emotional support. Overall, participants described phone delivery of positive HIV-results as acceptable. At-home testing with phone delivery has the potential to increase HIV testing access, especially to geographically isolated or medically underserved patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pesquisa Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...