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2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e182, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340726

RESUMO

COVID-19 research has been produced at an unprecedented rate and managing what is currently known is in part being accomplished through synthesis research. Here we evaluated how the need to rapidly produce syntheses has impacted the quality of the synthesis research. Thus, we sought to identify, evaluate and map the synthesis research on COVID-19 published up to 10 July 2020. A COVID-19 literature database was created using pre-specified COVID-19 search algorithms carried out in eight databases. We identified 863 citations considered to be synthesis research for evaluation in this project. Four-hundred and thirty-nine reviews were fully assessed with A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR-2) and rated as very low-quality (n = 145), low-quality (n = 80), medium-quality (n = 208) and high-quality (n = 151). The quality of these reviews fell short of what is expected for synthesis research with key domains being left out of the typical methodology. The increase in risk of bias due to non-adherence to systematic review methodology is unknown and prevents the reader from assessing the validity of the review. The responsibility to assure the quality is held by both producers and publishers of synthesis research and our findings indicate there is a need to equip readers with the expertise to evaluate the review conduct before using it for decision-making purposes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pesquisa/tendências , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto/normas , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pesquisa/normas
3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(8): 990-997, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168323

RESUMO

In registered reports (RRs), initial peer review and in-principle acceptance occur before knowing the research outcomes. This combats publication bias and distinguishes planned from unplanned research. How RRs could improve the credibility of research findings is straightforward, but there is little empirical evidence. Also, there could be unintended costs such as reducing novelty. Here, 353 researchers peer reviewed a pair of papers from 29 published RRs from psychology and neuroscience and 57 non-RR comparison papers. RRs numerically outperformed comparison papers on all 19 criteria (mean difference 0.46, scale range -4 to +4) with effects ranging from RRs being statistically indistinguishable from comparison papers in novelty (0.13, 95% credible interval [-0.24, 0.49]) and creativity (0.22, [-0.14, 0.58]) to sizeable improvements in rigour of methodology (0.99, [0.62, 1.35]) and analysis (0.97, [0.60, 1.34]) and overall paper quality (0.66, [0.30, 1.02]). RRs could improve research quality while reducing publication bias and ultimately improve the credibility of the published literature.


Assuntos
Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Sistema de Registros , Pesquisa/normas , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Neurociências , Psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas
5.
J Learn Disabil ; 54(5): 388-399, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137328

RESUMO

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, schools across the country have pivoted to providing a range of instructional opportunities including remote, hybrid, and modified in-person options with a commitment to keeping our society safe and supporting our nations' youth in continuing their education. One byproduct of this most challenging situation has been the interruption of scientific inquiry in many fields, including educational research. Using a framework of self-leadership, in this feature article, we provide reflections to guide discussion among scholars involved in school-based research during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on lessons learned in our own mentee-mentor relationships and from our collective experiences, the purpose of this article is to offer considerations primarily for early-career scholars, but also to engage dialogue among mid- and late-career scholars to promote school-based inquiry in this defining moment in history, at a time when educators are concerned with mitigating learning loss. We focus on (a) revisiting and refining programmatic lines of inquiry, (b) crafting articles to disseminate lessons learned from research conducted to date-including those with lost time points, (c) retooling in a focused area of inquiry (e.g., methodology), (d) conceptualizing future studies featuring procedures that do-and do not-allow for interpersonal contact, and (e) appreciating and acknowledging individuals who have facilitated inquiry. We conclude with a note of encouragement and call to action for future educational research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ética em Pesquisa , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Pesquisa/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisadores/ética , Pesquisadores/normas
7.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 39-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966657

RESUMO

Enhancing research and development and ensuring equitable pricing and access to cutting-edge treatments are both vital to a biopharmaceutical innovation system that works in the public interest. However, despite delivering numerous therapeutic advances, the existing system suffers from major problems: a lack of directionality to meet key needs, inefficient collaboration, high prices that fail to reflect the public contribution, and an overly-financialized business model.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Governo , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/normas , Propriedade Intelectual , Setor Público , Pesquisa/normas , Biofarmácia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Papel (figurativo)
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(5): 883-887, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844668

RESUMO

It is clear, based on a deep scientific literature base, that genetic and genomic factors play significant roles in determining a wide range of sport and exercise characteristics including exercise endurance capacity, strength, daily physical activity levels, and trainability of both endurance and strength. Although the research field of exercise systems genetics has rapidly expanded over the past two decades, many researchers publishing in this field are not extensively trained in molecular biology or genomics techniques, sometimes creating gaps in generating high-quality and cutting-edge research for publication. As current or former Associate Editors for Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise that have handled the majority of exercise genetics articles for Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise in the past 15 yr, we have observed a large number of scientific manuscripts submitted for publication review that have exhibited significant flaws preventing their publication; flaws that often directly stem from a lack of knowledge regarding the "state-of-the-art" methods and accepted literature base that is rapidly changing as the field evolves. The purpose of this commentary is to provide researchers-especially those coming from a nongenetics background attempting to publish in the exercise system genetics area-with recommendations regarding best-practice research standards and data analysis in the field of exercise systems genetics, to strengthen the overall literature in this important and evolving field of research.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Editoração/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Análise de Dados , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Genótipo , Humanos , Força Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Resistência Física/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Tamanho da Amostra , Esportes/fisiologia
11.
Bioethics ; 35(4): 380-384, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751622

RESUMO

Much of the ethical discourse concerning the coronavirus pandemic has focused on the allocation of scarce resources, be it potentially beneficial new treatments, ventilators, intensive care beds, or oxygen. Somewhat ironically, the more important ethical issues may lie elsewhere, just as the more important medical issues do not concern intensive care or treatment for COVID-19 patients, but rather the diversion towards these modes of care at the expense of non-Covid patients and treatment. In this article I explore how ethicists can and should prioritize which ethical issues to deal with, and develop a method of triage for identification and prioritization of ethical issues both in the next public health emergency and in bioethics more widely.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , COVID-19 , Eticistas , Prioridades em Saúde/ética , Humanos , Pesquisa/normas , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 173-181, 2021 03.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687354

RESUMO

When a pandemic occurs, scientific research moves fast in order to achieve readily results, such as effective therapies to fight the SARS-CoV-2 and vaccines. But this high-speed science, engaged by the emergency and characterized by the explosion of online publications in preprint form not subject to scrutiny by peer reviewers, carries some risks. And it represents a challenge to maintain research integrity and to comply with those globally recognized standard principles of fairness. Competition and the pressure to publish immediately - a way of encouraging rapid data sharing - can favor the dissemination of incomplete if not erroneous results obtained from partial studies, which feed false news, such as the benefits of a drug, and illusory hopes. It is commonly through press releases that "speed science" disseminates information to an audience that wants to be informed and reassured. Financial and political interests often mix with the urgency to find solutions. Covid-19 has highlighted in particular the risk of a politicization of science at the expense of transparency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Editoração/normas , Pesquisa/normas , SARS-CoV-2 , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/economia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/provisão & distribuição , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/economia , Alanina/provisão & distribuição , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/provisão & distribuição , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Surtos de Doenças , Aprovação de Drogas , União Europeia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Disseminação de Informação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Oseltamivir/economia , Oseltamivir/provisão & distribuição , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Política , Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
13.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(5): 762.e1-762.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610432

RESUMO

Recognizing the increasing importance of lymphatic interventions, the Society of Interventional Radiology Foundation brought together a multidisciplinary group of key opinion leaders in lymphatic medicine to define the priorities in lymphatic research. On February 21, 2020, SIRF convened a multidisciplinary Research Consensus Panel (RCP) of experts in the lymphatic field. During the meeting, the panel and audience discussed potential future research priorities. The panelists ranked the discussed research priorities based on clinical relevance, overall impact, and technical feasibility. The following research topics were prioritized by RCP: lymphatic decompression in patients with congestive heart failure, detoxification of thoracic duct lymph in acute illness, development of newer agents for lymphatic imaging, characterization of organ-based lymph composition, and development of lymphatic interventions to treat ascites in liver cirrhosis. The RCP priorities underscored that the lymphatic system plays an important role not only in the intrinsic lymphatic diseases but in conditions that traditionally are not considered to be lymphatic such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and critical illness. The advancement of the research in these areas will lead the field of lymphatic interventions to the next level.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Doenças Linfáticas/terapia , Sistema Linfático , Pesquisa/normas , Animais , Consenso , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/normas , Doenças Linfáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Linfáticas/fisiopatologia , Sistema Linfático/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Linfático/fisiopatologia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 83, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596904

RESUMO

Harmonized institutional processes and reviewer training are vital to maintain integrity and ethical rigor of the veterinary clinical research pipeline and are a prerequisite to future work that might establish centralized or single-site ethical and regulatory review to ease initiation of multi-center studies. Funded by a CTSA One Health Alliance (COHA) pilot award, a diverse working group of veterinary clinicians and institutional representatives was convened in February 2020 to develop a guidance document detailing broadly agreed upon practices for ethical review and approval of veterinary clinical studies conducted in the United States.The working group defined key areas of need for consensus, developed a set of associated guidelines, and circulated these for review by COHA's fifteen member institutions. Six focus areas were identified by the working group and included vital items of protocol review, composition of the review committee, post-approval monitoring and adverse event reporting, consideration of special circumstances such as satellite sites and the use of healthy veterinary subjects in research, and the informed consent process.This document outlines a broadly agreed-upon framework through which to approach vital items associated with veterinary clinical study protocol review and approval. These approaches represent current best practice in the review and approval of veterinary clinical studies, and can serve as a guidance for veterinary clinician-scientists and regulatory experts, to ensure robust and ethically conducted studies that can contribute to the advancement of both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Pesquisa/normas , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Animais , Termos de Consentimento , Ética em Pesquisa , Saúde Única , Estados Unidos
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D1-D9, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396976

RESUMO

The 2021 Nucleic Acids Research database Issue contains 189 papers spanning a wide range of biological fields and investigation. It includes 89 papers reporting on new databases and 90 covering recent changes to resources previously published in the Issue. A further ten are updates on databases most recently published elsewhere. Seven new databases focus on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 and many others offer resources for studying the virus. Major returning nucleic acid databases include NONCODE, Rfam and RNAcentral. Protein family and domain databases include COG, Pfam, SMART and Panther. Protein structures are covered by RCSB PDB and dispersed proteins by PED and MobiDB. In metabolism and signalling, STRING, KEGG and WikiPathways are featured, along with returning KLIFS and new DKK and KinaseMD, all focused on kinases. IMG/M and IMG/VR update in the microbial and viral genome resources section, while human and model organism genomics resources include Flybase, Ensembl and UCSC Genome Browser. Cancer studies are covered by updates from canSAR and PINA, as well as newcomers CNCdatabase and Oncovar for cancer drivers. Plant comparative genomics is catered for by updates from Gramene and GreenPhylDB. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (https://academic.oup.com/nar). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection has been substantially updated, revisiting nearly 1000 entries, adding 90 new resources and eliminating 86 obsolete databases, bringing the current total to 1641 databases. It is available at https://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Biologia Molecular/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Nucleicos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epidemias , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Biologia Molecular/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa/normas , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
17.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(3): 226-239, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223096

RESUMO

Plasmodium parasites contain various virulence factors that modulate the host immune response. Malarial pigment, or hemozoin (Hz), is an undegradable crystalline product of the hemoglobin degradation pathway in the parasite and possesses immunomodulatory properties. An association has been found between Hz accumulation and severe malaria, suggesting that the effects of Hz on the host immune response may contribute to the development of malarial complications. Although the immunomodulatory roles of Hz have been widely investigated, many conflicting data exist, likely due to the variability between experimental set-ups and technical limitations of Hz generation and isolation methods. Here, we critically assess the potential immunomodulatory effects of Hz, its role in malarial complications, and its potential effects after parasite clearance.


Assuntos
Hemeproteínas/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Malária/imunologia , Humanos , Malária/patologia , Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa/tendências
19.
BMJ Mil Health ; 167(2): 118-121, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487676

RESUMO

The inclusion of British Service Personnel (SP) lacking capacity into research studies from the point of injury through to medium-term rehabilitation had not previously been undertaken until work to support operations in Afghanistan (2001-2014). The Surgeon General's Casualty Nutrition Study and the Steroids and Immunity from Injury through to Rehabilitation Study sought to address the nutrition, endocrine and immune responses in a military patient cohort. A fundamental part of research is to feedback to patients, their relatives and ward staff on data collection and outcomes, and how future research may be improved to better support both injured SP and trauma patients in the UK. This paper will provide an experiential view on the delivery, operations and infrastructure requirements that should be considered when developing military research at a role-3 facility, before, during and after a study.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Pesquisa/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/dietoterapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicina Militar/instrumentação , Medicina Militar/métodos , Medicina Militar/tendências , Pesquisa/normas , Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(3): 343-352, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106866

RESUMO

Only a few efforts have been made to define core competencies for epidemiologists working in academic settings. Here we describe a multinational effort to define competencies for epidemiologists, who are increasingly facing emerging and potentially disruptive technological and societal health trends in academic research. During a 1.5-year period (2017-2019), we followed an iterative process that aimed to be inclusive and multinational to reflect the various perspectives of a diverse group of epidemiologists. Competencies were developed by a consortium in a consensus-oriented process that spanned 3 main activities: 2 in-person interactive meetings held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Zurich, Switzerland, and an online survey. In total, 93 meeting participants from 16 countries and 173 respondents from 19 countries contributed to the development of 31 competencies. These 31 competencies included 14 on "developing a scientific question" and "study planning," 12 on "study conduct and analysis," 3 on "overarching competencies," and 2 on "communication and translation." The process described here provides a consensus-based framework for defining and adapting the field. It should initiate a continuous process of thinking about competencies and the implications for teaching epidemiology to ensure that epidemiologists working in academic settings are well prepared for today's and tomorrow's health research.


Assuntos
Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública/organização & administração , Epidemiologistas/normas , Competência Profissional/normas , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Diversidade Cultural , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Pública/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Universidades/normas
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