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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387711

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Bibliometric analyses of research in Sri Lanka, a lower-middle income island nation in South Asia, has focused mainly on medical research, concluding that there is a need for increased research productivity and impact, and for local solutions to health concerns. There has been no general bibliometric analysis across scientific disciplines in the nation, or any study that covers a long period of time to identify general time trends. Objective: To measure and analyse Sri Lanka research by focusing on subjects, authors, institutions, journals and citation for half a century. Methods: We used an advanced search method to extract publications with the word "Sri Lanka" in the SCI-EXPANDED, and calculated indicators such as total citations from Web of Science Core Collection since publication year to the end of 2019, citations in 2019, and mean citations per publication. Journal data were taken from 2019 Journal Citation Report. Affiliation re-classification was done to ensure consistency regarding the origin of all publications. Publications were further analysed based on collaboration, and first and corresponding authorship. Results: We retrieved 16 069 publications in 19 document types (77 % articles). Corrections had the highest number of authors per publication (616) followed by articles (116). Four articles had more than 5 000 authors and 593 articles had more than 1 000 authors. The highest citations in this database were for international megaprojects where Sri Lanka authors played minor roles. The UK had the most collaborative articles with Sri Lanka (19 %). The articles were published in 3 051 journals across 177 Web of Science categories. The category of Public, environmental and occupational health, with 193 journals, had 6.7 % of all articles, followed by environmental sciences (6.6 %). Conclusion: Sri Lanka has an unusually strong pattern of participating as small role players in international megaprojects about health and physics. Sri Lanka authors should be encouraged to expand their horizons by researching non-applied fields that are the basis of all innovation; to strengthen their own journals so that they have better visibility and impact, and to improve their positions in international projects that are published in larger journals.


Resumen Introducción: Los análisis bibliométricos de la investigación en Sri Lanka, una nación insular de ingresos mediano-bajos en el sur de Asia, se han centrado principalmente en la investigación médica, concluyendo que existe la necesidad de aumentar la productividad y el impacto de la investigación, y de soluciones locales a los problemas de salud. No ha habido un análisis bibliométrico general de disciplinas científicas o algún estudio que cubra un período largo de tiempo para identificar tendencias generales. Objetivo: Medir y analizar la investigación de Sri Lanka centrándose en temas, autores, instituciones, revistas y citas, durante medio siglo. Métodos: Utilizamos un método de búsqueda avanzada para extraer publicaciones con las palabras "Sri Lanka" en el SCI-EXPANDED, y calculamos indicadores como el total de citas de Web of Science Core Collection desde el año de publicación hasta finales de 2019, citas solo en 2019, y media de citas por publicación. Los datos de revistas son del Journal Citation Report 2019. Revisamos manualmente las afiliaciones para garantizar su coherencia, y, de todos los tipos de publicación, analizamos en detalle los artículos en función de la colaboración y la autoría. Resultados: Hallamos 16 069 publicaciones en 19 tipos de documentos (77 % artículos). Las correcciones tuvieron el mayor número de autores por publicación (616), seguidas de los artículos (116 autores en promedio); cuatro artículos tenían más de 5 000 autores y 593 artículos tenían más de 1 000 autores. Las citas más altas en esta base de datos fueron para megaproyectos internacionales en los que los autores de Sri Lanka desempeñaron papeles menores. El Reino Unido tuvo más artículos colaborativos con Sri Lanka (19 %). Los artículos se publicaron en 3 051 revistas de 177 categorías del Web of Science. La categoría d Salud pública, ambiental y ocupacional, con 193 revistas, tuvo el 6.7 % del total de artículos, seguida de Ciencias ambientales (6.6 %). Conclusión: En Sri Lanka hay una tendencia inusual a participar como pequeños actores en megaproyectos internacionales sobre salud y física. Debería alentarse a quienes hacen ciencia en Sri Lanka a ampliar sus horizontes investigando campos no aplicados, que son la base de la innovación; a fortalecer sus propias revistas para lograr mayor visibilidad e impacto, y a mejorar su ubicación en proyectos internacionales que se publican en revistas más grandes.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Sri Lanka , Bibliometria , Indicadores Bibliométricos
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387707

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Sudan is the third largest country in Africa and has rich reserves of petroleum and other ground resources, but its per capita Gross Domestic Product is only $808 and researchers work in insufficient institutional facilities and with little funding. Previous studies about its scientific productivity have been limited to specific subjects and relatively short periods, with no large analyses until now. Objective: To analyze the scientific output of Sudan in depth, considering all research areas and several decades of scientific activity. Methods: We retrieved the documents with "Sudan" in field country in the Science Citation Index Expanded for the period 1900-2019. Results: We retrieved over 9 000 publications and found that most were articles; that citation was higher for review articles and book chapters, and that this index mostly covered articles in English. Beginning in 1972, the number of publications in this database has increased rapidly. The citation lifespan indicates slow growth in the Sudanese scientific literature, and collaboration is frequent both nationally and internationally, possibly because the scarce resources make collaboration almost compulsory. Most external collaboration is done with Saudi Arabia but citation is higher for articles resulting from international megaprojects, led by Europe and the USA, in which Sudanese researchers play secondary roles. Research focusses on applied technological subjects with little innovation value. Women play a smaller role in Sudanese science. Conclusions: Our recommendations for Sudanese science include increasing the number of women in leading research positions; providing funding directly to researchers (i.e., bypassing bureaucratic bodies); increasing basic research to avoid stagnation; training Sudanese researchers for leading positions; and identifying specific research areas where Sudan can lead in its region.


Resumen Introducción: Sudán es el tercer país más grande de África y tiene ricas reservas de petróleo y otros recursos terrestres, pero su Producto Interno Bruto per cápita es de solo $ 808 y los investigadores trabajan en instalaciones institucionales deficientes y con poca financiación. Los estudios previos sobre su productividad científica se han limitado a temas específicos y períodos relativamente cortos. Objetivo: Analizar la producción científica de Sudán en profundidad, considerando todas las áreas de investigación y varias décadas. Métodos: Recuperamos los documentos con "Sudán" como país de origen en el Science Citation Index Expanded para el período 1900-2019. Resultados: Hallamos más de 9 000 publicaciones y encontramos que la mayoría eran artículos; que fueron más citados los artículos de revisión y capítulos de libros, y que esta base de datos cubría principalmente artículos en inglés; desde 1972, el número de publicaciones en ella ha aumentado rápidamente. La vida útil de las citas indica un crecimiento lento en la literatura científica sudanesa, y la colaboración es frecuente tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, posiblemente porque los escasos recursos hacen que la colaboración sea casi obligatoria. La mayor parte de la colaboración externa se realiza con Arabia Saudita, pero hay más citas para los artículos resultantes de megaproyectos internacionales, dirigidos por Europa y Estados Unidos, en los cuales los investigadores sudaneses desempeñan papeles secundarios. La investigación se centra en temas de tecnología aplicada con poco valor de innovación. Conclusiones: Nuestras recomendaciones para la ciencia sudanesa incluyen aumentar el número de mujeres en altos puestos; proporcionar financiación directamente a los investigadores (sin pasar por organismos burocráticos); ir más allá de la investigación aplicada para evitar el estancamiento; capacitar al personal sudanés para puestos de liderazgo; e identificar áreas de investigación específicas donde Sudán puede liderar en su región.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Indicadores Bibliométricos , Sudão , Bibliometria
3.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 96, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effectively addressing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the new pathogen requires continuous generation of evidence to inform decision-making. Despite an unprecedented amount of research occurring globally, the need to identify gaps in knowledge and prioritize a research agenda that is linked to public health action is indisputable. The WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) is likely to have region-specific research needs. METHODS: We aimed to identify a priority research agenda for guiding the regional and national response to the COVID-19 pandemic in SEAR countries. An online, anonymous research prioritization exercise using recent WHO guidance was conducted among the technical staff of WHO's country and regional offices engaged with the national COVID-19 response during October 2020. They were each asked to contribute up to five priority research ideas across seven thematic areas. These research ideas were reviewed, consolidated and scored by a core group on six parameters: regional specificity, relevance to the COVID-19 response, feasibility within regional research capacity, time to availability for decision-making, likely impact on practice, and promoting equity and gender responsiveness. The total scores for individual suggestions were organized in descending order, and ideas in the upper tertile were considered to be of high priority. RESULTS: A total of 203 priority research ideas were received from 48 respondents, who were primarily research and emergency response focal points in country and regional offices. These were consolidated into 78 research ideas and scored. The final priority research agenda of 27 items covered all thematic areas-health system (n=10), public health interventions (n=6), disease epidemiology (n=5), socioeconomic and equity (n=3), basic sciences (n=1), clinical sciences (n=1) and pandemic preparedness (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: This exercise, a part of WHO's mandate to "shape the research agenda", can help build a research roadmap ensuring efficient use of limited resources. This prioritized research agenda can act as a catalyst for Member States to accelerate research that could impact the COVID-19 response in SEAR.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Pandemias , Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(8): 1046-1052, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to develop and test a simple role-playing game (RPG) dedicated to the generic drug product research and development (R&D) process and evaluate the level of acceptance of this teaching method among pharmacy students. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Students were divided into small groups and participated in the RPG adventures, which led to descriptive characteristics of the development process of the fictional drug product. The depiction of the process in the adventure considered the milestones and obligatory actions to achieve the R&D goal. FINDINGS: The voluntary survey was completed by 59% (n = 72) of participants. Over 90% of the respondents stated that the game helped them better understand generic drug development. The RPG application allowed a narrative description of the process with the possibility of students' involvement in drug development that mixed regulatory, analytical, and technological issues. SUMMARY: The application of the RPG allowed the creation of a narrative description of the process with the possibility of involving students in complicated problematics concerning drug development that mixed regulatory, analytical, and technological aspects of this process.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos , Motivação , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa , Desempenho de Papéis
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 362, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrosynthesis prediction is the task of deducing reactants from reaction products, which is of great importance for designing the synthesis routes of the target products. The product molecules are generally represented with some descriptors such as simplified molecular input line entry specification (SMILES) or molecular fingerprints in order to build the prediction models. However, most of the existing models utilize only one molecular descriptor and simply consider the molecular descriptors in a whole rather than further mining multi-scale features, which cannot fully and finely utilizes molecules and molecular descriptors features. RESULTS: We propose a novel model to address the above concerns. Firstly, we build a new convolutional neural network (CNN) based feature extraction network to extract multi-scale features from the molecular descriptors by utilizing several filters with different sizes. Then, we utilize a two-branch feature extraction layer to fusion the multi-scale features of several molecular descriptors to perform the retrosynthesis prediction without expert knowledge. The comparing result with other models on the benchmark USPTO-50k chemical dataset shows that our model surpasses the state-of-the-art model by 7.4%, 10.8%, 11.7% and 12.2% in terms of the top-1, top-3, top-5 and top-10 accuracies. Since there is no related work in the field of bioretrosynthesis prediction due to the fact that compounds in metabolic reactions are much more difficult to be featured than those in chemical reactions, we further test the feasibility of our model in task of bioretrosynthesis prediction by using the well-known MetaNetX metabolic dataset, and achieve top-1, top-3, top-5 and top-10 accuracies of 45.2%, 67.0%, 73.6% and 82.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The comparison result on USPTO-50k indicates that our proposed model surpasses the existing state-of-the-art model. The evaluation result on MetaNetX dataset indicates that the models used for retrosynthesis prediction can also be used for bioretrosynthesis prediction.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Pesquisa
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5646-5650, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066135

RESUMO

Commercial surrogacy in Ukraine has been legal since 2002, and although no official figures are released, estimates point to several thousand births occurring yearly. The country has long been regarded as one of the surrogacy capitals of the world, due to relatively affordable costs and effective targeted legislation making the surrogacy contracts enforceable. Would-be parents come from countries where surrogacy is banned or heavily restricted to start a family despite their infertility, a practice known as inter-country surrogacy. When a child is born through surrogacy, the surrogate mother forfeits her rights over the child, thus allowing the so-called "intended" or "commissioning" parents to be recognized as such on the Ukrainian birth certificate. Inter-country surrogacy has long been a highly controversial practice from an ethical and legal perspective, but the brutally destructive armed conflict erupted in the country over three months ago has laid bare all the pitfalls and deep flaws of such a system. Children born through surrogacy cannot be handed over to their intended parents, and surrogates risk legal issues and see their rights jeopardized by their choices even in a war setting, for instance if they decide to seek refuge abroad. The horrors of war thus risk victimizing the most vulnerable to an irreparable degree. An international effort is now more urgent than ever to seek a tenable balance between the desires of couples to achieve parenthood and the rights and freedom of often vulnerable women who risk exploitation and abuse and their children.


Assuntos
Família , Mães Substitutas , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Pesquisa , Ucrânia
8.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 49(8): 826-828, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046964

RESUMO

In Japan, research and development of"targeted radioisotope therapy: TRT"or"targeted α therapy: TAT"is focusing the 2 α nuclides, 225Ac, 211At. In this article, I would like to provide a brief summary of the following TAT agents, 211At-MABG and 225Ac anti-podoplanin antibody.


Assuntos
Astato , Actínio , Guanidinas , Humanos , Japão , Pesquisa
9.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of acute pain should commence at the earliest opportunity, as it has many short-term and long-term consequences. A research priority of Paediatric Emergency Research in the UK and Ireland (PERUKI) was to examine paediatric pain practices. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes for paediatric pain management of minor injuries presenting to emergency departments (EDs) across PERUKI. METHODS: A retrospective service evaluation was performed over a 7-day period in late 2016/early 2017 across PERUKI sites, and analysis performed using an adapted Donabedian framework. Patients under 16 years presenting with minor trauma were eligible, and data were collected on prehospital management, pain assessment, analgesia administered and injury diagnosed. RESULTS: Thirty-one sites submitted data on 3888 patients. There were 111 missed cases (missed rate 3.6%). The most common injuries were sprains, lacerations, contusions/abrasions and fractures. Documentation of receiving analgesia before arrival in ED occurred in 21% of patients (n=818). A pain assessment was documented in 57.5% of patients (n=2235) during their ED visit, and 3.5% of patients had their pain reassessed (n=138). Of the patients who presented in severe pain (pain score 7-10 or rated severe), 11% were reassessed. Site variability of initial pain assessment ranged from 1.4% to 100% (median 62%). The characteristics of the top quartile performing centres against the bottom quartile performing centres based on completion rate of initial pain scores were identified. CONCLUSION: Pain assessment was documented in under 60% of children with minor injury, re-assessment of pain was almost completely absent, data and outcomes were missing in a substantial volume of patients, indicating that pain management and the associated outcomes have not been adequately addressed and prioritised within existing network structures and processes.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Manejo da Dor , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(3): 813-831, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074364

RESUMO

The article presents part of a research process on the material culture of science education, particularly natural sciences, in Argentina, between the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. We used some methodological tools that were useful to manage the various sources, such as the biographical perspective of the cultural life of objects, the notion of circulation of knowledge and scientific instruments, the complex network of relationships between artifacts, knowledge, and local scientific-educational practices. This article shows some indicators and examples of the scientific materials studied.


El artículo tiene por objetivo dar a conocer parte de un proceso de investigación sobre la cultura material de la enseñanza científica, en particular de las ciencias naturales, en la Argentina, entre la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX. A través de algunas herramientas metodológicas que resultaron útiles para manejar las diversas fuentes, como la perspectiva biográfica de la vida cultural de los objetos, la noción de circulación de conocimientos e instrumentos científicos, se analiza el complejo entramado de relaciones entre los artefactos, los saberes y las prácticas científico-educativas locales. En este artículo se exponen algunos indicadores y ejemplos de los materiales científicos estudiados.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Pesquisa , Antropologia Cultural , Argentina , História do Século XX
11.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-09-16.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56426

RESUMO

La finalidad de esta publicación es presentar la política sobre la disponibilidad pública y la reutilización futura, con fines de investigación, de los datos de salud recopilados bajo los auspicios de los programas de la OMS. Esto abarca su uso tanto en situaciones de emergencia como en situaciones que no lo sean. Además, se establecen las obligaciones del personal de la OMS y de los investigadores financiados por ella, y se proporciona orientación para ayudar a elaborar un plan de gestión y disponibilidad pública de los datos que esté en consonancia con la visión de la política.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Pesquisa , Guias como Assunto , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa
12.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-09-16.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56425

RESUMO

O objetivo deste documento é explicitar a política e a prática de reuso e compartilhamento subsequente para pesquisa de dados de saúde coletados nos programas técnicos da OMS. Abrange o uso em situações de emergência e não emergência e complementa a Declaração de política de uso e compartilhamento de dados coletados nos Estados Membros pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) fora do contexto de emergências de saúde pública, a Declaração de política de compartilhamento de dados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde no contexto de emergências de saúde pública e a Declaração conjunta sobre a divulgação pública de resultados de estudos clínicos. Esta política engloba o reuso de dados de saúde para pesquisa e inclui dados gerados em pesquisas próprias da OMS, ou financiadas por ela, bem como o uso de outros dados de saúde para pesquisa. O guia expõe os objetivos desta política e as responsabilidades do pessoal e dos pesquisadores que recebem financiamento da OMS. Na seção Orientação para aplicar na prática a política da OMS de compartilhamento e reuso de dados de saúde para pesquisa, outras referências e recursos são oferecidos para auxiliar a preparar um plano de gestão e compartilhamento de dados alinhado com a visão desta política.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Pesquisa , Guias como Assunto , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081055

RESUMO

The ankle joint is one of the important joints of the human body to maintain the ability to walk. Diseases such as stroke and ankle osteoarthritis could weaken the body's ability to control joints, causing people's gait to be out of balance. Ankle-foot orthoses can assist users with neuro/muscular or ankle injuries to restore their natural gait. Currently, passive ankle-foot orthoses are mostly designed to fix the ankle joint and provide support for walking. With the development of materials, sensing, and control science, semi-active orthoses that release mechanical energy to assist walking when needed and can store the energy generated by body movement in elastic units, as well as active ankle-foot orthoses that use external energy to transmit enhanced torque to the ankle, have received increasing attention. This article reviews the development process of ankle-foot orthoses and proposes that the integration of new ankle-foot orthoses with rehabilitation technologies such as monitoring or myoelectric stimulation will play an important role in reducing the walking energy consumption of patients in the study of human-in-the-loop models and promoting neuro/muscular rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Órtoses do Pé , Tornozelo , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa , Caminhada/fisiologia
14.
Curr Biol ; 32(17): R910-R911, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099892

RESUMO

Foraging innovations can give wild animals access to human-derived food sources1. If these innovations spread, they can enable adaptive flexibility2 but also lead to human-wildlife conflicts3. Examples include crop-raiding elephants4 and long-tailed macaques that steal items from people to trade them back for food5. Behavioural responses by humans might act as a further driver on animal innovation2,6, even potentially leading to an inter-species 'innovation arms-race'7, yet this is almost entirely unexplored. Here, we report a potential case in wild, urban-living, sulphur-crested cockatoos (Cacatua galerita; henceforth cockatoos), where the socially-learnt behaviour of opening and raiding of household bins by cockatoos8 is met with increasingly effective and socially-learnt bin-protection measures by human residents.


Assuntos
Cacatuas , Elefantes , Papagaios , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , Pesquisa
15.
Pharmacogenomics ; 23(14): 791-806, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102182

RESUMO

Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of psychosis-spectrum illnesses, and the characterization of related genetic mechanisms may provide insights regarding the disease pathophysiology. Substantial efforts have been made to determine the genetic component of cognitive symptoms, without clear success. Illness-related moderators and environmental factors such as medications hinder the detection of genomic association with cognition. Polypharmacy is common in psychotic disorders, and the cumulative effects of medication regimens can confound gene-cognition associations. A review of the relative contributions of important pharmacological and genetic relationships identifies that the effects of medications on cognition in psychotic disorders may be at least, if not more, impactful than individual genes, thus underscoring the importance of accounting for medication exposure in gene-cognition association studies.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos Psicóticos , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Pesquisa
16.
Cytometry A ; 101(9): 701-702, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047544
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052594

RESUMO

Objective: To establish a GDH-3 air sample tube for simultaneous determination of twelve kinds of chlorobenzene compounds (CBs) in workplace air by gas chromatography. And to established a matching determination method. Methods: In October 2020, the vapor and aerosol CBs in workplace air were collected by GDH-3 air sampling tube, and desorption and elution with 3.00 ml toluene for 15 min, then the solution separated by DB-23 capillary column, and finally detected with microcell electron capture detector. Results: The quantitative determination ranges of twelve isomers of CBs were 0.71×10(-3)-2000.00 mg/L, with the correlative coefficients were 0.99967-0.99998. The minimum detectable concentrations were 0.04-112.63 µg/m(3), and the minimum quantification concentrations were 0.14-375.42 µg/m(3) (15.00 L sample, 3.00 ml sample solution) . The average elution efficiencies were 96.00%-104.00%. The within-run relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.54%-6.12%, and the between-run RSDs were 3.85%-7.87%. Sealed samples could be stable at room temperature for at least 15 days. Conclusion: GDH-3 air sample tube can be used for simultaneous determination of twelve kinds of CBs in workplace air by gas chromatography. The established supporting measurement method meets the measurement requirements of the occupational health standard detection method, and the it's suitable for the simultaneous determination of 12 kinds of CBS in the air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Clorobenzenos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Pesquisa , Local de Trabalho
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1659, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common pathogen that affects individuals of all ages and establishes lifelong latency. Although CMV is typically asymptomatic in healthy individuals, infection during pregnancy or in immunocompromised individuals can cause severe disease. Currently, treatments are limited, with no prophylactic vaccine available. Knowledge of the current epidemiologic burden of CMV is necessary to understand the need for treatment and prevention. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to describe the most recent epidemiologic burden of CMV globally. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and LILACS were searched to identify data on CMV prevalence, seroprevalence, shedding, and transmission rates. The SLR covered the time period of 2010-2020 and focused geographically on Australia, Europe, Israel, Japan, Latin America (LATAM), and North America. Studies were excluded if they were systematic or narrative reviews, abstracts, case series, letters, or correspondence. Studies with sample sizes < 100 were excluded to focus on studies with higher quality of data. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included. Among adult men, CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprevalence ranged from 39.3% (France) to 48.0% (United States). Among women of reproductive age in Europe, Japan, LATAM, and North America, CMV IgG seroprevalence was 45.6-95.7%, 60.2%, 58.3-94.5%, and 24.6-81.0%, respectively. Seroprevalence increased with age and was lower in developed than developing countries, but data were limited. No studies of CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) seroprevalence among men were identified. Among women of reproductive age, CMV IgM seroprevalence was heterogenous across Europe (1.0-4.6%), North America (2.3-4.5%), Japan (0.8%), and LATAM (0-0.7%). CMV seroprevalence correlated with race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and education level. CMV shedding ranged between 0% and 70.2% depending on age group. No findings on CMV transmission rates were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Certain populations and regions are at a substantially higher risk of CMV infection. The extensive epidemiologic burden of CMV calls for increased efforts in the research and development of vaccines and treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: N/A.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pesquisa , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Desenvolvimento de Vacinas
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273031, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054092

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate disparities in the frequency of scientific activity between medical doctors and nurses in Peru. METHODS: We carried out a secondary data analysis of the National Health Services Users' Satisfaction Survey (ENSUSALUD), 2016. This nationally representative survey evaluates doctors and nurses working in clinical settings. We defined scientific activity as i) having published an original article (journal indexed in Web of Science, Scopus or Medline); and ii) having authored an abstract in a national or international conference. We estimated crude and adjusted disparities prevalence ratios (aDPR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: We included 2025 doctors and 2877 nurses in the analysis; 71% of doctors doctor were male, and 93% of nurses were female (p<0.001). Among doctors, 13.9% had published an article, and 8.4% presented an abstract at a conference in the last two years, while these proportions were 0.6% and 2.5% for nurses, respectively. The adjusted models showed that doctors, when compared to nurses, were approximately 27 times likely to have published a paper (aDPR = 27.86; 95% CI 10.46 to 74.19) and twice as likely to have authored a conference abstract (aDPR = 2.51; 95% CI 1.39 to 4.53). CONCLUSIONS: There are important disparities in scientific activity between doctors and nurses working in clinical settings in Peru. Disparities are more significant for article publication than for authoring in conference abstracts. We suggest public policies that promote research dissemination between health professionals, with emphasis on nurses.


Assuntos
Médicos , Bibliometria , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Pesquisa
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