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1.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 33(5): 645-649, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989057

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak is a stark reminder of the ongoing challenge of emerging and reemerging disease, the human cost of pandemics and the need for robust research.1 For primary care, the advent of COVID-19 has forced an unprecedented wave of practice change. In turn, Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs) must rapidly pivot to address the changing environment and the critical challenges faced by primary care. The pandemic has also impacted the ability of PBRNs to deploy traditional research methods such as face-to-face patient and provider interactions, practice facilitation, and stakeholder engagement. Providers need more relevant, patient-centered evidence and the skills to effect change. These skills will become more important than ever as primary care practices evolve in response to the current COVID-19 pandemic and the disparities in health outcomes highlighted by COVID-19 and the global Black Lives Matter social movement for justice. Throughout this issue, authors detail the work conducted by PBRNs that demonstrate many of these evolving concepts. Articles explore how PBRNs can evaluate COVID-19 in primary care, the role of PBRNs in quality improvement, stakeholder engagement, prevention and chronic care management, and patient safety in primary care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Participação dos Interessados , Estados Unidos
2.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 33(5): 774-778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are critical laboratories for generating evidence from real-world settings, including studying natural experiments. Primary care's response to the novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is arguably the most impactful natural experiment in our lifetime. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF COVID-19: We briefly describe the OCHIN PBRN of community health centers (CHCs), its partnership with implementation scientists, and how we are leveraging this infrastructure and expertise to create a rapid research response evaluating how CHCs across the country responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 RESEARCH ROADMAP: Our research agenda focuses on asking: How has care delivery in CHCs changed due to COVID-19? What impact has COVID-19 had on the delivery of preventive services in CHCs? Which PBRN services (e.g., data surveillance, training, evidence synthesis) are most impactful to real-world practices? What decision-making strategies were used in the PBRN and its practices to make real-time changes in response to the pandemic? What critical factors in successfully and sustainably transforming primary care are illuminated by pandemic-driven changes? DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: PBRNs enable real-world evaluation of practice change and natural experiments, and thus are ideal laboratories for implementation science research. We present a real-time example of how a PBRN Implementation Laboratory activated a response to study a historic natural experiment, to help other PBRNs charting a course through this pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/tendências , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Disseminação de Informação , Inovação Organizacional , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Participação dos Interessados , Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telephone triage is an integral part of modern patient care systems in human medicine, and a key component of veterinary practice care systems. There is currently no published research on telephone triage within the veterinary profession. OBJECTIVE: To investigate current approaches to telephone triage of horses with abdominal pain (colic) in veterinary practice and develop new resources to support decision-making. STUDY DESIGN: Participatory action research using mixed-methods approach. METHODS: An online survey assessed current approaches to telephone triage of horses with colic in UK veterinary practices. Structured group and individual interviews were conducted with four equine client care (reception) teams on their experiences around telephone triage of colic. Evidence-based resources, including an information pack, decision flow chart and recording form, were developed and implemented within the practices. Participant feedback was obtained through interviews six months after implementation of the resources. RESULTS: There were 116 participants in the online survey. Management and client care staff (53/116) felt less confident giving owner advice (p<0.01) and recognising critical indicators (p = 0.03) compared to veterinary surgeons and nurses (63/116). Thirteen themes were identified in the survey relating to owner advice; exercise and owner safety were most frequently mentioned, but conflicting guidance was often given. Fourteen client care staff were interviewed. They were confident recognising colic during a telephone conversation with an owner and identified the most common signs of critical cases as sweating and recumbency. The new resources received positive feedback; the decision flow chart and information on critical indicators were identified as most useful. After resource implementation, there was an increase in confidence in recognising critical cases and giving owners advice. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Limited sample population. CONCLUSIONS: This study described existing approaches to telephone triage, identified variations in advice given, and worked with client care teams to develop new resources to aid decision-making.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Animais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Triagem , Reino Unido
5.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(8): 544-547, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Center for Latino Health Research Opportunities (CLaRO) supports and facilitates research addressing substance abuse, violence/trauma, and HIV/AIDS among diverse and underserved Latinx populations. CLaRO runs a pilot awards program for early-stage investigators conducting Latinx health disparities research. This pilot awards program was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, necessitating innovative responses for research continuity. PURPOSE: The purpose of this commentary is to describe the challenges and innovative research methods developed in response to COVID-19 to continue Latinx health disparities research in the context of COVID-19. METHODS/RESULTS: This commentary provides a brief description of each CLaRO pilot project, the challenges introduced by COVID-19, and innovative research methods to continue Latinx health disparities research during and beyond COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges COVID-19 presents to the continuity of health disparities research, it also presents unprecedented opportunities to innovate. Such innovation is essential for solving persistent scientific, public health, and clinical challenges underlying current and emerging health disparities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23 Suppl 1: e200013.SUPL.1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attributes of PHC from the perspective of users, interviewed in a telephone survey in Belo Horizonte. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study. Data from Vigitel 2015 that included an additional module on PHC assessment were used. A reduced version of PCATool-Brasil with adaptations was used. RESULTS: We interviewed 872 users and there was a predominance of women, older adults, adults with low levels of education, those without a partner, those who described themselves as brown, and those without health insurance. The overall score of the Vigitel assessment was 5.48 (95%CI 5.35 - 5.61) and the reduced PCATool was 5.01 (95%CI 4.86 - 5.15). In both instruments, the scores of the attributes first contact (utilization), longitudinality, and coordination (care) were higher than the general score with the highest value (5.48). The mean score of the first contact attribute (utilization) was the highest rated by users considering the Vigitel assessment instrument (7.09; 95%CI 6.93 - 7.26). In general, the evaluations of the instruments are coinciding, but the attributes first contact (utilization), completeness (available services) and coordination (information system) presented better mean scores in the Vigitel evaluation instrument when compared to the reduced PCATool. There was no difference in the evaluation according to Regional Health. CONCLUSION: The use of the reduced version of the PCATool in a telephone survey and with small adaptations to the local reality, showed a new possibility for the evaluation of PHC services, and may become useful in the management of health services.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003148, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embedded implementation research (IR) promotes evidence-informed policy and practices by involving decision-makers and program implementers in research activities that focus on understanding and solving existing implementation challenges. Although embedded IR has been conducted in multiple settings by different organizations, there are limited experiences of embedded IR in humanitarian settings. This study highlights some of the key challenges of conducting embedded IR in a humanitarian setting based on our experience with the Rohingya refugee population in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected qualitative data in between January and July 2019. First, we visited Rohingya refugee camps and interviewed representatives from different humanitarian organizations. Second, we conducted interviews with researchers from BRAC University who were engaged with data collection and analysis in a broader embedded IR study on maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (MNCAH) program implementation challenges. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Two researchers developed and agreed on codes and relevant themes based on the objectives of this study. The findings of this study highlight several challenges encountered while conducting embedded IR in the Rohingya emergency setting in Cox's Bazar, which may have implications for other humanitarian settings. The overall context of the camps was complex, with more than 100 organizations devoted to providing health services for approximately 1 million refugees. Despite the presence of the Bangladesh government, United Nations agencies and other international organizations played key roles in making programmatic and policy decisions for the Rohingya. Because health service delivery modalities and policies and related implementation challenges for MNCAH programs for the refugees changed rapidly, the embedded IR approach used was flexible and able to adapt to changes identified, with research questions and methods modified accordingly. Access to the camps, reaching Rohingya respondents, overcoming language barriers in order to get quality information, and the limited availability of local research collaborators were additional challenges. Working with researchers or research institutes that are familiar with the context and have experience in conducting implementation and health systems research can help with collection of quality data, identifying key stakeholders and bringing them on board to ensure the execution of the project, and ensuring utilization of the research findings. Study limitations include possible constraints in generalizing our conclusions to other humanitarian settings. Implementation research conducted in additional humanitarian settings can contribute to the evidence on this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that embedded IR can be done effectively in humanitarian settings if the challenges are anticipated, and appropriate strategies and in-country partners put in place to address or mitigate them, before commencing the funding or starting of the project. Understanding the context and analyzing the role of relevant stakeholders prior to conducting the research, considering a simple descriptive method appropriate to answering real-time IR questions, and working with local researchers or research institutes with specific skill sets and prior experience conducting research in humanization contexts may reduce costs and time spent, and ensure collection of quality data relevant for policy and practice.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Recém-Nascido , Idioma , Organizações , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Nações Unidas
8.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(3): 305-307, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196622

RESUMO

Existe un creciente interés por encontrar respuestas innovadoras para evaluar intervenciones complejas en salud pública. En esta nota metodológica, se presenta la teoría del cambio como una herramienta útil para facilitar tanto la planificación como la evaluación de intervenciones en promoción de la salud comunitaria. Una teoría del cambio es una representación visual de cómo funciona un programa o una intervención, en la que se identifican sus diferentes componentes y cómo cada elemento se vincula con otro: cuáles son sus objetivos, los resultados esperados y a través de qué acciones se pretenden alcanzar. Es una herramienta de investigación aplicada a la práctica que se desarrolla mediante métodos participativos con las diferentes personas implicadas en la intervención, para identificar y decidir conjuntamente qué es lo que hay que evaluar y cómo evaluarlo


There is a growing interest in finding innovative approaches to the evaluation of complex interventions in public health. This methodological note presents the theory of change as a useful tool to facilitate both the planning and the evaluation of community health promotion interventions. A theory of change is a visual representation of how a programme or intervention works, in which its different components can be identified, together with how they relate to each other: what its objectives are, its expected results and through which actions they are expected to be achieved. It can be an applied research tool, developed using participatory approaches together with all relevant stakeholders, who can identify and jointly decide what to evaluate and how to


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Participação da Comunidade/tendências , Inovação Organizacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Técnicas de Planejamento , Teoria Social , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 375, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approaches that move beyond individuals and target couples may be an effective strategy for reducing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) disparities among adolescents and young adults (AYA). However, few researchers have attempted to recruit couples due to feasibility and methodological issues. This study aims to enhance implementation and methodological approaches to successfully engage heterosexual Black and Latino adolescent and young adult (AYA) couples in sexual reproductive health (SRH) research. METHODS: We developed a four-step approach to systematically engage AYA couples in a qualitative study examining factors that influence uptake of combination HIV prevention methods: 1) understanding barriers and facilitators to engaging AYA couples, (2) identifying AYAs living in geographic areas of HIV vulnerability, (3) recruiting and screening AYA couples, and (4) scheduling and completion of the interview session. RESULTS: Black and Latino youth aged 16 to 24 and their opposite sex romantic were recruited in the South Bronx, New York from September 2017-May 2018. Three hundred and seventy-two men and women completed screening procedures to determine eligibility for the index participant; 125 were eligible and enrolled into the study. Forty-nine nominated partners (NPs) participated in screening procedures and enrolled into the study. A total of 49 couples enrolled into the study; 23 couples completed study activities. CONCLUSIONS: Developing a systematic recruitment plan aided in successfully engaging Black and Latino heterosexual youth. Nevertheless, barriers to study enrollment remained including locating eligible IPs and screening of the NP. Targeting both young men and women was an effective recruitment strategy. Moreover, dyadic strategies that allow for simultaneous interaction with both couple members may be a beneficial strategy to couples' study enrollment and completion of study activities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Adulto Jovem
10.
Med Care ; 58 Suppl 6 Suppl 1: S66-S74, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stakeholders (ie, patients, policymakers, clinicians, advocacy groups, health system leaders, payers, and others) offer critical input at various stages in the research continuum, and their contributions are increasingly recognized as an important component of effective translational research. Natural experiments, in particular, may benefit from stakeholder feedback in addressing real-world issues and providing insight into future policy decisions, though best practices for the engagement of stakeholders in observational studies are limited in the literature. METHODS: The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes 2.0 (NEXT-D2) network utilizes rigorous methods to evaluate natural experiments in health policy and program delivery with a focus on diabetes-related outcomes. Each of the 8 partnering institutions incorporates stakeholder engagement throughout multiple study phases to enhance the patient-centeredness of results. NEXT-D2 dedicates a committee to Engagement for resource sharing, enhancing engagement approaches, and advancing network-wide engagement activities. Key stakeholder engagement activities include Study Meetings, Proposal Development, Trainings & Educational Opportunities, Data Analysis, and Results Dissemination. Network-wide patient-centered resources and multimedia have also been developed through the broad expertise of each site's stakeholder group. CONCLUSIONS: This collaboration has created a continuous feedback loop wherein site-level engagement approaches are informed via the network and network-level engagement efforts are shaped by individual sites. Emerging best practices include: incorporating stakeholders in multiple ways throughout the research, building on previous relationships with stakeholders, enhancing capacity through stakeholder and investigator training, involving stakeholders in refining outcome choices and understanding the meaning of variables, and recognizing the power of stakeholders in maximizing dissemination.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Participação dos Interessados , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(6): 829-832, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298183

RESUMO

Interest in the impact of the built environment on health behaviors, outcomes, and disparities is increasing, and the growing development of statistical modeling techniques has allowed researchers to better investigate these relationships. However, without enough data that are identifiable at smaller geographic levels (e.g., census tract), place-based health researchers are unable to reliably estimate the prevalence of a health outcome at these more granular and potentially more salient neighborhood levels.When reliable direct survey estimates cannot be produced because of small samples or a lack of samples, estimates based on small area estimation techniques are often used. As place-based health research and the production and secondary use of small area estimates increase, it is critical that researchers understand both the underlying methods used to create these estimates and their limitations. Without this foundation, researchers may fit inappropriate models, or interpret findings inaccurately.As a demonstrative example, we focus this discussion on the small area health indicator estimates recently produced through the 500 Cities Project by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the CDC Foundation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010506, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257160

RESUMO

Background: Effective coverage research is increasing rapidly in global health and development, as researchers use a range of measures and combine data sources to adjust coverage for the quality of services received. However, most estimates of effective coverage that combine data sources are reported only as point estimates, which may be due to the challenge of calculating the variance for a composite measure. In this paper, we evaluate three methods to quantify the uncertainty in the estimation of effective coverage. Methods: We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the performance of the exact, delta, and parametric bootstrap methods for constructing confidence intervals around point estimates that are calculated from combined data on coverage and quality. We assessed performance by computing the number of nominally 95% confidence intervals that contain the truth for a range of coverage and quality values and data source sample sizes. To illustrate these approaches, we applied the delta and exact methods to estimates of adjusted coverage of antenatal care (ANC) in Senegal. We used household survey data for coverage and health facility assessments for readiness to provide services. Results: With small sample sizes, when the true effective coverage value was close to the boundaries 0 or 1, the exact and parametric bootstrap methods resulted in substantial over or undercoverage and, for the exact method, a high proportion of invalid confidence intervals, while the delta method yielded modest overcoverage. The proportion of confidence intervals containing the truth in all three methods approached the intended 95% with larger sample sizes and as the true effective coverage value moved away from the 0 or 1 boundary. Confidence intervals for adjusted ANC in Senegal were largely overlapping across the delta and exact methods, although at the sub-national level, the exact method produced invalid confidence intervals for estimates near 0 or 1. We provide the code to implement these methods. Conclusions: The uncertainty around an effective coverage estimate can be characterized; this should become standard practice if effective coverage estimates are to become part of national and global health monitoring. The delta method approach outperformed the other methods in this study; we recommend its use for appropriate inference from effective coverage estimates that combine data sources, particularly when either sample size is small. When used for estimates created from facility type or regional strata, these methods require assumptions of independence that must be considered in each example.


Assuntos
Análise de Variância , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Simulação por Computador , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos
14.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 40: 1-10, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239962

RESUMO

Quality improvement (QI) initiatives and health services research (HSR) are commonly used to target health care quality. These disciplines are increasingly important because of the movement toward value-based health care as alternative payment and care delivery models drive institutions and investigators to focus on reducing unnecessary health care use and improving care coordination. QI efforts frequently target medical error and/or efficiency of care through the Plan-Do-Study-Act methodology. Within the QI framework, strategies for data display (e.g., Pareto charts, run charts, histograms, scatter plots) are leveraged to identify opportunities for intervention and improvement. HSR is a multidisciplinary field of study that seeks to identify the most effective way to organize, deliver, and finance health care to maximize the quality and value of care at both the individual and population levels. HSR uses a diverse set of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, such as case-control studies, cohort studies, randomized control trials, and semistructured interview/focus group evaluations. This manuscript provides examples of methodologic approaches for QI and HSR, discusses potential challenges associated with concurrent quality efforts, and identifies strategies to successfully leverage the strengths of each discipline in care delivery.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Erros Médicos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
15.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 89-98, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare accreditation surveyors are well positioned to gain access to hospitals and apply their existing data collection skills to research. Consequently, we contracted and trained a surveyor cohort to collect research data for the Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) project. The aim of this study is to explore and compare surveyors' perceptions and experiences in collecting quality and safety data for accreditation and for health services research. DESIGN: A qualitative, comparative study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten surveyors participated in semi-structured interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and coded using Nvivo11. Interview transcripts of participants were analysed thematically and separately, providing an opportunity for comparison and for identifying common themes and subthemes. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Topics addressed data collection for healthcare accreditation and research, including preparation and training, structure, organization, attitudes and behaviours of staff and perceptions of their role. RESULTS: Five themes and ten subthemes emerged from the interviews: (1) overlapping facilitators for accreditation and research data collection, (2) accreditation-specific facilitators, (3) overlapping barriers for accreditation and research data collection, (4) research data collection-specific barriers and (5) needs and recommendations. Subthemes were (1.1) preparation and training availability, (1.2) prior knowledge and experiences; (2.1) ease of access, (2.2) high staff engagement, (3.1) time, (4.1) poor access and structure, (4.2) lack of staff engagement, (4.3) organizational changes; (5.1) short-notice accreditation and (5.2) preparation for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Although hospital accreditation and research activities require different approaches to data collection, we found that suitably trained accreditation surveyors were able to perform both activities effectively. The barriers surveyors encountered when collecting data for research provide insight into the challenges that may be faced when visiting hospitals for short-notice accreditation.


Assuntos
Acreditação/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos
16.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 84-88, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026936

RESUMO

This paper examines the principles of benchmarking in healthcare and how benchmarking can contribute to practice improvement and improved health outcomes for patients. It uses the Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) study published in this Supplement and DUQuA's predecessor in Europe, the Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE) study, as models. Benchmarking is where the performances of institutions or individuals are compared using agreed indicators or standards. The rationale for benchmarking is that institutions will respond positively to being identified as a low outlier or desire to be or stay as a high performer, or both, and patients will be empowered to make choices to seek care at institutions that are high performers. Benchmarking often begins with a conceptual framework that is based on a logic model. Such a framework can drive the selection of indicators to measure performance, rather than their selection being based on what is easy to measure. A Donabedian range of indicators can be chosen, including structure, process and outcomes, created around multiple domains or specialties. Indicators based on continuous variables allow organizations to understand where their performance is within a population, and their interdependencies and associations can be understood. Benchmarking should optimally target providers, in order to drive them towards improvement. The DUQuA and DUQuE studies both incorporated some of these principles into their design, thereby creating a model of how to incorporate robust benchmarking into large-scale health services research.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Austrália , Benchmarking/normas , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração
17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 75-83, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026937

RESUMO

Healthcare organisations vary in the degree to which they implement quality and safety systems and strategies. Large-scale cross-sectional studies have been implemented to explore whether this variation is associated with outcomes relevant at the patient level. The Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) study draws from earlier research of this type, to examine these issues in 32 Australian hospitals. This paper outlines the key implementation and analysis challenges faced by DUQuA. Many of the logistical difficulties of implementing DUQuA derived from compliance with the administratively complex and time-consuming Australian ethics and governance system designed principally to protect patients involved in clinical trials, rather than for low-risk health services research. The complexity of these processes is compounded by a lack of organizational capacity for multi-site health services research; research is expected to be undertaken in addition to usual work, not as part of it. These issues likely contributed to a relatively low recruitment rate for hospitals (41% of eligible hospitals). Both sets of issues need to be addressed by health services researchers, policymakers and healthcare administrators, if health services research is to flourish. Large-scale research also inevitably involves multiple measurements. The timing for applying these measures needs to be coherent, to maximise the likelihood of finding real relationships between quality and safety systems and strategies, and patient outcomes; this timing was less than ideal in DUQuA, in part due to administrative delays. Other issues that affected our study include low response rates for measures requiring recruitment of clinicians and patients, missing data and a design that necessarily included multiple statistical comparisons. We discuss how these were addressed. Successful completion of these projects relies on mutual and ongoing commitment, and two-way communication between the research team and hospital staff at all levels. This will help to ensure that enthusiasm and engagement are established and maintained.


Assuntos
Estudos Transversais/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Austrália , Coleta de Dados/normas , Ética em Pesquisa , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde
19.
Am J Surg ; 220(1): 222-228, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administrative data can be used to identify cases of postoperative respiratory failure (PRF). We aimed to determine if recent changes to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicator 11 (PSI 11) and adoption of clinical documentation improvement programs have improved the validity of PSI 11. We also analyzed reasons why PSI 11 was falsely triggered. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of all eligible discharges using health record data from five academic medical centers between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2015. RESULTS: Of 437 flagged records, 434 (99.3%) were accurately coded and 414 (94.7%) represented true clinical PRF. None of the false positive records involved respiratory failure present on admission. Most (78.3%) false positive records required airway protection but did not have respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: The validity of PSI 11 has improved with recent changes to the code criterion and adoption of clinical documentation improvement programs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(2): 161-167, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843880

RESUMO

Current methods used to evaluate the effects of healthcare improvement efforts have limitations. Designs with strong causal inference-such as individual patient or cluster randomisation-can be inappropriate and infeasible to use in single-centre settings. Simpler designs-such as prepost studies-are unable to infer causal relationships between improvement interventions and outcomes of interest, often leading to spurious conclusions regarding programme success. Other designs, such as regression discontinuity or difference-in-difference (DD) approaches alone, require multiple assumptions that are often unable to be met in real world improvement settings. We present a case study of a novel design in improvement and implementation research-a hybrid regression discontinuity/DD design-that leverages risk-targeted improvement interventions within a hospital readmission reduction programme. We demonstrate how the hybrid regression discontinuity-DD approach addresses many of the limitations of either method alone, and represents a useful method to evaluate the effects of multiple, simultaneous heath system improvement activities-a necessary capacity of a learning health system. Finally, we discuss some of the limitations of the hybrid regression discontinuity-DD approach, including the need to assign patients to interventions based upon a continuous measure, the need for large sample sizes, and potential susceptibility of risk-based intervention assignment to gaming.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde/organização & administração , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Análise de Regressão , Projetos de Pesquisa
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