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4.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673343

RESUMO

Background: Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDGs) mobilised countries to reduce child mortality by two thirds the 1990 rate in 2015. While India did not reach MDG 4, it considerably reduced child mortality in the MDG-era. Efficient and targeted interventions and adequate monitoring are necessary to further progress in improvements to child health. Looking forward to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-era, the Indian Council of Medical Research and The INCLEN Trust International conducted a national research priority setting exercise for maternal, child, newborn health, and maternal and child nutrition. Here, results are reported for child health. Methods: The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) method for research priority setting was employed. Research ideas were crowd-sourced from a network of child health experts from across India; these were refined and consolidated into research options (ROs) which were scored against five weighted criteria to arrive weighted Research Priority Scores (wRPS). National and regional priority lists were prepared. Results: 90 experts contributed 596 ideas that were consolidated into 101 research options (ROs). These were scored by 233 experts nationwide. National wRPS for ROs ranged between 0.92 and 0.51. The majority of the top research priorities related to development of cost-effective interventions and their implementation, and impact evaluations, improving data quality; and monitoring of existing programs, or improving the management of morbidities. The research priorities varied between regions, the Economic Action Group and North-Eastern states prioritised questions relating to delivering interventions at community- or household-level, whereas the North-Eastern states and Union Territories prioritised research questions involving managing and measuring malaria, and the Southern and Western states prioritised research questions involving pharmacovigilance of vaccines, impact of newly introduced vaccines, and delivery of vaccines to hard-to-reach populations. Conclusions: Research priorities varied geographically, according the stage of development of the area and mostly pertained to implementation sciences, which was expected given diversity in epidemiological profiles. Priority setting should help guide investment decisions by national and international agencies, therefore encouraging researchers to focus on priority areas. The ICMR has launched a grants programme for implementation research on maternal and child health to pursue research priorities identified by this exercise.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Saúde da Criança , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Criança , Humanos , Índia
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(10): 3753-3762, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577006

RESUMO

This paper aims to stir reflections on research with children by investigating aspects related to ethics, methods, play and contextualized activities. The possibility of recognizing adult authority as a mediator of interactive craftsmanship in the construction of the research environment also underlie the backstage and its craftsmanship. It builds on a survey of six-year-olds in schools that focused on the psychometric analysis of items in a test under construction. Returning to the memories of this environment, we discuss the importance of the leadership of children as research subjects. The foundation is anchored in the perspective of childhood sociology, discussing interactive craftsmanship. We conclude that it is possible to recognize this leadership in the engagement of negotiations with reference adults.


Assuntos
Liderança , Negociação/psicologia , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Memória , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 77, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382967

RESUMO

The Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) Research Programme consortium is a programme funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) that aims to contribute to achieving universal access to effective, sustainable, and equitable sanitation and hygiene worldwide. The capacity development component is an important pillar for this programme and different strategies were designed and implemented during the various phases of SHARE. This paper describes and reflects on the capacity-building strategies of this large multi-country research consortium, identifying lessons learnt and proposing recommendations for future global health research programmes. In the first phase, the strategy focused on increasing the capacity of individuals and institutions from low- and middle-income countries in conducting their own research. SHARE supported six PhD students and 25 MSc students, and organised a wide range of training events for different stakeholders. SHARE peer-reviewed all proposals that researchers submitted through several rounds of funding and offered external peer-review for all the reports produced under the partner's research platforms. In the second phase, the aim was to support capacity development of a smaller number of African research institutions to move towards their independent sustainability, with a stronger focus on early and mid-career scientists within these institutions. In each institution, a Research Fellow was supported and a specific capacity development plan was jointly developed.Strategies that yielded success were learning by doing (supporting institutions and postgraduate students on sanitation and hygiene research), providing fellowships to appoint mid-career scientists to support personal and institutional development, and supporting tailored capacity-building plans. The key lessons learnt were that research capacity-building programmes need to be driven by local initiatives tailored with support from partners. We recommend that future programmes seeking to strengthen research capacity should consider targeted strategies for individuals at early, middle and later career stages and should be sensitive to other institutional operations to support both the research and management capacities.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Higiene/normas , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Saneamento/métodos , África , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Saneamento/normas , Reino Unido
18.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 66, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training in biostatistics is important for strengthening capacity in health research. This is particularly true for Africa, where research output in the health sciences has been low. Training initiatives for the continent are therefore essential. The aim of the present study was to analyse the quality and financial sustainability of the expanded biostatistical support system at a South African health sciences institution between 2013 and 2017. METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation of the initiatives created between the years 2013 and 2017 in the University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences Research Office was undertaken. An assessment of the one-on-one consultations carried out by postgraduate students and staff, financial costs of the support system and the number of postgraduate student graduations were analysed. RESULTS: The number of statistical consultations increased over the period examined. The consultations were highly recommended by the postgraduate students and staff (consulters). A clear rise in the number of Masters and PhD student graduates and an increase in research units were observed from 2013 to 2017, although these cannot be solely associated with the biostatistical support system. The finances for maintaining the support system are cost effective as the number of graduates increases. The total cost to the Research Office is US$ 225 per graduate per annum. CONCLUSIONS: The expansion of the biostatistical support system has indirectly contributed to an increased number of graduates and research publication units in the institution. While the current finances support the system, any increases in enrolments or growth in diversification of biostatistical requirements may place a strain on the financial sustainability. This service is of value to developed and developing countries.


Assuntos
Bioestatística , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/normas , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Universidades/economia
19.
Perspect Biol Med ; 62(2): 189-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281118

RESUMO

Credit for scientific discovery plays a central role in the reward structure of science. As the "currency of the realm," it powerfully influences the norms and institutional practices of the research ecosystem. Though most scientists enter the field for reasons other than desiring credit, once in the field they desire credit for their work. In addition to being a source of pleasure, credit and recognition are necessary for successful careers. The consensus among sociologists, philosophers, and economists is that pursuit of credit increases the efficiency of the scientific enterprise. Publishing results in a scholarly journal is the core approach to obtaining credit and priority, and the publishing landscape is undergoing dramatic change. As research groups get larger and more interdisciplinary, and scholarly journals proliferate, allocating credit has become more difficult. Awards and prizes further contribute to credit by recognizing prior attributions and articulating new credit attributions through their decisions. Patents can have a complex relationship to credit, and disputes over authorship and credit are common and difficult to adjudicate. Pathologic pursuit of credit adversely affects the scientific enterprise. Academic institutions assess credit in appointment and promotion decisions, and are best positioned to assume responsibility for addressing problems with the credit ecosystem. Several possible remedies are presented.


Assuntos
Autoria , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Distinções e Prêmios , Humanos , Motivação , Patentes como Assunto , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Publicações Seriadas
20.
Am J Public Health ; 109(9): 1198-1201, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318601

RESUMO

After Hurricane Harvey, researchers, media, and public health agencies collected data in Houston, Texas, to assess potential health effects and inform the public. To limit redundancy and ensure sampling coverage of impacted areas, research and practice partners used disaster research response (DR2) resources and relied on partnerships formed during a 2015 DR2 workshop in Houston. Improved coordination after the disaster can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of DR2 and enable the use of data to improve recovery and preparedness for future disasters.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Pesquisa , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , Texas
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