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2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1431-1432, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438166

RESUMO

Standardization is essential for information sharing among different health care institutions. Our objective was to identify the essential oral health attributes to include in an electronic health record for primary care. This action research study utilized a Definer Group, which selected attributes as a mind map, into four main pillars: Data Collection, Diagnosis, Care Plan and Evaluation. This research applied the practice of knowledge leveling, favoring the interaction of dental specialties and identification of attributes.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Telemedicina , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
3.
BMJ ; 366: l4563, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine any changes in total hospital revisits within 30 days of discharge after a hospital stay for medical conditions targeted by the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital stays among Medicare patients for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia between 1 January 2012 and 1 October 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare fee-for-service patients aged 65 or over. MAIN OUTCOMES: Total hospital revisits within 30 days of discharge after hospital stays for medical conditions targeted by the HRRP, and by type of revisit: treat-and-discharge visit to an emergency department, observation stay (not leading to inpatient readmission), and inpatient readmission. Patient subgroups (age, sex, race) were also evaluated for each type of revisit. RESULTS: Our study cohort included 3 038 740 total index hospital stays from January 2012 to September 2015: 1 357 620 for heart failure, 634 795 for acute myocardial infarction, and 1 046 325 for pneumonia. Counting all revisits after discharge, the total number of hospital revisits per 100 patient discharges for target conditions increased across the study period (monthly increase 0.023 visits per 100 patient discharges (95% confidence interval 0.010 to 0.035)). This change was due to monthly increases in treat-and-discharge visits to an emergency department (0.023 (0.015 to 0.032) and observation stays (0.022 (0.020 to 0.025)), which were only partly offset by declines in readmissions (-0.023 (-0.035 to -0.012)). Increases in observation stay use were more pronounced among non-white patients than white patients. No significant change was seen in mortality within 30 days of discharge for target conditions (-0.0034 (-0.012 to 0.0054)). CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, total hospital revisits within 30 days of discharge for conditions targeted by the HRRP increased across the study period. This increase was due to a rise in post-discharge emergency department visits and observation stays, which exceeded the decline in readmissions. Although reductions in readmissions have been attributed to improvements in discharge planning and care transitions, our findings suggest that these declines could instead be because hospitals and clinicians have intensified efforts to treat patients who return to a hospital within 30 days of discharge in emergency departments and as observation stays.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Unidades de Observação Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 9: 12, jul. 15, 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1009367

RESUMO

"\"\\\"[{\\\\\\\"text\\\\\\\": \\\\\\\"Objetivo: conhecer a avaliação dos profissionais de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\nIII (CAPS) sobre o atendimento ofertado aos familiares de usuários de crack. Método: estudo qualitativo, com\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\nreferencial da Avaliação de Quarta Geração. Os dados foram coletados de junho a setembro de 2013, com 15\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\nprofissionais de um CAPS, por meio de entrevistas e observações, com análise pelo método comparativo constante, originando o eixo temático Atendimento aos familiares de usuários de crack. Resultados: o atendimento ofertado às famílias foi avaliado como fundamental no processo de tratamento, contando com o Atendimento Individual, Grupo de Família, Visita Domiciliar e Acolhimento como espaços relevantes. Considerações finais: evidenciou-se a importância de espaços heterogêneos de inclusão da família nos serviços substitutivos, além da necessidade dos profissionais buscarem qualificar ainda mais o atendimento a essas famílias.\\\\\\\", \\\\\\\"_i\\\\\\\": \\\\\\\"pt\\\\\\\"}, {\\\\\\\"text\\\\\\\": \\\\\\\"Aim: to know the evaluation of the professionals of a Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\nIII (CAPS) about the care offered to family members of crack users. Method: qualitative study, with reference to the Fourth Generation Assessment. The data were collected from June to September 2013, with 15 professionals from a CAPS, through interviews and observations, with analysis by constant comparative method, originating the thematic axis Attendance to the relatives of users of crack. Results: the care offered to the families was evaluated as fundamental in the treatment process, counting on Individual Care, Family Group, Home Visit and Reception as relevant spaces. Final considerations: the importance of heterogeneous spaces of inclusion of the family in the substitutive services was evidenced, besides the necessity of professionals seeking to qualify the service to these families even more.\\\\\\\", \\\\\\\"_i\\\\\\\": \\\\\\\"en\\\\\\\"}, {\\\\\\\"text\\\\\\\": \\\\\\\"Objetivo: conocer la evaluación de los profesionales de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Alcohol y\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\nDrogas III (CAPS) sobre la atención ofrecida a los familiares de los usuarios de crack. Método: estudio cualitativo, con referencial basado en la Evaluación de Cuarta Generación. Los datos fueron recolectados de junio a septiembre de 2013, con 15 profesionales de un CAPS, por medio de entrevistas y observaciones, y el análisis por método comparativo constante originó el eje temático Atención a los familiares de usuarios de crack. Resultados: la atención ofrecida a las familias fue evaluada como fundamental en el proceso de tratamiento, y el Servicio Individual, el Grupo de Familia, la Visita Domiciliaria y Acogida como espacios relevantes en el CAPS. Consideraciones finales: se evidenció la importancia de espacios heterogéneos de inclusión de la familia en los servicios sustitutivos, además de la necesidad de los profesionales calificaren aún más la atención a esas familias.\\\\\\\", \\\\\\\"_i\\\\\\\": \\\\\\\"es\\\\\\\"}]\\\"\""


Assuntos
Humanos , Família , Saúde Mental , Cocaína Crack , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
5.
Women Birth ; 32(5): 449-459, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345659

RESUMO

PROBLEM: It is not well known how to prepare new multidisciplinary teams aiming to provide culturally safe maternity care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families in an urban setting. BACKGROUND: National policies recommend increasing the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander workforce and cultural competencies of the non-Indigenous workforce as key drivers of culturally safe care. QUESTION: What are the key learnings from staff experiences establishing multidisciplinary teams aiming to provide culturally safe maternity care that aims to privilege Indigenous ways of knowing, being and doing? METHODS: As part of a larger participatory action research project, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted December 2014-April 2015 with 21 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous healthcare staff. Thematic analysis was used to identify learnings for practice. FINDINGS: Four key learnings were identified for forming new teams aiming to provide culturally safe care: (a) having a shared understanding of what characterises cultural safety in the local program context; (b) understanding and valuing different roles and knowledges people bring to the team; (c) acknowledging the influence of race and culture on staff behaviour; and (d) acting on individual and organisational responsibilities for continuous improvement towards cultural safety. DISCUSSION: We present recommendations from our participatory action research approach to respond to these learnings in practice. CONCLUSION: A deliberate workforce investment at the early stages of team development is crucial when aiming to provide culturally safe maternity care that can respond to the unique needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and families.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Competência Cultural , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Bem-Estar Materno/etnologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Obstetrícia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 112, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health economists have shown a growing interest in deliberation and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) as possible pathways to transparently integrate value judgments in cost-utility analyses. In line with these developments, this study piloted a consensus process to derive a German value set for the Short-Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D). In a conference setting, a group was tasked to deliberate on scores and weights for the SF-6D from the perspective of a self-determined and independent life. METHODS: The one-day consensus conference was based on a deliberative process in combination with the MCDA method MACBETH (Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical Based Evaluation Technique). According to MACBETH, participants were asked to qualitatively rate pairwise comparisons of SF-6D health states. The scoring within each dimension was conducted in parallel group sessions. Final agreement on the scores as well as weights for the SF-6D dimensions were derived in a subsequent plenary assembly. Results were analyzed using the software M-MACBETH and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 34 participants were recruited. While each of the 6 small groups presented a consented score, the plenary assembly reached consensus on all dimensions apart from pain. Concerning dimension weights, some participants favored prioritizing pain and mental health. Others disputed that trade-offs between dimensions and thus assigning weights were not acceptable in a context where this may involve withholding care from someone. As a consequence, no consensus on a value set was reached. Participants identified the group size of the plenary session and the applied weighting procedure as main obstacles to the process. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study presents a consensus-based approach for valuing health-related quality of life. However, further research is needed on deliberative processes that yield quantifiable results. Future conferences should explore smaller group sizes, longer durations of the deliberative process and alternatives to the additive value function applied in MACBETH.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010808, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275568

RESUMO

Background: Home visits by community health workers (CHWs) during pregnancy and soon after delivery are recommended to improve newborn survival. However, as the roles of CHWs expand, there are concerns regarding the capacity of community health systems to deliver high effective coverage of home visits. The WHO's Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) program supported the Malawi Ministry of Health to align their Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Care (CBMNC) package with the latest WHO guidelines and to implement and evaluate the feasibility and coverage of home visits in Ntcheu district. Methods: A population-based survey of 150 households in Ntcheu district was conducted in July-August 2016 after approximately 10 months of CBMNC implementation. Thirty clusters were selected proportional-to-size using the most recent census. In selected clusters, five households with mothers of children under six months of age were randomly selected for interview. The Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) providing community-based services to the same clusters were purposively selected for a structured interview and register review. Results: Less than one third of pregnant women (30.7%; 95% confidence interval CI = 21.7%-41.5%) received a home visit during pregnancy and only 20.7% (95% CI = 13.0%-29.4%) received the recommended two visits. Coverage of postnatal visits was even lower: 11.4% (95%CI = 6.8%-18.5%) of mothers and newborns received a visit within three days of delivery and 20.7% (95%CI = 12.7%-32.0%) received a visit within the first eight days. Reaching newborns soon after delivery requires timely participation of the family and/or health facility staff to notify the HSA - yet only 42.9% (95% CI = 33.4%-52.9%) of mothers reported that the HSA was informed of the delivery. Coverage of postnatal home visits among those who informed the HSA was significantly higher than among those in which the HSA was not informed (46.7% compared to 1.3%; P = 0.00). Most HSAs had the necessary equipment and supplies and were active in CBMNC: 83.9% (95% CI = 70.2%-97.6%) of HSAs had pregnancy home visits and 77.4% (95% CI = 61.8%-93.0%) had postnatal home visits documented in their registers for the previous three months. Conclusions: We found low coverage of home visits during pregnancy and soon after delivery in a well-supported program delivery environment. Most HSAs were conducting home visits, but not at the level needed to reach high coverage. These findings were similar to previous studies, calling into question the feasibility of the current visitation schedule. It is time to re-align the CBMNC package with what the existing platform can deliver and identify strategies to better support HSAs to implement home visits to those who would benefit most.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010809, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275569

RESUMO

Background: Mozambique has one of the highest under-5 mortality rates in the world. Community health workers (CHWs) are deployed to increase access to care; in Mozambique they are known as agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs). This study aimed to investigate child deaths in an area served by APEs by analysing the causes, care seeking patterns, and the influence of social capital. Methods: Caregivers of children under-5 who died in 2015 in Inhambane province, Mozambique, were interviewed using Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VA/SA) tools with a social capital module. VA data were analysed using the WHO InterVA analytical tool to determine cause of death. SA was analysed using the INDEPTH SA framework for illnesses lasting no more than three weeks. Social capital scores were calculated. Results: 117 child deaths were reported; VA/SA was conducted for 115. Eighty-five had died from an acute illness lasting no more than three weeks, which in most cases could have been treated at community level; 50.6% died from malaria, 11.8% from HIV/AIDS, and 9.4% for each of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections. In 35.3% the caregiver only noticed that the child was sick when symptoms of very severe illness developed. One in four children were never taken outside the home before dying. Sixteen children were first taken to an APE; of these 7 had signs of very severe illness. Caregivers who waited to seek care until the illness was very severe had a lower social capital score. The mean travel time to go to the APE was 2hrs 50min, which was not different from any other provider. Most received treatment from the APE, 3 were referred. The majority went to another provider after the APE; most to a health centre. Conclusions: The leading causes of death in children under-5 can be detected, treated or referred by APEs. Major care seeking delays took place in the home, largely due to lack of early disease recognition and late decision-making. Low social capital, distance to APEs and to referral facilities likely contribute to these delays. Increasing caregiver illness awareness is urgently needed, as well as stronger referral linkages. A review of the geographical coverage and scope of work of APEs should be conducted.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2506-2516, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND GOAL: Stroke is a serious health condition that disproportionally affects African-Americans relative to non-Hispanic whites. In the absence of clearly defined reasons for racial disparities in stroke recovery and subsequent stroke outcomes, a critical first step in mitigating poor stroke outcomes is to explore potential barriers and facilitators of poststroke recovery in African-American adults with stroke. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore poststroke recovery across the care continuum from the perspective of African-American adults with stroke, caregivers of African-American adults with stroke, and health care professionals with expertise in stroke care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study included in-depth key informant interviews with health care providers (n = 10) and focus groups with persons with stroke (n = 20 persons) and their family members or caregivers (n = 19 persons). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis according to the Social Ecological Model, using both inductive and deductive approaches. FINDINGS: Persons with stroke and their caregivers identified social support, resources, and knowledge as the most salient factors associated with stroke recovery. Perceived barriers to recovery included: (1) physical and cognitive deficits, mood; (2) medication issues; (3) lack of support and resources; (4) stigma, culture, and faith. Health care providers identified knowledge/information, care coordination, and resources in the community as key to facilitating stroke recovery outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Key findings from this study can be incorporated into interventions designed to improve poststroke recovery outcomes and potentially reduce the current racial-ethnic disparity gap.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidadores/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/parasitologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the utilization of individual health services performed by a physician (IGeL) and the services and supplements provided outside a doctor's office (MuPaP) for osteoarthritis patients. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to analyze the use of osteoarthritis-specific IGeL and MuPaP as well as predictors for their utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, claims data was used to identify all persons with hip, knee, or polyarticular osteoarthritis in 2014 (n = 657,807). A random sample (n = 8995) was sent a questionnaire about their usage of IGeL and MuPaP. Furthermore, the type of physicians conducting or recommending services was evaluated. Applying multivariable logistic regression, predictors associated with the utilization of IGeL, MuPaP, and overall individual health services were analyzed. RESULTS: After validating the data and osteoarthritis diagnosis, 2363 persons were enrolled (mean age: 65.5 years, 72% female). In the last 12 months, 39% of patients had used at least one IGeL (MuPaP: 76%), with 86% being primarily performed by orthopedists (MuPaP: 88% patient self-motivated). Knee osteoarthritis was associated with increased utilization of IGeL. Having female gender, higher income, residence in Western Germany, higher disease burden, and lower satisfaction with the healthcare system were influences on the use of overall individual health services. CONCLUSIONS: Since patients with high disease burden in particular tend to use these therapies with varying treatment success, detailed information, especially about the risks and existing evidence, should be a prerequisite for trustworthy doctor-patient relationships.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/terapia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46639

RESUMO

PHI is dedicated to improving health and wellness by discovering new research, strengthening key partnerships and programs, and advancing sound health policies.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa , Promoção da Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 698, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While schools have potential to contribute to children's health and healthy behaviour, embedding health promotion within complex school systems is challenging. The 'Healthy Primary School of the Future' (HPSF) is an initiative that aims to integrate health and well-being into school systems. Central to HPSF are two top-down changes that are hypothesized as being positively disruptive to the Dutch school system: daily free healthy lunches and structured physical activity sessions. These changes are expected to create momentum for bottom-up processes leading to additional health-promoting changes. Using a programme theory, this paper explores the processes through which HPSF and the school context adapt to one another. The aim is to generate and share knowledge and experiences on how to implement changes in the complex school system to integrate school health promotion. METHODS: The current study involved a mixed methods process evaluation with a contextual action-oriented research approach. The processes of change were investigated in four Dutch primary schools during the development year (2014-2015) and the first two years of implementation (2015-2017) of HPSF. The schools (each with 15-26 teachers and 233-389 children) were in low socio-economic status areas. Measurements included interviews, questionnaires, observations, and analysis of minutes of meetings. RESULTS: Top-down advice, combined with bottom-up involvement and external practical support were key facilitators in embedding HPSF within the schools' contexts. Sufficient coordination and communication at the school level, team cohesion, and feedback loops enhanced implementation of the changes. Implementation of the healthy lunch appeared to be disruptive and create momentum for additional health-promoting changes. CONCLUSIONS: Initiating highly visible positive disruptions to improve school health can act as a catalyst for wider school health promotion efforts. Conditions to create a positive disruption are enough time, and sufficient bottom-up involvement, external support, team cohesion and coordination. The focus should be on each specific school, as each school has their own starting point and process of change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database on 14 June 2016 (NCT02800616).


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Avaliação de Processos (Cuidados de Saúde) , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Criança , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51086

RESUMO

[EXTRACTO]. La evidencia científica procedente de estudios de investigación de alta calidad es importante para mejorar la salud mundial y la equidad en la salud. En los entornos con recursos limitados, son esenciales los conocimientos y las herramientas que sean pertinentes a escala regional a fin de reforzar la efectividad de los servicios de salud y reducir la carga de enfermedad. La creación de sistemas nacionales de investigación en salud que se centren en las prioridades locales en América Latina y el Caribe puede facilitar la investigación de alta calidad y fortalecer la capacidad de realizarla. Durante los últimos 15 años, el gasto general en investigación y desarrollo en la región ha aumentado de 0,57% a 0,8% del producto interno bruto (PIB). Sin embargo, esta cifra es todavía muy inferior al nivel de la inversión en los países de la Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (2,5% a 2,8% del PIB)...


[EXTRACTO]. Evidências científicas provenientes de pesquisas de alta qualidade são importantes para melhorar a saúde e a equidade na saúde no nível globo. Quando os recursos são limitados, conhecimentos e ferramentas regionais relevantes são essenciais para fortalecer a efetividade dos serviços de saúde e reduzir a carga de doenças. A criação de sistemas nacionais de pesquisa em saúde focados nas prioridades locais na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC) pode facilitar a realização de pesquisas de alta qualidade e fortalecer a capacidade de realização de pesquisas. Nos últimos 15 anos, em geral o gasto com pesquisa e desenvolvimento na Região aumentou de 0,57% para 0,8% do produto interno bruto (PIB). Porém, esse nível ainda está muito aquém em relação ao nível dos investimentos feitos por países da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (2,5-2,8% do PIB)...


Assuntos
Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Américas
17.
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51085

RESUMO

[EXTRACTO]. En su Política de investigación para la salud del 2009, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS) reiteró el papel clave que desempeña la transparencia a la hora de asegurar que la investigación para la salud sea fiable. Tras varias controversias notorias, se ha promovido la transparencia especialmente en el contexto de los ensayos de productos farmacéuticos patrocinados por la industria, destinados a proporcionar datos para obtener la autorización de medicamentos por parte de las autoridades regulatorias. En respuesta a estas controversias, diversos interesados directos han presionado para lograr que haya un registro de los ensayos clínicos y acceso a los datos presentados a los organismos de regulación farmacéutica como herramientas clave de transparencia, con objeto de potenciar la toma de decisiones basadas en la evidencia por parte de los médicos clínicos, las autoridades regulatorias y la sociedad...


[EXTRACTO]. Na sua Política de Pesquisa para a Saúde de 2009, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde (OPAS/OMS) reiterou o papel fundamental da transparência para como fator garantidor de confiabilidade das pesquisas em saúde. Na esteira de várias ocorrências altamente controversas, tem-se promovido cada vez mais a transparência, especialmente no contexto de pesquisas farmacêuticas patrocinadas pela indústria com o objetivo de produzir dados para a aprovação de medicamentos pelas autoridades reguladoras. Em resposta a essas controvérsias, vários interessados diretos preconizaram o registro de ensaios clínicos e o acesso aos dados submetidos às agências reguladoras de medicamentos como ferramentas essenciais de transparência, visando melhorar a tomada de decisões informadas por clínicos, pelas autoridades e pela sociedade.


Assuntos
Política de Pesquisa em Saúde , Política de Pesquisa em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Indústria Farmacêutica , Indústria Farmacêutica , Américas
18.
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51084

RESUMO

[EXTRACTO]. Actualmente se presta cada vez más atención a los determinantes políticos, económicos, ambientales y sociales de la salud. Esto ha generado una mayor demanda de investigación para la salud a nivel mundial que incluya a los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, con objeto de alcanzar los objetivos de desarrollo sostenible de las Naciones Unidas. Además del financiamiento, se necesitan suficientes recursos humanos e infraestructura para que estos países lleguen a ser asociados en un plano de igualdad con las instituciones de investigación internacionalmente reconocidas de los países de ingresos altos que establecen las agendas de investigación, y para garantizar que el programa de investigación mundial refleje sus necesidades. Las limitaciones en la capacidad de investigación y las grandes disparidades existentes entre los países de ingresos altos y los de ingresos bajos y medianos en cuanto a su capacidad de producir y usar la investigación para la salud han contribuido a producir una falta de evidencia que permita fundamentar la práctica clínica y orientar las políticas sanitarias regionales y mundiales. Esto ha perpetuado las desigualdades en la salud...


[EXTRACTO]. Existe atualmente um maior reconhecimento dos determinantes políticos, econômicos, ambientais e sociais da saúde. A consequência disso foi um aumento da demanda por pesquisa em saúde global, com participação dos países de baixa e média renda, para cumprir os objetivos de desenvolvimento sustentável das Nações Unidas. Além de financiamento, são necessários recursos humanos e infraestrutura suficientes para que esses países se tornem parceiros em igualdade de condições com instituições de pesquisa internacionalmente reconhecidas em países de alta renda que definem as agendas de pesquisa e cuidam para que o programa global de pesquisa em saúde reflita suas necessidades. A limitada capacidade de pesquisa e as grandes disparidades entre países de alta renda e países de baixa e média renda no tocante à capacidade de produzir e usar pesquisas para a saúde contribuíram para a falta de evidências para informar a prática e orientar as políticas de saúde regionais e globais, o que perpetuou as desigualdades em saúde...


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Américas , Região do Caribe , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Região do Caribe
20.
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51081

RESUMO

[EXTRACTO]. Uno de los objetivos principales de la Política de investigación para la salud de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) es establecer alianzas con el fin de ejecutar estrategias de salud apropiadas y sostenibles. Esta política procura facilitar el desarrollo y la disponibilidad a mayor escala de productos y tecnologías asequibles y accesibles pertinentes para la respuesta a los retos de salud pública de la Región de las Américas; crear grupos de investigación en los Estados Miembros de la OPS con competencias que permitan el intercambio de los conocimientos procedentes de la investigación; y promover la colaboración entre los diversos interesados directos, incluidos el público general, el gobierno y los sectores académico y privado a fin de hacer frente a las prioridades nacionales y regionales...


[EXTRACTO]. Um dos principais objetivos da política de pesquisa para a saúde da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) é o desenvolvimento de parcerias para implementar estratégias de saúde adequadas e sustentáveis. A política visa facilitar o desenvolvimento e a ampliação de produtos e tecnologias econômicos e acessíveis que sejam relevantes para as necessidades de saúde pública nas Américas, estabelecer grupos de pesquisa nos Estados Membros da OPAS com competências que permitam o intercâmbio de conhecimentos e facilitar a colaboração entre as diversas partes relevantes – incluindo os setores público, governamental, acadêmico e privado – para abordar as prioridades nacionais e regionais...


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Política de Pesquisa em Saúde , Américas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Política de Pesquisa em Saúde
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