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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(1): 167-183, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087303

RESUMO

Este artigo discute a influência que o conteúdo publicado no YouTube exerce na formação do capital social, a partir da análise do vídeo mais popular de um canal de divulgação científica de questões abordadas pela psicologia e dos comentários a ele associados. Na análise dos comentários, foram utilizados os procedimentos metodológicos da teoria fundamentada. No final da pesquisa, foram identificadas três práticas discursivas que, no contexto de estudo, contribuem para a formação do capital social e de valores a ele relacionados. As formas de capital social encontradas com mais frequência foram a do capital relacional, do capital cognitivo e a da confiança no ambiente social. Entre os valores construídos pelos usuários em suas práticas discursivas estão a visibilidade, a legitimação e o suporte social. Esse último merece destaque por perpassar todas as categorias principais. Concluímos que o conteúdo do vídeo funciona como catalisador para diferentes práticas sociais que culminam na formação do capital social.


This article discusses the influence of YouTube content on the formation of social capital from the analysis of the most popular psychology video on Brazilian Science YouTube Channel and also of the comments made by its users. In the analysis of the comments, the methodological procedures of the grounded theory were used. At the end of the research, three discursive practices were identified and in the study context they aid in the formation of social capital and of related values. The most frequent forms of social capital that we found were those of the relational capital, of the cognitive capital and of the trustworthiness in the interaction with other people in that social environment. Among the values constructed by users in their discursive practices are visibility, legitimation and social support. The latter deserves special mention because it intersects all the main categories. We have come to the conclusion that the content of the video serves as catalyst for different social practices that culminate in the formation of social capital.


Este artículo discute la influencia del contenido publicado en YouTube sobre la formación del capital social, fundamentada en el análisis del vídeo más popular de un canal de divulgación científica de cuestiones abordadas por la psicología y en los comentarios a él asociados. En el análisis de los comentarios, se utilizaron los procedimientos metodológicos de la teoría fundamentada. En el final de la investigación, se identificaron tres prácticas discursivas que, en el contexto del estudio, contribuyen a la formación del capital social y de valores relacionados a él. Las formas de capital social encontradas con más frecuencia fueron la del capital relacional, del capital cognitivo y de la confianza en el ambiente social. Entre los valores construidos por los usuarios en sus prácticas discursivas están la visibilidad, la legitimación y el apoyo social. Este último merece destacarse por atravesar todas las categorías principales. Concluimos que el contenido del vídeo funciona como catalizador para diferentes prácticas sociales que culminan en la formación del capital social.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia , Comunicação e Divulgação Científica , Mídias Sociais , Capital Social , Redes Sociais Online , Recursos Audiovisuais , Apoio Social , Pesquisa Empírica
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(4): 139-150, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955584

RESUMO

Introduction: Comprehensive predictors of first-year students' academic performance, including pre-university experience, can be found at both individual and infrastructural levels that can be measured and used to increase academic performance and contribute to student mental health. Aim: To study the characteristics of students who are beginning their studies in medical, dental, pharmacy and health care organization. Method: Analysis of a database obtained through questionnaire data among first-year Semmelweis University students (n = 550). Significant explanatory variables influencing student performance were determined by logistic regression. Results: Different faculties and prestige channels have different success factors and student needs, the fulfillment of which also serves the maintenance of student mental health. Two groups were defined: (i) factors independent of age (perseverance value, religious belief, WHO value of well-being, importance of sport, trust), (ii) faculty-specific factors (Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry: parental influence on learning; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences: the importance of relationships is high; Faculty of Health Sciences: parental qualifications are decisive). Conclusion: At the start of a student's life, measurements can uncover factors that, if learned, can facilitate later successful studies, preventing early school leaving. During the course of studies, these features can be monitored continuously, so that the necessary interventions can be made to ensure student success. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(4): 139-150.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226830, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995574

RESUMO

A better understanding of deforestation drivers across countries and spatial scales is a precondition for designing efficient international policies and coherent land use planning strategies such as REDD+. However, it is so far unclear if the well-studied drivers of tropical deforestation behave similarly across nested subnational jurisdictions, which is crucial for efficient policy implementation. We selected three countries in Africa, America and Asia, which present very different tropical contexts. Making use of spatial econometrics and a multi-level approach, we conducted a set of regressions comprising 3,035 administrative units from the three countries at micro-level, plus 361 and 49 at meso- and macro-level, respectively. We included forest cover as dependent variable and seven physio-geographic and socioeconomic indicators of well-known drivers of deforestation as explanatory variables. With this, we could provide a first set of highly significant econometric models of pantropical deforestation that consider subnational units. We identified recurrent drivers across countries and scales, namely population pressure and the natural condition of land suitability for crop production. The impacts of demography on forest cover were strikingly strong across contexts, suggesting clear limitations of sectoral policy. Our findings also revealed scale and context dependencies, such as an increased heterogeneity at local scopes, with a higher and more diverse number of significant determinants of forest cover. Additionally, we detected stronger spatial interactions at smaller levels, providing empirical evidence that certain deforestation forces occur independently of the existing de jure governance boundaries. We demonstrated that neglecting spatial dependencies in this type of studies can lead to several misinterpretations. We therefore advocate, that the design and enforcement of policy instruments-such as REDD+-should start from common international entry points that ensure for coherent agricultural and demographic policies. In order to achieve a long-term impact on the ground, these policies need to have enough flexibility to be modified and adapted to specific national, regional or local conditions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , África , América , Ásia , Produção Agrícola , Pesquisa Empírica , Modelos Econométricos , Análise Multinível , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Clima Tropical
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895925

RESUMO

Bayesian staircases are widely used in psychophysics to estimate detection thresholds. Simulations have revealed the importance of the parameters selected for the assumed subject's psychometric function in enabling thresholds to be estimated with small bias and high precision. One important parameter is the slope of the psychometric function, or equivalently its spread. This is often held fixed, rather than estimated for individual subjects, because much larger numbers of trials are required to estimate the spread as well as the threshold. However, if this fixed value is wrong, the threshold estimate can be biased. Here we determine the optimal slope to minimize bias and maximize precision when measuring stereoacuity with Bayesian staircases. We performed 2- and 4AFC disparity detection stereo experiments in order to measure the spread of the disparity psychometric function in human observers assuming a Logistic function. We found a wide range, between 0.03 and 3.5 log10 arcsec, with little change with age. We then ran simulations to examine the optimal spread using the empirical data. From our simulations and for three different experiments, we recommend selecting assumed spread values between the percentiles 60-80% of the population distribution of spreads (these percentiles can be extended to other type of thresholds). For stereo thresholds, we recommend a spread around the value σ = 1.7 log10 arcsec for 2AFC (slope ß = 4.3 /log10 arcsec), and around σ = 1.5 log10 arcsec for 4AFC (ß = 4.9 /log10 arcsec). Finally, we compared a Bayesian procedure (ZEST using the optimal σ) with five Bayesian procedures that are versions of ZEST-2D, Psi, and Psi-marginal. In general, for the conditions tested, ZEST optimal σ showed the lowest threshold bias and highest precision.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoacústica , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
6.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190311, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056556

RESUMO

Este artigo tem por objetivo investigar como o tema saúde de imigrantes haitianos vem sendo abordado em estudos empíricos qualitativos. Realizou-se revisão sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Scopus e Web of Science, entre 2007 e 2019. Esta revisão orientou-se por princípios da revisão sistemática quantitativa, aplicados à pesquisa qualitativa. Os 17 artigos selecionados foram revisados criticamente e os dados relevantes extraídos e sintetizados utilizando-se preceitos da síntese temática. Os resultados apontam que percepções e saberes sobre saúde e doença estiveram presentes em todos os trabalhos. Os estudos incluídos demonstram motivos pelos quais os participantes não acessam serviços de saúde, no entanto, não exploram como ocorrem as trajetórias de cuidado. Recomenda-se que trabalhos futuros reconheçam a necessidade do diálogo intercultural, avançando no sentido de compreender a lógica e os significados que dão sustentação às representações socioculturais do cuidado à saúde.(AU)


This article aims to investigate how the theme Haitian immigrants' health has been approached in qualitative empirical studies. A systematic review was carried out in the databases PubMed, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science between 2007 and 2019. This review was guided by principles of quantitative systematic review applied to qualitative research. The 17 selected articles were critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and synthesized using thematic synthesis precepts. Results show that perceptions and knowledge about health/disease were present in all the aticles. The selected studies demonstrate reasons why research participants do not access health services, but do not explore how care paths occur. It is recommended that further studies should recognize the need of intercultural dialog and advance towards understanding the logic and meanings that support sociocultural representations of healthcare.(AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el tema de la salud de inmigrantes haitianos que se ha abordado en estudios empíricos cualitativos. Se realizó la revisión sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, Scopus y Web of Science, entre 2007 y 2019. Esta revisión se orientó por principios de la revisión sistemática cuantitativa, aplicados a la investigación cualitativa. Los 17 artículos seleccionados se revisaron críticamente y los datos relevantes se extrajeron y sintetizaron utilizándose preceptos de la síntesis temática. Los resultados señalan que percepciones y saberes sobre salud/enfermedad estuvieron presentes en todos los trabajos. Los estudios incluidos demuestran motivos por los cuales los participantes no realizan el acceso a los servicios de salud, pero no exploran cómo ocurren las trayectorias de cuidado. Se recomienda que trabajos futuros reconozcan la necesidad del diálogo intercultural avanzando en el sentido de comprender la lógica y los significados que dan sustentación a las representaciones socioculturales del cuidado de la salud.(AU)


Assuntos
Pesquisa Empírica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Indicadores Bibliométricos , Haiti/etnologia
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 951, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Responsive regulation assumes that the parties being regulated are trustworthy and motivated by social responsibility. This assumes that regulation based upon trust will improve the regulated organization more effectively than other regulation models. The purpose of our qualitative study was to unravel the most important elements of trust in the inspectee which can support the inspector's work and to develop a model and a framework of trust that can be used by the inspectors to legitimize their trust in the inspectee. METHODS: We conducted an empirical study on trust regarding the regulation of care services to reveal how trust in the inspectee is conceptualized and assessed. Based on literature and empirical research, we synthesized the concept of trust into six elements, five regarding behavior, and a sixth looking at information about its context. We developed a practical framework for the concept to reduce the conceptual ambiguity, strengthen regulatory assessment, and support appropriate tailoring of the regulatory response. RESULTS: Six elements with respect to trust emerged from the data: showing integrity; transparency; ability to learn; accepting feedback; showing actual change in behavior; context information. These five behavioral elements, plus the context information were merged into a Framework of Trust and designed into an interactive PDF document. CONCLUSIONS: This study has sought to address a gap in the empirical knowledge regarding the assessment of trust in the inspectee. The results aim to inform and clarify the regulatory conceptualization and understanding of trust in the inspectee. Other inspectorates may learn from these results for their own practice and explore whether operational deployment of our Framework of Trust effects their assessment and enforcement strategies.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Fiscalização e Controle de Instalações , Confiança , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Países Baixos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7584743, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886248

RESUMO

Purpose: We developed a mathematic empirical model for describing the small field penumbra in order to analyze the potential dose perturbation caused by overlapping field to avoid the dose calculation errors in linear accelerator-based radiosurgery. Materials and methods: A ball phantom was fabricated for measuring penumbra at 4 different gantry angles in the coplanar plane. A least square root estimation (LSRE) Model was created to fit the measured penumbra dose profile and to predict the penumbra dose profile at any gantry angles. The Sum of Squared Errors (SSE) was used for finding the parameters n and t for the best fitting of the LSRE model. Geometric and mathematical methods were used to derive the model parameters. Results: The results showed that the larger the gantry angle of the field, the more the expansion of the penumbra dose profile. The least square root estimation model for describing small field penumbra is as follows: Penumbra D s = T · 1 / 2 · 1 - s / n + s 2 + t where Penumbra D(s) denotes the dose profile D(s) at the penumbra region, T is the penumbra height (usually in scalar 100), n is the parameter for curvature, s = x - W d /2 (x and s are the values in cm on x-axis), and t is the radiation transmission of the collimator. Geometric analysis establishes the correlation between the penetration depth of the exposure and its effect on the penumbra region in ball phantom. The penumbra caused by an exposure at any arbitrary angles can be geometrically derived by using a one-variable quadratic equation. Conclusion: The dose distribution in penumbra region of small field can be created by the LSRE model and the potential overdosage or underdosage owing to overlapping field perturbation can be estimated.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Empírica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Calibragem , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Imagens de Fantasmas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Análise de Regressão
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842465

RESUMO

In China, the utilization of medical resources is contentious, and a large of hospitals are seriously congested because of the huge population and uneven distribution of medical resources. Online health communities (OHCs) provide patients with platforms to interact with physicians and to get professional suggestions and emotional support. This study adopted the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to identify factors influencing patients' behavioral intention and usage behavior when interacting with physicians in OHCs. An investigation involving 378 valid responses was conducted through several Chinese OHCs to collect data. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were utilized to test hypotheses. Both the reliability and validity of the scales were acceptable. All five hypotheses were supported, and behavioral intention played a significant mediating role between independent variables and dependent variables. This study clarified the mechanism by which performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and attitude toward using technology affect usage behavior through the mediation of behavioral intention in OHCs. These findings suggest that OHCs can change the actions of websites such as adopting some incentives to promote patients' intention of interaction. Physicians should understand patients' actual attitudes toward OHCs and try to guide patients in their interactions, improving the quality of physician-patient interaction.


Assuntos
Intenção , Relações Médico-Paciente , Telemedicina , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos , Saúde Pública , Tecnologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226902, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869404

RESUMO

Online product reviews underpin nearly all e-shopping activities. The high volume of data, as well as various online review quality, puts growing pressure on automated approaches for informative content prioritization. Despite a substantial body of literature on review helpfulness prediction, the rationale behind specific feature selection is largely under-studied. Also, the current works tend to concentrate on domain- and/or platform-dependent feature curation, lacking wider generalization. Moreover, the issue of result comparability and reproducibility occurs due to frequent data and source code unavailability. This study addresses the gaps through the most comprehensive feature identification, evaluation, and selection. To this end, the 30 most frequently used content-based features are first identified from 149 relevant research papers and grouped into five coherent categories. The features are then selected to perform helpfulness prediction on six domains of the largest publicly available Amazon 5-core dataset. Three scenarios for feature selection are considered: (i) individual features, (ii) features within each category, and (iii) all features. Empirical results demonstrate that semantics plays a dominant role in predicting informative reviews, followed by sentiment, and other features. Finally, feature combination patterns and selection guidelines across domains are summarized to enhance customer experience in today's prevalent e-commerce environment. The computational framework for helpfulness prediction used in the study have been released to facilitate result comparability and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Internet , Marketing , Algoritmos , Comércio , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Semântica , Software
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36274-36286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713824

RESUMO

In energy economics literature, we found few studies on the association between environmental quality energy consumption and financial development. The current study is an attempt to contribute in literature by examining the link between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, financial development, energy consumption, and economic growth, in South East Asian economies for the period 1980-2017 using annual time series data. For empirical analysis, Bound tests for cointegration and error correction approach are used. The estimated results confirm that financial development has positive impact on environmental quality. On the other hand, in the long run, the rise in energy consumption economic growth and trade openness is unfavorable for environment quality. Our results confirm U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental quality that is a proof of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Additionally, the government needs to design different modes of energy consumption to solve the problem of environmental degradation. Moreover, the major conclusion extends new insight for authority to make a comprehensive trade and financial policies to improve environmental quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia Sudeste , Pesquisa Empírica , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Internacionalidade
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1459, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urbanization and aging are global phenomena that offer unique challenges in different countries. A supportive environment plays an important role in addressing the issues of health behavioral change and health promotion (e.g., prevent chronic illnesses, promote mental health) among older adults. With the development of the socio-ecological theoretical model, studies on the impact of supportive environments on physical activity have become popular in the public health field in the EU and US. Meanwhile, very few Chinese studies have examined the relationship between built environment features and older adults' physical activity at the ecological level. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the factors part of the built environment of Nanjing's communities also influence leisure time physical activity among the elderly. METHODS: Using a socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 399 elderly people from 19 communities in Nanjing, China, using a one-on-one questionnaire to collect data, including participants' perceived built environment and self-reported physical activity. A multivariate linear regression method was used to analyze the factors influencing their recreational physical activity. RESULTS: This study found that compared to older people with low average monthly income, the recreational physical activity of the elderly with average monthly incomes between 1001 and 2000 ¥ (ß = 23.31, p < 0.001) and 2001 ¥ or more (ß = 21.15, p < 0.001) are significantly higher. After controlling for individual covariates, street connectivity (ß = 7.34, p = 0.030) and street pavement slope (ß = - 7.72, p = 0.020), we found that two out of ten built environment factors indicators influence their physical activity. The importance of each influencing factor ranked from highest to lowest are monthly average income, street pavement slope, and street connectivity. Other factors were not significantly related to recreational physical activity by the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with a high income were more likely to participate in recreational physical activity than those with a low income. In order to positively impact physical activity in older adults and ultimately improve health, policymakers and urban planners need to ensure that street connectivity and street pavement slope are factored into the design and development of the urban environment.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Apoio Social , Urbanização , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Pesquisa Empírica , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Modelos Teóricos , Pobreza/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Autorrelato
13.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 71, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of crowdfunding platforms to cover the costs of healthcare is growing rapidly within low-, middle-, and high-income countries as a new funding modality in global health. The popularity of such "medical crowdfunding" is fueled by health disparities and gaps in health coverage and social safety-net systems. Crowdfunding in its current manifestations can be seen as an antithesis to universal health coverage. But research on medical crowdfunding, particularly in global health contexts, has been sparse, and accessing robust data is difficult. To map and document how medical crowdfunding is shaped by, and shapes, health disparities, this article offers an exploratory conceptual and empirical analysis of medical crowdfunding platforms and practices around the world. Data are drawn from a mixed-methods analysis of medical crowdfunding campaigns, as well as an ongoing ethnographic study of crowdfunding platforms and the people who use them. RESULTS: Drawing on empirical data and case examples, this article describes three main ways that crowdfunding is impacting health equity and health politics around the world: 1) as a technological determinant of health, wherein data ownership, algorithms and platform politics influence health inequities; 2) as a commercial determinant of health, wherein corporate influence reshapes healthcare markets and health data; 3) and as a determinant of health politics, affecting how citizens view health rights and the future of health coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than viewing crowdfunding as a social media fad or a purely beneficial technology, researchers and publics must recognize it as a complex innovation that is reshaping health systems, influencing health disparities, and shifting political norms, even as it introduces new ways of connecting and caring for those in the midst of health crises. More analysis, and better access to data, is needed to inform policy and address crowdfunding as a source of health disparities.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Obtenção de Fundos/métodos , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Política , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Tecnologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609683

RESUMO

Based on response surface methodology, empirical models were built to predict the influence of can processing (heat treatment) and storage conditions (time and temperature) on the migration of bisphenol compounds from the inner lacquer of tinplate cans (4 brands) into several food simulants. Analysis using liquid chromatography revealed the presence of BADGE.2H2O and BPA in all samples. Models were significant in fitting the levels of these two bisphenols in food simulants depending on the input variables, with excellent adjusted coefficients of determination. Their prediction performance was validated through running new data sets. Further comparison of predicted values with bisphenols levels measured in canned vegetables revealed that the proposed models are conservative. By the desirability of the response output, the models are capable of proposing the range of can processing and storage conditions that limit migration for further compliance with the regulation. The proposed approach could be a convenient tool for the industries to control processing conditions in order to ensure the conformity of canned foods.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Pesquisa Empírica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Esterilização , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614533

RESUMO

Background: The primary aim of the research in the present study was to determine the effectiveness of health care in classifying health care financing systems from a sample of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries (2012-2017). This objective was achieved through several stages of analysis, which aimed to assess the relations between and relation diversity in selected variables, determining the effectiveness of health care and the health expenditure of health care financing systems. The greatest emphasis was placed on the differences between health care financing systems that were due to the impact of health expenditure on selected health outputs, such as life expectancy at birth, perceived health status, the health care index, deaths from acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus. Methods: Methods such as descriptive analysis, effect analysis (η2), binomial logistic regression analysis, linear regression analysis, continuity analysis (ρ) and correspondence analysis, were used to meet the above objectives. Results: Based on several stages of statistical processing, it was found that there are deviations in several of the relations between different health care funding systems in terms of their predisposition to certain areas of health outcomes. Thus, where one system proves ineffective (or its effectiveness is questionable), another system (or systems) appears to be effective. From a correspondence analysis that compared the funding system and other outputs (converted to quartiles), it was found that a national health system, covering the country as a whole, and multiple insurance funds or companies would be more effective systems. Conclusions: Based on the findings, it was concluded that, in analyzing issues related to health care and its effectiveness, it is appropriate to take into account the funding system (at least to verify the significance of how research premises affect the systems); otherwise, the results may be distorted.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109619, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574374

RESUMO

China is now facing the formidable tasks of saving energy and reducing emissions, so it is very important to analyze China's energy and environmental efficiency. However, previous studies have rarely paid attention to the cross-impacts that different forms of public environmental concern (PEC) have simultaneously on energy and environmental efficiency. To investigate how these two types of efficiency change along with PEC variations, this paper employs six extended programming models which are developed based upon the theory of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the directional distance function (DDF). An empirical analysis of data from 239 Chinese prefecture-level cities demonstrates the techniques. The empirical results show that PEC variations can significantly affect the environmental efficiency only if the city is experiencing unsustainable development. This work also shows that PEC about input resources may exaggerate the environmental efficiency, implying that the public may be more tolerant of resource over-consumption than of pollutant over-emission.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Cidades , Pesquisa Empírica
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581715

RESUMO

The study of carbon emissions is of great significance for environmental change and economic development. Gender factors is an important perspective to examine the path of carbon emissions. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2016, this paper selects the optimal spatial measurement model structure by using the Bayesian posterior probability model structure selection method, and studies the impact of economy on carbon emissions and the influence mechanism of gender-based "synergy effect" on carbon emissions from the National level and regional levels. The research shows that the increase of economic promotes the increase of carbon emission in this region, but it has a restraining effect on the carbon emission in the surrounding areas. Moreover, gender factors have a significant positive effect on the region at the National level and the Eastern and Northeastern regions, but not significantly in other ones, and have a significant negative impact on carbon emissions in surrounding areas. Overall, the influence intensity of economy on carbon emission increases with the increase of gender in the National level and the Eastern and Northeastern, while the influence intensity of economy of peripheral regions on carbon emission in Central Region decreases with the increase of gender factors in peripheral regions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Teorema de Bayes , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos
19.
Public Health ; 177: 95-101, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite several international commitments and national policies to eliminate the practice of girl child marriage, it remains pervasive in India. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between child marriage and nutritional status and anaemia in children aged below 5 years. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We have used the data from the latest round of the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS), conducted in 2015-2016. For this study, the sample was limited to 80,539 living children aged below 5 years born to 60,003 ever-married women aged 15-24 years. We have considered children's stunting, wasting, underweight and anaemia as outcomes variables and child marriage (married below 18 years) as the exposure of variables of interest. Pearson's Chi-squared test and binary logistic regressions were applied to assess the associations. RESULTS: About 58% of sample women were married before 18 years of age. The prevalence of children's stunting, wasting and underweight were 37%, 23% and 36%, respectively. More than half of the sample children (62%) were anaemic. Regression analysis revealed that child marriage (<18 years) was significantly associated with increased likelihood of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.10) and underweight (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00-1.08) even after controlling for relevant confounding variables. Child marriage had no significant association with children being wasted and anaemic in crude analyses. However, it is found that child marriage significantly increases the risk of childhood anaemia in adjusted analyses (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03-1.13). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study suggest that there is a need for effective policies and programmes to end the practice of child marriage and targeted intervention should be made to improve nutritional outcomes of children born to women married in childhood.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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