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5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735570

RESUMO

Different consumer groups accept new energy vehicles sequentially from the perspective of innovation diffusion theory, and the early adopter group has recently been identified. By assuming that the density of early adopters is increasing at minimum acceptable quality thresholds, this paper proposes a vertical quality differentiation model of product R&D with product subsidies. The impact of product subsidies on the R&D investment of new energy vehicle firms is discussed. We show that the early adopters' characteristics may affect the stagnant marginal R&D investment of new energy vehicle firms by increasing sales, which determines the impact mechanism of product subsidies. For firms with decreasing marginal R&D investments, insufficient R&D investments result from financial constraints. If insufficient R&D resources deter firms from conducting R&D, substantial unit subsidies invariably incentivize firms to spend their entire R&D budget. Firms with increasing marginal R&D investments, insufficient R&D profits, or financial constraints are prevented from increasing R&D investment. Product subsidies generally have a crowding-in effect on firms not subject to financial constraints, and this effect increases with the unit subsidy. However, the existence of a crowding-in effect may require sufficiently large unit subsidies. In both situations, product subsidies cannot modulate financial constraints if the firm has spent its entire R&D budget. In the first situation, we also show that product subsidies should be replaced by a funding support policy. In contrast, the second situation shows that a funding support policy should be coordinated with product subsidies.


Assuntos
Automóveis/economia , Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/economia , Modelos Estatísticos
14.
FEBS Lett ; 594(11): 1647-1650, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510621

RESUMO

The recent resignation of the President of the European Research Council (ERC) Mauro Ferrari has opened a wide discussion both on the method of designation of the President of the ERC and on the validity of the different funding mechanisms for scientific research. From this point of view, Sars-CoV-2 was not only responsible for the pandemic, but also triggered a debate on an alleged primacy of applied research over the fundamental research.


Assuntos
Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Pesquisa/economia , Sociedades Científicas/economia
16.
Value Health ; 23(6): 734-742, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540231

RESUMO

Value of information (VOI) analyses can help policy makers make informed decisions about whether to conduct and how to design future studies. Historically a computationally expensive method to compute the expected value of sample information (EVSI) restricted the use of VOI to simple decision models and study designs. Recently, 4 EVSI approximation methods have made such analyses more feasible and accessible. Members of the Collaborative Network for Value of Information (ConVOI) compared the inputs, the analyst's expertise and skills, and the software required for the 4 recently developed EVSI approximation methods. Our report provides practical guidance and recommendations to help inform the choice between the 4 efficient EVSI estimation methods. More specifically, this report provides: (1) a step-by-step guide to the methods' use, (2) the expertise and skills required to implement the methods, and (3) method recommendations based on the features of decision-analytic problems.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa/economia , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Software
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459818

RESUMO

We investigate the determinants of the sign of Research and Development reaction functions of rival firms. Using a two-stage n-firm Cournot competition game, we show that this sign depends on four types of environments in terms of product rivalry and technology spillovers. We test the predictions of the model on the world's largest manufacturing corporations. Assuming that firms make R&D investments based on the R&D effort of the representative rival company, we develop a dynamic panel data model that accounts for the endogeneity of the decision of the rival firm. Empirical results thoroughly corroborate the validity of the theoretical model.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/economia , Modelos Estatísticos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401823

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research productivity has been linked to a country's intellectual and economic wealth. Further analysis is needed to assess the association between the distribution of research across disciplines and the economic status of countries. METHODS: By using 55 years of data, spanning 1962 to 2017, of Elsevier publications across a large set of research disciplines and countries globally, this manuscript explores the relationship and evolution of relative research productivity across different disciplines through a network analysis. It also explores the associations of those with economic productivity categories, as measured by the World Bank economic classification. Additional analysis of discipline similarities is possible by exploring the cross-country evolution of those disciplines. RESULTS: Results show similarities in the relative importance of research disciplines among most high-income countries, with larger idiosyncrasies appearing among the remaining countries. This group of high-income countries shows similarities in the dynamics of the relative distribution of research productivity over time, forming a stable research productivity cluster. Lower income countries form smaller, more independent and evolving clusters, and differ significantly from each other and from higher income countries in the relative importance of their research emphases. Country-based similarities in research productivity profiles also appear to be influenced by geographical proximity. CONCLUSIONS: This new form of analyses of research productivity, and its relation to economic status, reveals novel insights to the dynamics of the economic and research structure of countries. This allows for a deeper understanding of the role a country's research structure may play in shaping its economy, and also identification of benchmark resource allocations across disciplines for developing countries.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Pesquisa , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Status Econômico , Geografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Publicações/economia , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/tendências , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/tendências , Comunicação Acadêmica/economia , Comunicação Acadêmica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação Acadêmica/tendências
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