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6.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 110(3): 553-568, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328109

RESUMO

Free and open-source software for applying models of operant demand called the Demand Curve Analyzer (DCA) was developed and systematically evaluated for use in research. The software was constructed to streamline the use of recommended screening measures, prepare suitable scaling parameters, fit one of several models of operant demand, and provide publication-quality figures. The DCA allows users to easily import price and consumption data into spreadsheet-based controls and to perform statistical modeling with the aid of a graphical user interface. The results from computer simulations and reanalyses of published study data indicated that the DCA provides results consistent with commercially available software that has been traditionally used to apply these analyses (i.e., GraphPadTM Prism). Further, the DCA provides additional functionality that other statistical packages do not include. Practical issues and future directions related to the determination of scaling parameter k, screening for nonsystematic data, and the incorporation of more advanced behavioral economic methods are also discussed.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Economia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
9.
Transl Behav Med ; 8(2): 309-312, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506256

RESUMO

Chronic diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. Most chronic diseases have behavioral risk factors that can improve health and quality of life and reduce financial burdens. Improved methods of measurement and behavioral interventions are rapidly progressing. These changes require sufficient funding to maximize effectiveness. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) helps to coordinate and support behavioral and social science research initiatives that are designed to promote public health and reduce chronic disease burden throughout the NIH. OBSSR's budget has not increased for the past 5 years. The goals of this policy paper are to promote awareness of the OBSSR Strategic Plan FY 2017-2021's three priority areas and encourage increased and sustained funding for OBSSR to support these priority areas. Priority area 1 involves improving the quality and integration of behavioral and social science research, which can increase speed of funding natural experiments. Priority area 2 encourages the use and improvement of new technology to create methods and infrastructures to analyze big behavioral data, ensuring that health behavior interventions keep pace with the substantial data generated from new technology. Priority area 3 supports translational research between scientific data and real-world practice, ensuring the delivery of research findings to patients and populations. Adequate and sustained resources are needed to address these priority areas. Without such resources, disparities in health outcomes and the costs of treating preventable chronic diseases will continue to grow. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) recommends and supports an increase for OBSSR's budget.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Pesquisa Comportamental , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Medicina do Comportamento/economia , Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , Medicina do Comportamento/normas , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Transl Behav Med ; 8(6): 958-961, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474678

RESUMO

The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/normas , Pesquisa Comportamental , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Pesquisa Comportamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./economia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/economia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência com Arma de Fogo/economia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 17(1): 79-90, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035154

RESUMO

Access to study populations is a major concern for drug use and treatment researchers. Spaces related to drug use and treatment have varying levels of researcher accessibility based on several issues, including legality, public versus private settings, and insider/outsider status. Ethnographic research methods are indispensable for gaining and maintaining access to hidden or "hard-to-reach" populations. Here, we discuss our long-term ethnographic research on drug abuse recovery houses created by and for Latino migrants and immigrants in Northern California. We take our field work experiences as a case study to examine the problem of researcher access and how ethnographic strategies can be successfully applied to address it, focusing especially on issues of entrée, building rapport, and navigating field-specific challenges related to legality, public/private settings, and insider/outsider status. We conclude that continued funding support for ethnography is essential for promoting health disparities research focused on diverse populations in recovery from substance use disorders.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hispano-Americanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Migrantes , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural/economia , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , California/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamento Domiciliar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação
12.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 52(3): 236-244, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065812

RESUMO

There is an extraordinary burden placed upon the healthcare system and people as a result of health disparities that exist within the United States. If there is going to be a concerted effort to develop innovative strategies to reduce health disparities, input from the community and behavioral scientists can and should be included in this approach and narrative. Grant writing provides one vehicle to express the narrative and to provide a means to fund research and programs within clinic-based and community settings. This paper describes a four-step inquiry process to guide healthcare professionals with varying degrees of clinical and scholarship interests through the grant writing process. They include: (1) Why write grants (motivations), (2) what is the area of focus? (Interests), (3) whom should be on the project? (partnerships), and (4) what needs to happen next to move the idea forward? (actions) The complexity of psychosocial issues means that behavioral science is well suited to develop both hypotheses-driven and phenomenological research to understand bio-psycho-social health issues. Grant writing does not need to be mysterious or daunting. It can provide a means to an end, not only to fund research but also as a means to an end of health disparities.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Medicina Comunitária , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/métodos , Medicina Comunitária/métodos , Medicina Comunitária/organização & administração , Humanos , Sociologia Médica/métodos , Estados Unidos
13.
Transl Behav Med ; 6(1): 32-43, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27012251

RESUMO

The translation of basic behavioral science discoveries into practical strategies represents a promising approach to developing more effective preventive interventions to improve health. Since translational research inevitably involves making use of diverse perspectives from multiple disciplines, it is best conducted as a transdisciplinary enterprise. In this paper, we discuss current strategies used by NIH to support transdisciplinary translational behavioral (TDTB) research, summarize successful efforts, and highlight challenges encountered in conducting such work (ranging from conceptual to organizational to methodological). Using examples from NIH-funded projects we illustrate the potential benefits of, and barriers to, pursuing this type of research and discuss next steps and potential future directions for NIH-supported TDTB research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Pesquisa Comportamental/educação , Cultura , Humanos , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/economia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/educação , Estados Unidos
14.
AIDS Behav ; 19(10): 1914-8, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174208

RESUMO

This brief report describes methodology and results of a novel, efficient, and low-cost recruitment tool to engage high-risk MSM in online research. We developed an incentivization protocol using iTunes song-gifting to encourage participation of high-risk MSM in an Internet-based survey of HIV status, childhood sexual abuse, and adult behavior and functioning. Our recruitment methodology yielded 489 participants in 4.5 months at a total incentive cost of $1.43USD per participant. The sample comprised a critically high-risk group of MSM, including 71.0 % who reported recent condomless anal intercourse. We offer a "how-to" guide to aid future investigators in using iTunes song-gifting incentives.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Internet , Motivação , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Pesquisa Comportamental/instrumentação , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Milbank Q ; 93(1): 139-78, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25752353

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: POLICY POINTS: A retrospective analysis of federally funded homeless research in the 1980s serves as a case study of how politics can influence social and behavioral science research agendas today in the United States. These studies of homeless populations, the first funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, demonstrated that only about a third of the homeless population was mentally ill and that a diverse group of people experienced homelessness. This groundbreaking research program set the mold for a generation of research and policy characterizing homelessness as primarily an individual-level problem rather than a problem with the social safety net. CONTEXT: A decade after the nation's Skid Rows were razed, homelessness reemerged in the early 1980s as a health policy issue in the United States. While activists advocated for government-funded programs to address homelessness, officials of the Reagan administration questioned the need for a federal response to the problem. In this climate, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) launched a seminal program to investigate mental illness and substance abuse among homeless individuals. This program serves as a key case study of the social and behavioral sciences' role in the policy response to homelessness and how politics has shaped the federal research agenda. METHODS: Drawing on interviews with former government officials, researchers, social activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, scientific literature, and government publications, this article examines the emergence and impact of social and behavioral science research on homelessness. FINDINGS: Research sponsored by the NIMH and other federal research bodies during the 1980s produced a rough picture of mental illness and substance abuse prevalence among the US homeless population, and private foundations supported projects that looked at this group's health care needs. The Reagan administration's opposition to funding "social research," together with the lack of private-sector support for such research, meant that few studies examined the relationship between homelessness and structural factors such as housing, employment, and social services. CONCLUSIONS: The NIMH's homelessness research program led to improved understanding of substance abuse and mental illness in homeless populations. Its primary research focus on behavioral disorders nevertheless unwittingly reinforced the erroneous notion that homelessness was rooted solely in individual pathology. These distortions, shaped by the Reagan administration's policies and reflecting social and behavioral scientists' long-standing tendencies to emphasize individual and cultural rather than structural aspects of poverty, fragmented homelessness research and policy in enduring ways.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/história , Desinstitucionalização/história , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.)/história , Política , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Desinstitucionalização/economia , Desinstitucionalização/legislação & jurisprudência , Financiamento Governamental/história , História do Século XX , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Política Pública , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/história , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/história , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Reforma Urbana/economia , Reforma Urbana/história
16.
Health Educ Behav ; 40(1 Suppl): 9S-12S, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24084406

RESUMO

This supplement of Health Education & Behavior showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. These investments have included funding opportunity announcements, training programs, developing resources for researchers, cross-disciplinary fertilization, and publication. While much progress has been made, continuing investment is needed in the future to ensure the viability and sustainability of this young but increasingly important field.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Saúde Pública/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos
18.
Behav Res Methods ; 45(1): 16-24, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22736454

RESUMO

Many authors adhere to the rule that test reliabilities should be at least .70 or .80 in group research. This article introduces a new standard according to which reliabilities can be evaluated. This standard is based on the costs or time of the experiment and of administering the test. For example, if test administration costs are 7 % of the total experimental costs, the efficient value of the reliability is .93. If the actual reliability of a test is equal to this efficient reliability, the test size maximizes the statistical power of the experiment, given the costs. As a standard in experimental research, it is proposed that the reliability of the dependent variable be close to the efficient reliability. Adhering to this standard will enhance the statistical power and reduce the costs of experiments.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa/economia , Orçamentos , Controle de Custos , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamanho da Amostra , Inquéritos e Questionários/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
19.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 66(10): 1178-9, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22828733

RESUMO

Eating causes up to a quarter of premature deaths from chronic diseases in Europe through poor diet and excess consumption. FAHRE (Food and Health Research in Europe) was funded to determine needs and gaps in research structures and programmes. Most food research links towards agriculture and the environmental sciences, whereas most health research links towards clinical diseases, biochemical pathways and biology. Research on food and health together includes food safety research addressing biological and chemical contaminants, and biotechnology research supporting clinical nutrition. Research for healthy eating must draw on social and behavioural sciences for studies of policy, regulation and interventions. The food industry, across production, retail and catering, must be part of the research programme, and civil society. Better coordination and improved levels of funding are needed in the coming European research programme 'Horizon 2020', and national programmes linked in the Joint Programming Initiative. Transforming the research agenda can give great benefits to Europe's citizens.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Dieta , Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/economia , Dieta/etnologia , União Europeia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/economia , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Hiperfagia/prevenção & controle , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/economia
20.
Soc Work ; 56(3): 225-33, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21848087

RESUMO

Placed in the historical context of government funding ofacademic research, this critical analysis identifies the complexities and implications of schools of social work pursuing federal grants for research. Schools of social work with particular organizational characteristics are better able to compete for federal grants, incurring lower opportunity costs than others. The low probability of grant success for most schools, the organizational adaptations needed for success, and the narrow epistemology of many funding programs call into question whether federal funding of research should be considered the sine qua non for academic social work.


Assuntos
Financiamento Governamental , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Serviço Social , Universidades , Pesquisa Comportamental/economia , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Estados Unidos
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