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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 208, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692729

RESUMO

The Mozambican Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (Moz-FELTP) is a two-year, competency-based post-graduate training and service program designed to build sustainable public health capacity in applied epidemiology. Despite the efforts, Moz-FELTP residents have historically difficulty to publishing their work for a variety of reasons that includes language barriers, lack of writing skills and motivation, limited budgetary support and lack of effective mentorship. This outline the need for different approaches to continuous improving the publication, such scientific writing mentorship for non-English FELTP residents.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia/educação , Linguagem , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/educação , Educação Baseada em Competências , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mentores , Moçambique , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692770

RESUMO

In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising a workshop for researchers ("bottom-up") and discussions with senior faculty on institutional policies ("top-down"). During the first day, we facilitated a workshop to introduce research integrity and promote best practices with regards to authorship, plagiarism, redundant publication and conflicts of interest. We used a variety of interactive teaching approaches to facilitate learning, including individual and group activities, small group discussions and case-based learning. We met with senior faculty on the following day to provide feedback and insights from the workshop, review current institutional policies and provide examples of what other research groups are doing. We evaluated the process. Participants actively engaged in discussions, recognised the importance of the topic and acknowledged that poor practices occurred at their institution. Discussions with senior researchers resulted in the establishment of a working group tasked with developing a publication policy for the institution. Our approach kick-started conversations on research integrity at institutions. There is a need for continued discussions, integrated training programmes and implementation of institutional policies and guidelines to promote good practices.


Assuntos
Política Organizacional , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , África , Autoria/normas , Humanos , Publicações/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Pesquisadores/educação
4.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4691-4697, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617900

RESUMO

Undergraduate research involves experiential learning methods that helps animal science students gain critical thinking skills. There is high demand for these opportunities. For example, 77.9% of incoming freshmen in the Department of Animal Sciences & Industry at Kansas State University in Fall 2017 and Fall 2018 planned to conduct research sometime during their undergraduate career (422 of 542 students). Conventional, one-on-one mentoring methods in the department were only serving 1.7% of the undergraduate population (21 of 1,212 students). This creates a unique challenge of increasing the number of undergraduate research opportunities, while maintaining the impact of individualized experiential learning. One method to address this challenge is the incorporation of a course-based research program. In this model, research projects are conducted during a conventional semester during scheduled classroom hours, with project components divided into 3 sections: (1) research preparation, including compliance requirements, hypothesis testing, experimental design, and protocol development; (2) data collection; and (3) data interpretation and dissemination. Students collect data as a team, but individually develop their own research abstract and poster to maintain a high level of experiential learning. By teaching multiple sections of this course per semester and incorporating the concepts into existing laboratories, 13.5% of students in the department completed undergraduate research in the 2018-2019 academic year (162 of 1,197 students). To monitor the quality of these experiences, student critical thinking ability was assessed using the online Critical Thinking Basic Concepts & Understanding Test (Foundation for Critical Thinking, Tomales, CA). Undergraduate research experiences increased (P = 0.028) the growth in student critical thinking score, but the type of research experience did not influence assessed skills (P > 0.281). Thus, course-based undergraduate research experiences may be an option for growing the quantity and quality of undergraduate research experience in animal science.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pesquisa/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Animais , Currículo , Humanos , Kansas , Pensamento , Universidades
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(664): 1716-1719, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553537

RESUMO

We have received a scientific education, we have learned to rely on facts, figures and contents. However, we are poorly trained on how to present oral medical information or research work in an attractive way. The purpose of this article is to provide tips to young physicians on how to make a successful oral presentation. A well-prepared oral presentation is just as important as the message delivered to ensure that an important topic is retained by the audience.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Fala
7.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(6): 681-688, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386304

RESUMO

In this work, we present the results of an undergrad student from the perspective of its first approach as a principal researcher in a project. In order to gain practical experience, one of the options for students that have interest in pursuing a postgraduate program corresponds to a research stay in a laboratory of their selected field conducting a project for a period of 6 months. In this particular project, a fungal sample was isolated from Parmesan cheese spoilage and its enzymatic activity evaluated. Using simple and standardized protocols, the student was capable of identifying a possible biotechnological application for the isolate by detecting and categorizing the lipolytic activity. Through microculture characterization in potato dextrose agar (PDA) the genus of the sample was determined as Penicillium and confirmed by molecular analysis of the ITS1 and ITS4 regions. In order to examine comprehensively the potential of the new isolate, the extracellular and intracellular enzymatic activities were analyzed as well as four methods of cell rupture. From these results, sonication was determined as the best technique with 211 U/L as a maximum lipolytic value. To finalize the evaluation of the sample, the student determined the optimal pH and temperature as well as the thermotolerance of the crude extract obtaining a residual activity of 13% after 60 minutes of incubation at 45 °C. Upon conclusion of the research we could recognize that through a direct characterization of a fungal isolate using techniques that are widely known, the student was capable of determining and value one of the most interesting capabilities fungi has to offer; enzymatic activity, and that the knowledge obtained from established protocols enables and encourages the students to correlate the source from where they were obtained with potential biotechnological applications. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(6):681-688, 2019.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/educação , Queijo/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa/educação , Bioquímica/educação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Biologia Molecular/educação , Estudantes , Temperatura Ambiente , Universidades
8.
Haemophilia ; 25(4): 575-580, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The major complication of protein replacement therapy for haemophilia A is the development of anti-FVIII antibodies or inhibitors that occur in 25%-30% of persons with severe haemophilia A. Alternative therapeutics such as bypassing agents or immune tolerance induction protocols have additional challenges and are not always effective. AIM: Assemble a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) State of the Science (SOS) Workshop to generate a national blueprint for research on inhibitors to solve the problem of FVIII immunogenicity. METHODS: An Executive Steering Committee was formed in October 2017 to establish the scientific focus and Scientific Working Groups for the SOS Workshop in May 2018. Four working groups were assembled to address scientific priorities in basic, translational and clinical research on inhibitors. RESULTS: Working Group 1 was charged with determining the scientific priorities for clinical trials to include the integration of non-intravenous, non-factor therapeutics including gene therapy into the standard of care for people with haemophilia A with inhibitors. Working Group 2 established the scientific priorities for 21st-century data science and biospecimen collection for observational inhibitor cohort studies. The scientific priorities for acquiring an actionable understanding of FVIII immunogenicity and the immunology of the host response and FVIII tolerance were developed by Working Group 3. Working Group 4 designed prospective pregnancy/birth cohorts to study FVIII immunogenicity, inhibitor development and eradication. CONCLUSION: The NHLBI SOS Workshop generated a focused summary of scientific priorities and implementation strategies to overcome the challenges of eradicating and preventing inhibitors in haemophilia A.


Assuntos
Educação/organização & administração , Fator VIII/antagonistas & inibidores , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pesquisa/educação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Med Educ Online ; 24(1): 1611297, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Students enter Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine's required research program, Embark, with variable levels of experience. Recognizing this, Embark allows for progression through the individual research project with flexibility. Since 2014, student self-directed curriculum personalization is promoted through a menu of online modules. OBJECTIVE: This evaluation sought to understand student usage of the modules, identified strengths of the modules and preferred attributes of the modules. Gaining this evidence will provide information on how to best meet students' needs in a just-in-time format. METHODS: A retrospective mixed methods analysis of the module library was conducted. The library was constructed using best practices as an educational tool. The retrospective evaluation included analysis of students' viewing patterns and answers to required course evaluations during the fall semesters of 2014 to 2017. Students' preference for modules was determined by viewing records and conjoint analysis. RESULTS: Students' milestone preparation was not negatively impacted by relocation of curricular content from lecture to modules. Changes in module implementation within the course (2016) resulted in an increase of students viewing modules beyond only the minimum course requirements (71% (2016) from 10% (2014)). Data from both quantitative and qualitative evaluation questions show an increase in students' identifying the modules as a strength to individualize the course. The identified module strengths include content individualization, just-in-time access, while identified needs included a desire for additional modules. Students preferred modules that were animated, shorter in duration and curated from an external source. CONCLUSIONS: Online modules provide students with a rich set of resources allowing for individualized learning. Lessons learned in the implementation of the online modules may be transferable to many educational topics. When implementing similar technology projects, usage rates, learner feedback, and effect on appreciation of the content are important to frequently monitor.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Internet , Pesquisa/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes/psicologia
10.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(5): 599-606, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141270

RESUMO

In order to help promote instructional change at French-speaking universities in Europe, we initiated a series of 1-day events centered on learning innovations. Since 2015, these events have been taking place every 6 months at the Université Paris Descartes, with the moral support of three learned scientific societies, the French Academy of Sciences, and sponsoring by leaders in textbook editing and classroom technologies. Each event gathers ~ 40 participants (faculty members, postdocs, and educational specialists) from four countries (Belgium, France, Luxemburg, Switzerland) and invitees, who share their active learning practices, flipped classroom variations representing the most popular strategy. Their experience revealed that faculty who invest themselves in revamping teaching are still isolated at their institutions, although institutional and national support have now been gaining momentum. In particular, the role of educational specialists (known as ingénieurs pédagogiques in France) is key to help faculty move away from lecturing. Overall, our event series illustrates that a hands-off approach is effective to foster a cross-border community of committed academics in a context where the process of changing the way we teach at universities is still in its infancy. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(5):599-606, 2019.


Assuntos
Docentes/educação , Linguagem , Pesquisa/educação , Ensino/educação , França , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Universidades
11.
J Prof Nurs ; 35(3): 170-173, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126392

RESUMO

Creating and executing unique research projects for completion in four semesters is a challenge especially in a small liberal arts university in a rural Health Professions Shortage Area (HPSA) with a newly established BSN program. HPSAs are designations that indicate health care provider shortages in primary care, dental health or mental health. Undergraduate research is an emerging focus across campus with limited faculty funding. Most of our nursing faculty are in the process of developing their programs of research which required faculty of the research course to become mentors for both faculty and students. This article describes one strategy utilized in establishing an undergraduate research focus within a BSN nursing program. Working in small groups with a faculty mentor, students planned and conducted their entire research study, presenting their findings to the university community in the period of four semesters of the nursing program. Research course faculty served as mentors for less experienced faculty, involving the entire nursing program in research. Research projects were conducted in institutional and community settings to improve population health in our HPSA.


Assuntos
Currículo , Tutoria , Pesquisa/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(2): ar13, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008673

RESUMO

Graduate students and postdoctoral researchers (postgraduates) in the life sciences frequently mentor undergraduate researchers, especially at research universities. Yet there has been only modest investigation of this relationship from the postgraduate perspective. We conducted an exploratory study of the experiences of 32 postgraduate mentors from diverse institutions, life sciences disciplines, and types of research to examine their motivations for mentoring and their perceived outcomes. Although some postgraduates reported feeling pressured to mentor undergraduate researchers, all expressed personal motivations, including both agentic (self-focused) and communal (community-focused) motivations. These postgraduates reported benefits and costs of mentoring that had both vocational and psychosocial elements. Given that our results indicated that even postgraduates who engaged in mentoring at the request of their faculty advisors had their own motivations, we conducted a second phase of analysis to determine the extent to which our results aligned with different theories of motivation (self-determination theory, social cognitive career theory, expectancy-value theory, social exchange theory). We end by proposing a model of postgraduate mentoring of undergraduate researchers that integrates the theories supported by our findings.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Mentores , Motivação , Percepção , Pesquisadores/educação , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria , Mentores/psicologia , Pesquisa/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
13.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(2): ar17, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025915

RESUMO

Gender disparities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are well documented, yet little is known about how women and men students establish social relationships with research mentors and peers and how that shapes their experiences in STEM. We conducted a series of interviews with 17 undergraduate students from a Hispanic majority institution regarding their participation in STEM-focused summer research programs at nine universities. Differences in levels of comfort in relationships were present when comparing men and women. Women students expressed comfort in relationships with mentors who provided psychosocial mentoring, were available to answer questions, and were of the same gender; they expressed some social discomfort in informal interactions with mentors. Men students felt comfortable with mentors who provided limited guidance, little psychosocial mentoring, and opportunities for informal interactions. In terms of peer relationships, women sought out the confidence of a few similar peers, while men were comfortable with a wide variety of peers. Men's greater comfort with social relationships seemed to reflect their affinity with the masculine-dominated culture of STEM. For women, cultivating safe spaces through relationships with supportive peers and working with same-gender faculty mentors seemed to mitigate some of the discomforting aspects of their STEM research experiences.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Relações Interpessoais , Matemática/educação , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
15.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(3): 170-174, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In medical educational research specific approaches and research methods are used, the risk being that the field becomes less accessible to clinicians and teachers.
AIM: To highlight the relevance of educational research for clinical practice.
METHOD: A description of the development of medical educational research as a field and of the different types of research questions and the role of theories from related social sciences such as psychology, pedagogy and sociology.
RESULTS: First, there are the descriptive studies, based on the question 'what has been done'. Second, there are justification studies that compare educational innovations with existing practice to provide insight into 'did the intervention work better?'. A third group of studies focuses on clarification of underlying learning processes, with the question 'why or how did it work?' Theory helps with the design of studies and interpretation of research results, thereby increasing the quality and relevance of medical educational research.
CONCLUSION: Medical educational research has developed rapidly, and the involvement of teachers and clinicians (such as psychiatrists) is necessary to ensure that it remains closely connected to practice.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/tendências , Psiquiatria/educação , Pesquisa/educação , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 93, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although much has been written about structure and outcomes of medical students' curricular research projects, less attention has been paid to the expectations on such projects. In order to foster students' scientific understanding and improve the quality of mandatory research projects, we compared students' pre-course expectations with their post-course insights regarding learning and transferable skills. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional questionnaire study. All students registered on a mandatory 20-week research project course in 2011-2013 were e-mailed questionnaires in the beginning and after the course asking them to rate statements on expectations and perceived learning on a 5-point Likert scale. Of 652 students, 358 (mean age 26 years; range 21-49; 63% females) returned both questionnaires, corresponding to a response rate of 55%. RESULTS: The ratings for expectations as well as perceived learning were highest for learning to search and critically appraise literature. The greatest pre- and post-course differences were indicated for participation in scientific discussions and oral communication. Surprisingly, both pre- and post-course ratings were low for research ethics. The highest post-course ratings regarding skills for future working life were given to items pertaining to understanding the scientific basis of medicine, ability to follow the development of knowledge and to critically integrate knowledge. Female students had higher expectations than male students. Those with a previous university degree had lower ratings of expectations and perceived learning. Students with basic science projects reported higher expectations and higher learning compared to students with other projects. Previous research experience had no significant influence on expectations nor learning. The correlations between post-course ratings of learning and skills showed that problem-solving ability had a relatively high correlation with all skills. CONCLUSIONS: Students had high expectations and perceived the course improved crucial practical skills. However, expectations were not quite met regarding aspects of scientific communication, and hypothesis formulation, likely because these require more extensive practice and feedback. Students should be actively involved in ethical discussions and oral communication should be trained repeatedly as it is an important task of doctors to communicate scientific information to patients and non-experts.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Resolução de Problemas , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(1): ar11, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821602

RESUMO

Navigating scientific challenges, persevering through difficulties, and coping with failure are considered hallmarks of a successful scientist. However, relatively few studies investigate how undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students develop these skills and dispositions or how instructors can facilitate this development in undergraduate STEM learning contexts. This is a critical gap, because the unique cultures and practices found in STEM classrooms are likely to influence how students approach challenges and deal with failures, both during their STEM education and in the years that follow. To guide research aimed at understanding how STEM students develop a challenge-engaging disposition and the ability to adaptively cope with failure, we generate a model representing hypotheses of how students might approach challenges and respond to failures in undergraduate STEM learning contexts. We draw from theory and studies investigating mindset, goal orientations, attributions, fear of failure, and coping to inform our model. We offer this model as a tool for the community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. Finally, we urge researchers and educators to consider the development, implementation, and rigorous testing of interventions aimed at helping students develop a persevering and challenge-engaging disposition within STEM contexts.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Logro , Adaptação Psicológica , Metas , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Modelos Educacionais , Motivação , Pesquisa/educação , Estudantes/psicologia
18.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(1): ar9, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821603

RESUMO

Biology education research (BER) is a growing field, as evidenced by the increasing number of publications in CBE-Life Sciences Education ( LSE) and expanding participation at the Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research (SABER) annual meetings. To facilitate an introspective and reflective discussion on how research within LSE and at SABER has matured, we conducted a content analysis of LSE research articles ( n = 339, from 2002 to 2015) and SABER abstracts ( n = 652, from 2011 to 2015) to examine three related intraresearch parameters: research questions, study contexts, and methodologies. Qualitative data analysis took a combination of deductive and inductive approaches, followed by statistical analyses to determine the correlations among different parameters. We identified existing research questions, study contexts, and methodologies in LSE articles and SABER abstracts and then compared and contrasted these parameters between the two data sources. LSE articles were most commonly guided by descriptive research questions, whereas SABER abstracts were most commonly guided by causal research questions. Research published in LSE and presented at SABER both prioritize undergraduate classrooms as the study context and quantitative methodologies. In this paper, we examine these research trends longitudinally and discuss implications for the future of BER as a scholarly field.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Biologia/educação , Pesquisa/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Publicações , Sociedades Científicas , Estudantes
19.
J Music Ther ; 56(1): 30-60, 2019 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770535

RESUMO

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) involve entire classes of students researching a question or problem that is of interest to the scholarly community with an unknown outcome to both students and instructor. The purpose of this pre-experimental one-group posttest design study was to explore outcomes of a CURE for music therapy and music education students enrolled in a music psychology course. Specifically, we examined differences in scientific thinking, personal gains, research skills, and attitudes and behaviors of students resulting from their participation in a CURE experience, as well as students' perceived benefits of a CURE experience. Student participants (N = 30) completed the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment. Likert-type items from the self-assessment were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and open-ended questions analyzed for common themes using content analysis. Students reported moderate gains across three areas (i.e., thinking and working like a scientist, personal gains, and research skills), with greatest gains reported for thinking and working like a scientist. Students reported limited change for changes in attitudes and behaviors as a researcher. The authors discuss implications and recommendations for future CUREs.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Musicoterapia/educação , Música , Pesquisa/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Medicina de Emergência Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(3): 318-332, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742352

RESUMO

Many laboratory courses consist of short and seemingly unconnected individual laboratory exercises. To increase the course consistency, relevance, and student engagement, we have developed a research-inspired and project-based module, "From Gene to Structure and Function". This 2.5-week full-day biochemistry and structural biology module covers protein expression, purification, structure solving, and characterization. The module is centered around the flavodoxin-like protein NrdI, involved in the activation of the bacterial ribonucleotide reductase enzyme system. Through an in-depth focus on one specific protein, the students will learn the basic laboratory skills needed in order to generate a broader knowledge and breadth within the field. With respect to generic skills, the students report their findings as a scientific article, with the aim to learn to present concise research results and write scientific papers. The current research-inspired project has the potential of being further developed into a more discovery-driven project and extended to include other molecular biological techniques or biochemical/biophysical characterizations. In student evaluations, this research-inspired laboratory course has received very high ratings and been highly appreciated, where the students have gained research experience for more independent future work in the laboratory. © 2019 The Authors. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(3):318-332, 2019.


Assuntos
Flavodoxina/química , Flavodoxina/isolamento & purificação , Laboratórios , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa/educação , Bioquímica , Cristalização , Flavodoxina/biossíntese , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Estudantes
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