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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180345, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059130

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the content of the defining characteristics of the Disturbed Sleep Pattern Nursing Diagnosis (00198) in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Method: content analysis performed by specialists who achieved a score equal to or greater than five, according to established criteria: clinical experience, teaching and/or research; participation in research groups; doctorate degree; master's degree; specialization and/or residency in cardiology and/or sleep and/or nursing classifications. Eight defining characteristics were evaluated for their relationship to population, relevance, clarity and accuracy. Descriptive statistics were performed to characterize the sample, binomial statistical test to establish if there is agreement between the experts and chi-square and Fisher's exact to establish associations between the evaluated items and the experts' variables. Results: 54 experts participated in the study. The defining characteristics validated by the experts were the following: dissatisfaction with sleep, feeling unrested, sleep deprivation, alteration in sleep pattern, unintentional awakening, difficulty initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness. There was a statistically significant association between evaluated items and the variables time of training, time of operation and punctuation. Conclusion: seven of the eight defining characteristics were considered valid after the application of binomial test. This study will contribute to the refinement of the Disturbed Sleep Pattern Nursing Diagnosis (000198) and may enable the improvement of the quality of care of patients hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome regarding changes in sleep pattern. The content analysis stage will support the next stage of the validation process of the present diagnosis, the clinical validation.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el contenido de las características definidoras del Diagnóstico de Enfermería de Patrón de Sueño Perjudicado (00198) en pacientes con Síndrome Coronario Agudo. Método: análisis de contenido realizado por especialistas que obtuvieron una puntaje mayor o igual a cinco, de acuerdo con los criterios establecidos: experiencia clínica, en docencia y/o en investigación; participación en grupos de investigación; doctorado; maestría; especialización y/o residencia en cardiología y/o en clasificaciones de enfermería. Se evaluaron ocho características definidoras en cuanto a su relación con la población, relevancia, claridad y precisión. Se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo para caracterizar la muestra, una prueba estadística de binomios para establecer si había concordancia entre los especialistas y las pruebas de chi-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher para establecer asociaciones entre los puntos evaluados y las variables de los especialistas. Resultados: del estudio participaron 54 especialistas. Las características definidoras que evaluaron los especialistas fueron las siguientes: insatisfacción con el sueño, no sentirse descansado, privación del sueño, alteración en el patrón de sueño, despertar no intencional, dificultad para iniciar el sueño y somnolencia diurna. Se registró una asociación estadística significativa entre los puntos evaluados y las siguientes variables: tiempo de formación, tiempo de ejercicio en la profesión y puntuación. Conclusión: siete de las ocho Características definidoras se consideraron válidas después de aplicar la prueba de binomios. El presente estudio contribuirá a perfeccionar el Diagnóstico de Enfermería de Patrón de Sueño Perjudicado (000198) y podrá hacer posible que se mejore la calidad de la atención de pacientes internados con Síndrome Coronario Agudo en lo referente a alteraciones en el patrón de sueño. La etapa del análisis de contenido servirá de ayuda para la próxima etapa del proceso de validación del presente diagnóstico: la validación clínica.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o conteúdo das características definidoras do Diagnóstico de Enfermagem Padrão de Sono Prejudicado (00198) em pacientes com Síndrome Coronariana Aguda. Método: análise de conteúdo realizada por especialistas que atingiram pontuação igual ou maior a cinco, de acordo com critérios estabelecidos: experiência clínica, no ensino e/ou pesquisa; participação em grupos de pesquisa; doutorado; mestrado; especialização e/ou residência em cardiologia e/ou sono e/ou classificações de enfermagem. Oito características definidoras foram avaliadas quanto a sua relação com a população, relevância, clareza e precisão. Realizou-se estatística descritiva para caracterização da amostra, teste estatístico binomial para estabelecer se há concordância entre os especialistas e qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher para estabelecer associações entre os itens avaliados e variáveis dos especialistas. Resultados: 54 especialistas participaram do estudo. As características definidoras validadas pelos especialistas foram: insatisfação com o sono, não se sentir descansado, privação do sono, alteração do padrão de sono, despertar não intencional, dificuldade para iniciar o sono e sonolência diurna. Houve associação estatística significativa entre itens avaliados e as variáveis tempo de formação, tempo de atuação e pontuação. Conclusão: sete das oito características definidoras foram consideradas válidas após aplicação de teste binomial. O presente estudo contribuirá para o refinamento do Diagnóstico de Enfermagem Padrão de Sono Prejudicado (000198) e poderá possibilitar a melhoria da qualidade do atendimento de pacientes internados com Síndrome Coronariana Aguda no que tange a alterações do padrão de sono. A etapa de análise de conteúdo subsidiará a próxima etapa do processo de validação do presente diagnóstico, a validação clínica.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Estudo de Validação , Processo de Enfermagem , Pesquisa , Sono , Privação do Sono , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Unidades de Cuidados Coronarianos , Diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47940

RESUMO

A Fiocruz inicia, nesta segunda-feira (19/10), o Brace Trial Brasil (BTB), estudo com a vacina BCG que visa reduzir o impacto do Covid-19 em trabalhadores de saúde. O recrutamento dos voluntários será realizado na Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) e os interessados devem realizar pré-cadastro pela internet.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Pesquisa
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20201000. 12 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1122245

RESUMO

El documento contiene los lineamientos técnicos operativos de validación de los procedimientos de seguridad, calidad y desempeño de los dispositivos médicos en etapa de investigación en el contexto de la autorización sanitaria excepcional.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Segurança , Gestão da Qualidade , Estudo de Validação , Equipamentos e Provisões
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e18835, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, advances in information technology have given new momentum to telemedicine research. These advances in telemedicine range from individual to population levels, allowing the exchange of patient information for diagnosis and management of health problems, primary care prevention, and education of physicians via distance learning. OBJECTIVE: This scientometric investigation aims to examine collaborative research networks, dominant research themes and disciplines, and seminal research studies that have contributed most to the field of telemedicine. This information is vital for scientists, institutions, and policy stakeholders to evaluate research areas where more infrastructural or scholarly contributions are required. METHODS: For analyses, we used CiteSpace (version 4.0 R5; Drexel University), which is a Java-based software that allows scientometric analysis, especially visualization of collaborative networks and research themes in a specific field. RESULTS: We found that scholarly activity has experienced a significant increase in the last decade. Most important works were conducted by institutions located in high-income countries. A discipline-specific shift from radiology to telestroke, teledermatology, telepsychiatry, and primary care was observed. The most important innovations that yielded a collaborative influence were reported in the following medical disciplines, in descending order: public environmental and occupational health, psychiatry, pediatrics, health policy and services, nursing, rehabilitation, radiology, pharmacology, surgery, respiratory medicine, neurosciences, obstetrics, and geriatrics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a continuous rise in scholarly activity in telemedicine, we noticed several gaps in the literature. For instance, all the primary and secondary research central to telemedicine was conducted in the context of high-income countries, including the evidence synthesis approaches that pertained to implementation aspects of telemedicine. Furthermore, the research landscape and implementation of telemedicine infrastructure are expected to see exponential progress during and after the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde , Educação a Distância , Saúde Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Enfermagem , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psiquiatria , Publicações , Radiologia , Telerreabilitação
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 964-967, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018145

RESUMO

A child having a delayed development in language skills without any reason is known to be suffering from specific language impairment (SLI). Unfortunately, almost 7% kindergarten children are reported with SLI in their childhood. The SLI could be treated if identified at an early stage, but diagnosing SLI at early stage is challenging. In this article, we propose a machine learning based system to screen the SLI speech by analyzing the texture of the speech utterances. The texture of speech signals is extracted from the popular time-frequency representation called spectrograms. These spectrogram acts like a texture image and the textural features to capture the change in audio quality such as Haralick's feature and local binary patterns (LBPs) are extracted from these textural images. The experiments are performed on 4214 utterances taken from 44 healthy and 54 SLI speakers. Experimental results with 10-fold cross validation, indicates that a very good accuracy up to 97.41% is obtained when only 14 dimensional Haralick's feature is used. The accuracy is slightly boosted up to 99% when the 59-dimensional LBPs are amalgamated with Haralick's features. The sensitivity and specificity of the whole system is up to 98.96% and 99.20% respectively. The proposed method is gender and speaker independent and invariant to examination conditions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Fala , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pesquisa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1225-1228, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018208

RESUMO

Chest radiographs are primarily employed for the screening of pulmonary and cardio-/thoracic conditions. Being undertaken at primary healthcare centers, they require the presence of an on-premise reporting Radiologist, which is a challenge in low and middle income countries. This has inspired the development of machine learning based automation of the screening process. While recent efforts demonstrate a performance benchmark using an ensemble of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), our systematic search over multiple standard CNN architectures identified single candidate CNN models whose classification performances were found to be at par with ensembles. Over 63 experiments spanning 400 hours, executed on a 11.3 FP32 TensorTFLOPS compute system, we found the Xception and ResNet-18 architectures to be consistent performers in identifying co-existing disease conditions with an average AUC of 0.87 across nine pathologies. We conclude on the reliability of the models by assessing their saliency maps generated using the randomized input sampling for explanation (RISE) method and qualitatively validating them against manual annotations locally sourced from an experienced Radiologist. We also draw a critical note on the limitations of the publicly available CheXpert dataset primarily on account of disparity in class distribution in training vs. testing sets, and unavailability of sufficient samples for few classes, which hampers quantitative reporting due to sample insufficiency.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Redes Neurais de Computação , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1234-1237, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018210

RESUMO

Chest radiographs are primarily employed for the screening of cardio, thoracic and pulmonary conditions. Machine learning based automated solutions are being developed to reduce the burden of routine screening on Radiologists, allowing them to focus on critical cases. While recent efforts demonstrate the use of ensemble of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), they do not take disease comorbidity into consideration, thus lowering their screening performance. To address this issue, we propose a Graph Neural Network (GNN) based solution to obtain ensemble predictions which models the dependencies between different diseases. A comprehensive evaluation of the proposed method demonstrated its potential by improving the performance over standard ensembling technique across a wide range of ensemble constructions. The best performance was achieved using the GNN ensemble of DenseNet121 with an average AUC of 0.821 across thirteen disease comorbidities.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Comorbidade , Radiografia , Pesquisa
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1931-1935, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018380

RESUMO

Anemia is a disease present worldwide. High prevalence of anemia (43%) is found in the child population and its main long-term effect (slow cognitive development) can remain even if the disease has disappeared. One of the main reasons for the high prevalence of anemia in Peru is the poor screening coverage during the growth of the child due to the parents' fear of infringing pain on their children. We take advantage that anemia produces pallor in the hands, fingers and ungueal bed to develop a semaphore for this disease. This screening tool uses photographic images of the patient's ungueal bed to determine if they have a high, medium or low possibility of having anemia. Sixty people participated in the study and 6 photographic images for each participant's right hand were captured. The images were processed to extract regions of interest from each of the fingernails. Datasets were generated and a neural network was used to predict the risk of anemia. Initial results show that the proposed semaphore of anemia reaches a sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.91. These results indicate that the semaphore of anemia may be used as a screening method to reduce the number of blood tests and the time of evaluation from 15 minutes (rapid test with portable hemoglobinometer) to 1 minute.


Assuntos
Anemia , Programas de Rastreamento , Anemia/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Peru , Pesquisa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(11): 1049-1052, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Academic physicians aim to provide clinical and surgical care to their patients while actively contributing to a growing body of scientific literature. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in procedural-based specialties across the United States witnessing a sharp decline in their clinical volume and surgical cases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic productivity. METHODS: The study compared the neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic output during the pandemic lockdown with the same time period in previous years. Editors from a sample of neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional journals provided the total number of original manuscript submissions, broken down by months, from the year 2016 to 2020. Manuscript submission was used as a surrogate metric for academic productivity. RESULTS: 8 journals were represented. The aggregated data from all eight journals as a whole showed that a combined average increase of 42.3% was observed on original submissions for 2020. As the average yearly percent increase using the 2016-2019 data for each journal exhibited a combined average increase of 11.2%, the rise in the yearly increase for 2020 in comparison was nearly fourfold. For the same journals in the same time period, the average percent of COVID-19 related publications from January to June of 2020 was 6.87%. CONCLUSION: There was a momentous increase in the number of original submissions for the year 2020, and its effects were uniformly experienced across all of our represented journals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Eficiência , Neurologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neurocirurgia/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Editoração , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/tendências , Universidades/tendências
11.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200900. 10 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1118773

RESUMO

El documento contiene las pautas para garantizar la seguridad, calidad y desempeño en el desarrollo y validación de proyectos de investigación vinculados a los dispositivos de diagnóstico in vitro (DMDIVD), que permitan una autorización para la fabricación y uso.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Técnicas In Vitro , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diagnóstico , Equipamentos e Provisões
12.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200900. 27 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1118679

RESUMO

El documento contiene los criterios de calidad, seguridad y eficiencia de vacunas en investigación, destinadas a la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Segurança , Vacinas , Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Eficiência , Prevenção de Doenças , Normas Técnicas
14.
Soins ; 65(845): 27-29, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862961

RESUMO

From the 1980s, the dissociation of sexuality and reproduction has led to questioning on the "evidence" of the female-male categories. The United States were the first to take governmental initiatives to offset the under-representation of women, particularly in the field of research. They were followed, twenty years later, by the European Community. However, inequalities between women and men persist today. It seems obvious that only proactive measures can help to improve this situation.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pesquisa/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
15.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 226-229, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe current research trends in medical tourism and implications for public health, especially in destination countries. METHODS: The methods used for this article include a literature review of available sources on the research topic in the world's acknowledged databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and ScienceDirect. RESULTS: The findings indicate that there is no consensus on the definition of medical tourism. However, there are a few conceptual models which can be used in further medical tourism research and practice. The findings also reveal that there are still certain issues, which hinder the fast growth of medical tourism, such as unclear impact on healthcare systems, ethical concerns or a lack of effective tools for the measurement of quality assurance of the medical tourism services and their products. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for data collection on medical tourism, both at national and worldwide level to provide a realistic picture of this evolving field of tourism as well as implications for public health in destination countries.


Assuntos
Turismo Médico , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa/tendências
16.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 104, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874935

RESUMO

Despite predictions that the number of deaths in Africa due to COVID-19 will reach 10 million, overall, the continent has reported relatively few cases compared to the rest of the world. Many African countries have been successful in containing initial outbreaks by rapidly using evidence-based interventions through implementation strategies adapted from other countries' COVID-19 response as well as from prior epidemics. However, it is unclear whether these interventions will lead to long-term and complete success in stopping COVID-19 spread. Implementation research is a tool that can be used by countries to learn how to identify and understand contextual factors impacting COVID-19 prevention and control and select evidence-based interventions and strategies known to reduce spread of the virus. We identify seven key contextual factors that are facilitators or barriers to implementation of these interventions, and several strategies that can be leveraged if the factor is present or ones to strengthen if weak to improve implementation. These factors are: a culture of accountability, national coordination, financial stability of the population, culture of innovation, culture and capacity for research, health systems strength, and cross-border economies. Implementation science methods can serve to develop knowledge at a country and regional level on how to identify, utilize, and address these and other contextual factors, and inform relevant evidence-based interventions and implementation strategies. This approach can support African countries' ability to address key challenges as they arise, both in fighting COVID-19 and future health systems challenges.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Difusão de Inovações , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913357

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the Covid-19 pandemic, major journals have published a significant number of Covid-19 related articles in a short period of time. While this is necessary to combat the worldwide pandemic, it may have trade-offs with respect to publishing research from other disciplines. OBJECTIVES: To assess differences in published research design before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional review of all 322 full-length research studies published between October 1, 2019 and April 30, 2020 in three major medical journals. We compared the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and studies with a control group before and after January 31, 2020, when Covid-19 began garnering international attention. RESULTS: The number of full-length research studies per issue was not statistically different before and after the Covid-19 pandemic (from 3.7 to 3.5 per issue, p = 0.17). Compared to before January 31, 2020, 0.7 fewer non-Covid-19 studies per issue were published versus after January 31, 2020 (p<0.001), a change that was offset by Covid-19 studies. Among non-Covid-19 studies, 0.9 fewer studies with a control group per issue were published after January 31, 2020, with RCTs contributing to nearly all the decline (p<0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In the same timeframe, non-Covid-19 studies without a control group and non-Covid-19 studies without randomization experienced relatively small changes that did not meet our threshold for statistical significance (increases of 0.1 and 0.1 per issue, p = 0.80, p = 0.88, respectively). LIMITATIONS: Using a simple heuristic for assessing research design and lack of generalizability to the general medical literature. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the increase in Covid-19 studies coincided with a decrease of mostly non-Covid-19 RCTs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pesquisa/tendências , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(9): 1107-1117, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879243

RESUMO

The true central aim of pharmaceutical research and education is to strive for the patient's satisfaction, i.e., "for the sake of the patient". Our research focuses to bridge the gap between the ideal and current situation in pharmaceutical science. We also investigated/questioned the united roles of pharmacists and pharmacies, with the ambition of changing the work culture of pharmacists. This paper reviews the history of our research and discusses the future of pharmaceutical research and education.


Assuntos
Biofarmácia/educação , Educação em Farmácia/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Farmacêuticos , Farmácia
20.
Neuron ; 106(6): 884-889, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883486

RESUMO

In a candid interview with Neuron, Nikos K. Logothetis shares memories about his rich scientific past and argues about the importance of animal research and the role of science in society. He also talks about his new job and future plans as co-director of the International Center for Primate Brain Research in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Encéfalo , Neurociências , Direitos dos Animais , Animais , Humanos , Primatas , Opinião Pública , Pesquisa
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