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5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 18948-18950, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719133

RESUMO

We resolve a controversy over two competing hypotheses about why people object to randomized experiments: 1) People unsurprisingly object to experiments only when they object to a policy or treatment the experiment contains, or 2) people can paradoxically object to experiments even when they approve of implementing either condition for everyone. Using multiple measures of preference and test criteria in five preregistered within-subjects studies with 1,955 participants, we find that people often disapprove of experiments involving randomization despite approving of the policies or treatments to be tested.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/ética
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 721-769, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US faces remarkable food and nutrition challenges. A new federal effort to strengthen and coordinate nutrition research could rapidly generate the evidence base needed to address these multiple national challenges. However, the relevant characteristics of such an effort have been uncertain. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to provide an objective, informative summary of 1) the mounting diet-related health burdens facing our nation and corresponding economic, health equity, national security, and sustainability implications; 2) the current federal nutrition research landscape and existing mechanisms for its coordination; 3) the opportunities for and potential impact of new fundamental, clinical, public health, food and agricultural, and translational scientific discoveries; and 4) the various options for further strengthening and coordinating federal nutrition research, including corresponding advantages, disadvantages, and potential executive and legislative considerations. METHODS: We reviewed government and other published documents on federal nutrition research; held various discussions with expert groups, advocacy organizations, and scientific societies; and held in-person or phone meetings with >50 federal staff in executive and legislative roles, as well as with a variety of other stakeholders in academic, industry, and nongovernment organizations. RESULTS: Stark national nutrition challenges were identified. More Americans are sick than are healthy, largely from rising diet-related illnesses. These conditions create tremendous strains on productivity, health care costs, health disparities, government budgets, US economic competitiveness, and military readiness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has further laid bare these strains, including food insecurity, major diet-related comorbidities for poor outcomes from COVID-19 such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, and insufficient surveillance on and coordination of our food system. More than 10 federal departments and agencies currently invest in critical nutrition research, yet with relatively flat investments over several decades. Coordination also remains suboptimal, documented by multiple governmental reports over 50 years. Greater harmonization and expansion of federal investment in nutrition science, not a silo-ing or rearrangement of existing investments, has tremendous potential to generate new discoveries to improve and sustain the health of all Americans. Two identified key strategies to achieve this were as follows: 1) a new authority for robust cross-governmental coordination of nutrition research and other nutrition-related policy and 2) strengthened authority, investment, and coordination for nutrition research within the NIH. These strategies were found to be complementary, together catalyzing important new science, partnerships, coordination, and returns on investment. Additional complementary actions to accelerate federal nutrition research were identified at the USDA. CONCLUSIONS: The need and opportunities for strengthened federal nutrition research are clear, with specific identified options to help create the new leadership, strategic planning, coordination, and investment the nation requires to address the multiple nutrition-related challenges and grasp the opportunities before us.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pesquisa/normas , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Militares , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Transtornos Nutricionais/economia , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Agriculture/economia , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492028

RESUMO

Tenure-track faculty members in the United States are evaluated on their performance in both research and teaching. In spite of accusations of bias and invalidity, student evaluations of teaching have dominated teaching evaluation at U.S. universities. However, studies on the topic have tended to be limited to particular institutional and disciplinary contexts. Moreover, in spite of the idealistic assumption that research and teaching are mutually beneficial, few studies have examined the link between research performance and student evaluations of teaching. In this study, we conduct a large scale exploratory analysis of the factors associated with student evaluations of teachers, controlling for heterogeneous institutional and disciplinary contexts. We source public student evaluations of teaching from RateMyProfessor.com and information regarding career and contemporary research performance indicators from the company Academic Analytics. The factors most associated with higher student ratings were the attractiveness of the faculty and the student's interest in the class; the factors most associated with lower student ratings were course difficulty and whether student comments mentioned an accent or a teaching assistant. Moreover, faculty tended to be rated more highly when they were young, male, White, in the Humanities, and held a rank of full professor. We observed little to no evidence of any relationship, positive or negative, between student evaluations of teaching and research performance. These results shed light on what factors relate to student evaluations of teaching across diverse contexts and contribute to the continuing discussion teaching evaluation and faculty assessment.


Assuntos
Docentes/normas , Estudantes , Ensino/normas , Universidades/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/normas , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
HIV Med ; 21(8): 536-540, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544304

RESUMO

The unprecedented global scale of COVID-19 globally has triggered a race to discover interventions to reduce associated morbidity and mortality and rapid release of research findings prior to any degree of critical review. As with previous novel infection outbreaks, antiretrovirals are just one drug class that has been held up as a potential strategy for prophylaxis and treatment with scant evidence and risk of harm. Here we summarize the evidence for antiretrovirals to treat COVID-19 and, as a drug that has also been studied in HIV, hydroxychloroquine, and flag some of the pitfalls of using therapies that have not been evaluated robustly.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Combinação de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/normas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa/tendências , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Virulence ; 11(1): 486-488, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327357

RESUMO

Lack of an appropriate animal model to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent responsible for COVID-19 pandemic disease, represents a significant hurdle in the process of understanding disease biology and evaluating therapeutic and preventive candidates. It is time for public health agencies to revisit regulation on transplantation of human pluripotent stem cells for the possibility of the development of a humanized mice model with a humanized lung.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Transplante Heterólogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa/tendências , Transplante Heterólogo/tendências
20.
Virulence ; 11(1): 486-488, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434416

RESUMO

Lack of an appropriate animal model to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent responsible for COVID-19 pandemic disease, represents a significant hurdle in the process of understanding disease biology and evaluating therapeutic and preventive candidates. It is time for public health agencies to revisit regulation on transplantation of human pluripotent stem cells for the possibility of the development of a humanized mice model with a humanized lung.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Transplante Heterólogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa/tendências , Transplante Heterólogo/tendências
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