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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262655, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143496

RESUMO

This paper studies the pharmaceutical production supply chain system composed of upstream and downstream pharmaceutical enterprises, and explores the impact of government subsidy strategies on the new drug research and development (R&D) decision variables and profits of pharmaceutical enterprises as well as social welfare, when considering both the horizontal spillover effects within the industry and the vertical spillover effects between industries. Comparing and analyzing the impact of these strategies including non-government subsidy strategy, pharmaceutical enterprise innovation input subsidy strategy, pharmaceutical enterprise innovative product subsidy strategy, patient price subsidy strategy, and patient medical insurance subsidy strategy. By establishing a four-stage Cournot duopoly model incorporating spillover effects, the equilibrium solutions are obtained by backward induction, and the impact of spillover effects on decision variables is investigated accordingly. Studies have shown that: (a) Government subsidy strategies can promote pharmaceutical enterprises' R&D investment and have a positive incentive effect on the pharmaceutical enterprises' profits and social welfare. (b) The patient medical insurance subsidy strategy is the optimal subsidy strategy, which can generate higher profits for pharmaceutical enterprises and higher social welfare.


Assuntos
Financiamento Governamental , Pesquisa/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição , Seguridade Social
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262153, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): Our objective was to investigate the motivators and barriers associated with the individual or family decision to participate in cerebral palsy research. Based on this information, we offer suggestions to increase the likelihood of participation in future CP studies. METHODS: A digital survey was administered to stakeholders affected by cerebral palsy across the US. Our analysis focused on variables related to personal interests, travel, and study-specific elements. Statistical tests investigated the effects of responder type, cerebral palsy type, and Gross Motor Function Classification System level on travel and study-specific element variables. Recommendations were informed by responses reflecting the majority of respondents. RESULTS: Based on 233 responses, we found that respondents highly valued research participation (on average 88.2/100) and compensation (on average 62.3/100). Motivators included the potential for direct benefit (62.2%) and helping others (53.4%). The primary barriers to participation were schedule limitations (48.9%) and travel logistics (32.6%). Schedule limitations were especially pertinent to caregivers, while individuals with more severe cerebral palsy diagnoses reported the necessity of additional items to comfortably travel. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we encourage the involvement of stakeholders affected by cerebral palsy in the research process. Researchers should consider offering flexible study times, accommodating locations, and compensation for time and travel expenses. We recommend a minimum compensation of $15/hour and a maximum time commitment of 4 hours/day to respect participants' time and increase likelihood of research participation. Future studies should track how attitudes toward research change with time and experience.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Pesquisa , Paralisia Cerebral/patologia , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Pesquisa/economia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artif Organs ; 46(1): 16-22, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773423

RESUMO

In the course of over four decades, I have worked with an R&D team on 12 major R&D projects, all with the goal of making hemodialysis simple, safe, effective, and suitable for use in the home. Our team has worked within a University and in private companies and has collaborated with major healthcare drug and device companies. As a practicing nephrologist, my definition of success is when I see the device or drug we helped to develop in widespread clinical use. By this measure, two of the projects were highly successful, but seven failed. Most failures were due to decisions made by various corporations, governmental agencies, and venture capital groups, out of the hands or control of the R&D company. Three projects are still ongoing. There is no shortage of creativity or new ideas in nephrology and in dialysis. The major challenge is in the commercialization of the products.


Assuntos
Hemodiálise no Domicílio/instrumentação , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Hemodiálise no Domicílio/economia , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Pesquisa/economia
5.
Drug Discov Today ; 27(3): 697-704, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922020

RESUMO

Over the past decade, Pfizer has focused efforts to improve its research and development (R&D) productivity. By the end of 2020, Pfizer had achieved an industry-leading clinical success rate of 21%, a tenfold increase from 2% in 2010 and well above the industry benchmark of ∼11%. The company had also maintained the quality of innovation, because 75% of its approvals between 2016 and 2020 had at least one expedited regulatory designation (e.g., Breakthrough Therapy). Pfizer's Signs of Clinical Activity (SOCA) paradigm enabled better decision-making and, along with other drivers (biology and modality), contributed to this productivity improvement. These laid a strong foundation for the rapid and effective development of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine with BioNTech, as well as the antiviral candidate Paxlovid™, under the company's 'lightspeed' paradigm.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Antivirais/economia , COVID-19/economia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936690

RESUMO

Firm's effort on Green technology innovation (hereafter, called G-innovation) is affected by financing constraints, and firm will make a discretionary choice according to its own situation, to achieve the maximization of self-interests. Based on the data of Chinese micro enterprises, firstly, we empirically analyze firms' decision-making towards G-innovation when faced with financing constraints. It supports the view that financing constraints can hinder enterprise technological innovation. And we also make an explanation that the social benefits of green technology innovation are greater than personal benefits, which makes enterprises tend to reduce green technology innovation when facing financing constraints. Then we examine firms' heterogonous behaviors under different internal attributes and external environments. The results reveal that: First, firms are reluctant to pay more efforts to G-innovation when faced with increased financing constraints. Second, firms with different attributes exhibit heterogeneous G-innovation. Political connections will change firms' willingness to innovate, while the structure of property rights and the pollution degree will not. Third, firms under different external environment also exhibit heterogeneous G-innovation. When economic policy uncertainty increases, firms' willingness to innovate weakens. The development of shadow banks fail to improve firm's willingness to innovate.


Assuntos
Invenções , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Invenções/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Tecnologia/economia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257950, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735463

RESUMO

As in many parts of the world, the management of environmental science research in Antarctica relies on cost-benefit analysis of negative environmental impact versus positive scientific gain. Several studies have examined the environmental impact of Antarctic field camps, but very little work looks at how the placement of these camps influences scientific research. In this study, we integrate bibliometrics, geospatial analysis, and historical research to understand the relationship between field camp placement and scientific production in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica. Our analysis of the scientific corpus from 1907-2016 shows that, on average, research sites have become less dispersed and closer to field camps over time. Scientific output does not necessarily correspond to the number of field camps, and constructing a field camp does not always lead to a subsequent increase in research in the local area. Our results underscore the need to consider the complex historical and spatial relationships between field camps and research sites in environmental management decision-making in Antarctica and other protected areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesquisa/tendências , Ciência/tendências , Regiões Antárticas , Bibliometria , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Pesquisa/economia , Ciência/economia
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258200, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624035

RESUMO

The diversified management ability of the non-family members in the top management teams (TMTs) can significantly increase the research and development (R&D) investment of the family firms. However, existing studies focus on family characteristics. To bridge the gap, this study explored the R&D investment propensity for family firms from the perspective of non-family members' participation in TMTs. Based on the upper echelons and the socioemotional wealth theory, this paper incorporated the non-economic goals that influence strategic decisions on family firms into the analytical framework. According to the questionnaire data of Chinese private enterprises, the Tobit regression model was used to analyze the influence of family members on R&D investment decisions under non-economic goal orientations. The results indicated that the preference for control and influence among family members weakens the positive effect of non-family managers on R&D investment, while the preferences for status perception and social responsibility strengthen the positive effect.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/organização & administração , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/organização & administração , China , Família , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Responsabilidade Social , Estatística como Assunto
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(12): 1236-1243, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515752

RESUMO

Importance: The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest government funding source for biomedical research globally. Burden of disease is one of the factors considered by the NIH in making funding allocations, though it is not known how funding patterns are associated with disease burden for pediatric conditions. Objective: To determine the correlation between NIH funding and disease burden across pediatric conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study evaluates NIH grants funding pediatric research from 2015 to 2018 in the US. Pediatric grants were classified according to disease categories studied. Disease burden for each category was determined using measures from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation and hospitalization data from the 2016 Kids' Inpatient Database. Main Outcome and Measure: Correlation between NIH funding and pediatric disease burden using Spearman rank order coefficients and predicted amounts of disease-specific funding based on disease burden estimated from linear regression models. Results: This study analyzed 14 060 disease-specific pediatric grants awarded by the NIH from 2015 to 2018 in the US. Annual funding for disease categories ranged from $0 to $382 849 631. Funding for pediatric research was correlated with pediatric disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), deaths, years lived with disability, and years of life lost (r, 0.56-0.63; P < 0.001 for all measures). There was also a correlation between funding and hospital-based metrics, including hospital days, number of hospital admissions, and hospital charges (r, 0.67-0.69; P < .001 for all measures). Eight disease categories received greater than $500 million more than predicted levels relative to DALYs, while 5 disease categories were funded more than $50 million less than predicted levels. Based on predicted levels of funding, congenital birth defects; endocrine, metabolic, blood, and immune disorders; and HIV/AIDS were the most overfunded categories relative to DALYs and hospital days. Conditions identified as most underfunded differed depending on use of DALYs or hospital days in estimating predicted funding levels. Conclusions and Relevance: NIH funding for pediatric research was correlated with pediatric disease burden in the US with variable correlation based on the disease metric applied. There was substantial overfunding and underfunding of certain conditions. Ongoing evaluation of pediatric funding patterns using a complementary set of disease measures may help inform and prioritize pediatric research funding.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Apoio Financeiro , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pediatria/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
16.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e313-e319, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arab world is lagging behind in the world of publications and research, especially in the biomedical-related field. This is a bibliometric analysis that aims to assess the neurosurgical research productivity across different Arab countries. METHODS: PubMed was used to quantify the number of neurosurgery-related articles published by each Arab country, by several journals, investigating specific topics between 2005 and 2019. Numbers were normalized with respect to each country's average population and average gross domestic product (GDP). RESULTS: Arab countries contributed 0.53% of total neurosurgery publications. Egypt had the highest number of neurosurgery-related publications (362), ahead of Saudi Arabia (238) and Lebanon (133). In terms of publications per million persons, Lebanon was first with 21.6 publications per million persons. In terms of GDP, Egypt ranked first with 18.85 publications per million $. There was an insignificant correlation between the number of publications on one hand and the average GDP (P = 0.09) on the other hand, whereas the average population explains around 50% of the neurosurgery-related publications (R squared = 0.49, P < 0.01). Neoplasms were the dominating area of research, and the WORLD NEUROSURGERY journal had the highest number of publications. CONCLUSIONS: The results reached by this study reflect an undoubtable need for more research on neurosurgery by Arab countries. This goes back to the different obstacles facing Arab countries every day, affecting the economic, educational, and health care systems.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Neurocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Mundo Árabe , Eficiência , Produto Interno Bruto , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Publicações , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/economia
19.
Respir Med ; 185: 106486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an emerging health problem, but information on scientific production in this subject area is scarce. We aim to evaluate the scientific production on OSA from 2009 to 2018 to illustrate its worldwide distribution, topic areas, and ability to secure funding, as well as to describe international collaboration networks in this field. METHODS: Articles published between 2009 and 2018 were extracted from the Science Citation Index Expanded via Web of Science (WoS) using the search term "obstructive sleep apn*". Publication year, number and country of authors, journal, subject category, key words, funding source and number of citations received were recorded. We also conducted network analyses for key words and international collaboration. RESULTS: 12,666 articles on OSA were located, which had increased from 895 documents in 2009 to 1592 in 2018. The progressive growth in scientific production on OSA had outpaced the growth rate of total WoS production since 2012.50% of the articles declared some type of funding, with a citation index higher than manuscripts that were not funded. The manuscripts were distributed in journals from 135 subject categories of the WoS, and keyword distribution showed a dispersed pattern with a high number of nodes. The international collaboration rate was 18.2%, and the country network showed the United States as the hegemonic node. CONCLUSION: World production on OSA has grown at a higher rate than global production and shows notable thematic dispersion as well as a high ability to secure funding, which increases its impact.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira/economia , Administração Financeira/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Autoria , Bibliometria , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
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