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1.
Nature ; 577(7790): 318, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937965
2.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 325-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372374

RESUMO

This article explores the development of LGBTQ studies and scholarship in Bulgaria. In part, it brings to the forefront the personal experiences of some of the first Bulgarian scholars working on LGBTQ studies. The personal is interpreted in part through explorations of Bourdieu's concept of "symbolic violence." Elaborating on the challenges regarding the emergence and the development of LGBTQ studies on an institutional and personal level, I discuss three main topics: (1) the emergence and the development of LGBTQ scholarship and university courses in Bulgaria; (2) the main institutional obstacles and the "symbolic violence" within the academia against scholars dealing with LGBTQ subjects, including issues of funding, evaluation, and discrimination; and (3) the future development of the subject in Bulgaria, with a particular attention to the need for "LGBTQ studies solidarity" to overcome the disadvantaged position of LGBTQ scholars in post-socialist countries.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Bulgária , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa/tendências , Comunicação Acadêmica , Socialismo , Universidades , Violência
3.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 335-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335581

RESUMO

This article reflects on the author's own experience of promoting LGBTQ research and teaching in mainland China, where the fight for institutional legitimacy and recognition has been a core element in this journey. After a historical survey of how Chinese LGBTQ research has grown out of the particular sociopolitical milieu, it focuses on a discussion of the "normalization project"-a key approach to both create and expand the institutional space for LGBTQ studies. Apart from the positive effects this project entails, this article also critically examines its limitations by bringing into the picture certain critical perspectives.


Assuntos
Pesquisa/tendências , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ensino/tendências , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Normas Sociais
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1179: 1-16, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741331

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus, belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family. It is a partially double-stranded DNA virus with a small viral genome (3.2 kb). Chronic HBV infection remains a global public health problem. If left untreated, chronic HBV infection can progress to end-stage liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In recent years, tremendous advances in the field of HBV basic and clinical research have been achieved, ranging from the HBV biological characteristics, immunopathogenesis, and animal models to the development of new therapeutic strategies and new drugs against HBV. In this overview, we begin with a brief history of HBV discovery and treatment milestones. We then briefly summarize the HBV research advances, which will be detailed in the following chapters.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Cirrose Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Pesquisa/tendências
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1188: 1-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820380

RESUMO

RPPA technology has graduated from a research tool to an essential component of clinical drug discovery research and personalized medicine. Next generations of RPPA technology will be a single clinical instrument that integrates all the steps of the workflow.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteômica , Medicina de Precisão/instrumentação , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Análise Serial de Proteínas/normas , Análise Serial de Proteínas/tendências , Pesquisa/instrumentação , Pesquisa/tendências
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 29, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823019

RESUMO

Industrial parks, which are characterized as a group of industrial businesses designed to meet the concomitant demands of different organizations within an area, have played an important role in the national development strategies of many countries. Industrial parks have received increasingly more attention over time. Nevertheless, few scholars have visually analyzed global scientific data. This paper quantitatively and visually examines global academic research papers on industrial parks from 1987 to 2016 by using a bibliometric analysis. A total of 1823 papers from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases were analyzed. The distributions of authorship, keywords, countries/territories, and institutes were generated. According to data from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases, the top five most productive authors (i.e., Geng Y. with 22 articles, Fujita T. with 17, El-Halwagi M.M. with 15, Zhang Y. with 14, and Tan R.R. with 12) have contributed significantly to industrial park research. Papers on industrial park research have mainly been from China, the USA, and Taiwan. The dominant keywords from industrial park research from 1987 to 2016 are "China", "system", "heavy metal", and "eco-industrial park". These keywords will be the hot topics in industrial park research in the future. The research findings can provide a reference for understanding the research development process and trends in analyses in the field of industrial parks.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/tendências , Terminologia como Assunto
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2069-2080, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814355

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) cause enormous environmental hazards that threaten human health. Bacterial degradation of PAHs has been extensively studied. Bacteria enhanced their biodegradability through multiple levels of regulatory analysis and adaptive evolution to produce diverse catabolic pathways. Based on recent developments, we address here the research progress in bioremediation technology to degrade low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pesquisa/tendências
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2121-2132, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814359

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame-retardants in a variety of commercial products especially in the electronics and household industries. However, they are bioaccumulative, biotoxic and persistent, making them a globally distributed organic chemical toxin nowadays. Thus, it is extremely important to degrade PBDEs. This paper illustrates the research progress of metabolic pathways of PBDEs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and also combines with in situ degradation studies to infer the degradation potential of archaea. The characteristics and comprehensive factors of various degradation pathways are analyzed. In addition, future researches on biodegradation mechanism of PBDEs, the design and application of PBDEs degradation system are discussed.


Assuntos
Archaea , Biodegradação Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Archaea/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Pesquisa/tendências
9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2133-2150, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814360

RESUMO

In recent years, antibiotics have been widely used in animal husbandry, aquaculture and the medication in China. Many antibiotics are discharged into the environment, resulting in dramatic increase of antibiotic residues in domestic water and soil. Residues of different antibiotics in the environment change the microbial structure, which is extremely harmful to the ecological environment and humans. Therefore, remediation of antibiotic contamination is significantly important. Studies have shown that some microorganisms can degrade and utilize antibiotics, and thus have good application prospects on bioremediation of antibiotic contamination. However, little is known about the microbial degradation mechanism of antibiotics. This article summarizes the removal of antibiotics by antibiotic-degrading strains and bacterial flora in recent ten years, and the methods of using microbial flora to treat antibiotic residues. The future prospect of using microbial remediation to reduce antibiotic residues in the environment has also been discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , China , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Solo/química
10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2165-2176, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814362

RESUMO

Pure microbial fermentation is the primary means of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production at present, but high cost limits its large-scale application. In recent years, the synthesis of PHA by mixed microbial culture of activated sludge has been extensively studied. Combining the residual sludge treatment with PHA synthesis not only eliminates the sterilization process necessary for pure culture, but also utilizes residual sludge as resource. The hydrolysis and acidification of the residual sludge, the enrichment and acclimation of the consortium and the PHA synthesis are affected by environmental factors. The intensive biosynthesis mechanism study is helpful for the application of mixed culture to synthesize PHA. This paper introduces the feasibility of using residual sludge to synthesize PHA, the factors affecting the hydrolysis and acidification of residual sludge, the accumulation and domestication of PHA by sludge microbial consortium and its mechanism.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Consórcios Microbianos , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Fermentação , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/síntese química , Pesquisa/tendências , Esgotos/química
12.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(6): 894-904, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879745

RESUMO

Ion channels are a widespread class of membrane proteins that help establish and control cell membrane potential by allowing the passive diffusion of inorganic ions with high specificity through cell membrane. They are widely distributed in various cells and tissues, and their normal structure and function are of fundamental importance for all living organisms. The rapid advances in molecular cloning, protein structure analysis, patch clamp recordings and other technologies have greatly promoted the research on the biophysical and molecular properties of ion channels, and made significant progress in the study of the relationship between ion channels and pathophysiology as well. The immune system is made up of immune cells and organs that work together to protect the body and respond to infection and disease. Remarkably, recent basic and clinical research has revealed that ion channels are frequently and abundantly expressed in immune cells and have crucial roles in immune cell development and immune response. This review summarized recent progress in the roles of ion channels in immune cells, including the expression and regulation of ion channels in immune cells, the effects of ion flux mediated by ion channels on lymphocyte development, and functional roles of ion channels in both innate and adaptive immune responses. We also discussed some unresolved and insufficiently addressed issues in the current research, so as to provide an informative reference for better understanding the functional roles of ion channels in the immune system and further elucidation of their function from a physiological and pathological point of view.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Canais Iônicos , Proteínas de Membrana , Membrana Celular , Imunidade/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/imunologia , Pesquisa/tendências
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1206: 3-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776978

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process in which eukaryotic bilayer membrane vesicles enclose intracellular contents and transport them to lysosomes for degradation. In the 1990s, Ohsumi et al. identified multiple autophagy-related genes in a yeast model. Functional homologues of almost all yeast autophagy-related genes were found in higher eukaryotes. In 2003, Klionsky et al. named these genes the Atg genes and studied the interactions between the proteins they encoded and their functions in autophagy. In April 2005, a new journal, Autophagy, was published that was edited by Klionsky. The number of autophagy research papers indexed by PubMed has increased each year. In 2016, Yoshinori Ohsumi won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for his discovery of the autophagy mechanism. Autophagy has thus become a hot research area, which involves biology, medicine, botany and microbiology. Many researchers are actively exploring the relationship between non-selective and selective autophagy and various pathophysiological states in humans, and are studying the molecular mechanisms underlying autophagy regulation in various biological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, immune responses, development and ageing. This chapter focuses on the history and current status of autophagy research and highlights the milestones that contributed to the development of the field.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Neoplasias , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lisossomos , Prêmio Nobel , Pesquisa/história , Pesquisa/tendências , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1206: 359-374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776994

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that delivers intracellular proteins and organelles to the lysosome for degradation and recycling. Evidences over the past decades have proved that autophagy participates in cell fate decision and also plays a key role in regulating cellular energy and nutrient stores. Lipid droplets (LDs) are the main lipid storage form in living organisms. The process of autophagic degradation of LDs is referred to lipophagy or macrolipophagy. Lipophagy is not only indispensable for the cellular lipid metabolism but also closely associated with several metabolic disorders such as obesity, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis, and so on. Here, we summarize recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of lipophagy regulation and the emerging roles of lipophagy in various biological processes and metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas , Lisossomos , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Pesquisa/tendências
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 157-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677143

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) are the mature germ cells of Ganoderma lucidum. They have all the genetic substances and similar active components of Ganoderma lucidum. Similar to the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum, ganoderma spores powder has the effect of regulating immunity, antitumor, antioxidation, and protecting cells and so on. In recent decades, with the development of the technology of breaking the wall of Ganoderma lucidum spores and the technology of extracting and preparing, the researches and application of Ganoderma lucidum spores powder have made great progress.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Esporos Fúngicos , Ganoderma/química , Pesquisa/tendências , Esporos Fúngicos/química
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 555-559, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713395

RESUMO

Exosomes are tiny vesicles secreted by most endogenous cells, and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) are specifically secreted by cells. Recently, it was found that exosomes contain a large quantity of important substances such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, which play important roles in material exchange and information transmission in cell-cell communication, and in modulating the immune response, metabolism, and expansion, metastasis, and drug resistance of tumors. This paper summarizes the recent researches on exosomes in parasites and parasitic diseases and hopes to be helpful for improving the researches of parasites and parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Vesículas Extracelulares , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Animais , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Parasitos/citologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Pesquisa/tendências
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 560-564, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713396

RESUMO

Hookworm infection remains a global health concern, which threatens human health. Hookworm infection is widely prevalent across the world, notably in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, with the in-depth study of the immunity of parasitic infections, the"bidirectional effect"of host immune responses induced by helminth infections (including hookworm infections) has become increasingly prominent. On one hand, an immune response is induced in the host to kill the infected worms; on the other hand, the host produces a series of immunological changes that are conducive to the maintenance of parasite survival. The immune state of the host is regulated by various complicated mechanisms, and this may lead to the reduction in the incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases or alleviation of the disease symptoms, which provide new insights into the management of these allergic and autoimmune diseases. The present article reviewed the advances of host immune responses induced by hook-worm infection and its potential values in the treatment of allergic asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Uncinaria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções por Uncinaria/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Pesquisa/tendências
18.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 180-188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675294

RESUMO

As the treatment of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial in the literature, this study aims to identify highly cited articles and examine trends and characteristics. Scopus was used to identify the highest cited articles of proximal humerus fracture research. SPSS 23 was used for descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations for the relationship between citation count and density. Average citation count was 233 ± 164 with an annual citation density of 14 ± 7. Total citation count was associated with total citation density, 5-year citation count, and 5-year citation density. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American produced the most articles with 15 (30%). Thirty-five articles originated in Europe. The five most represented authors published three articles each. Finally, 13 (26%) papers appear in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Curriculum Guide. This study compiles a collection of articles investigating proximal humerus fractures for future review and demonstrates citation count to be an acceptable measure of an article's contemporary academic influence. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):180-188, 2019).


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Ortopedia , Fraturas do Ombro , Humanos , Pesquisa/tendências
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1146: 79-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612455

RESUMO

The last 20 years have seen the blooming of microfluidics technologies applied to biological sciences. Microfluidics provides effective tools for biological analysis, allowing the experimentalists to extend their playground to single cells and single molecules, with high throughput and resolution which were inconceivable few decades ago. In particular, microfluidic devices are profoundly changing the conventional way of studying the cell motility and cell migratory dynamics. In this chapter we will furnish a comprehensive view of the advancements made in the research domain of confinement-induced cell migration, thanks to the use of microfluidic devices. The chapter is subdivided in three parts. Each section will be addressing one of the fundamental questions that the microfluidic technology is contributing to unravel: (i) where cell migration takes place, (ii) why cells migrate and, (iii) how the cells migrate. The first introductory part is devoted to a thumbnail, and partially historical, description of microfluidics and its impact in biological sciences. Stress will be put on two aspects of the devices fabrication process, which are crucial for biological applications: materials used and coating methods. The second paragraph concerns the cell migration induced by environmental cues: chemical, leading to chemotaxis, mechanical, at the basis of mechanotaxis, and electrical, which induces electrotaxis. Each of them will be addressed separately, highlighting the fundamental role of microfluidics in providing the well-controlled experimental conditions where cell migration can be induced, investigated and ultimately understood. The third part of the chapter is entirely dedicated to how the cells move in confined environments. Invadosomes (the joint name for podosomes and invadopodia) are cell protrusion that contribute actively to cell migration or invasion. The formation of invadosomes under confinement is a research topic that only recently has caught the attention of the scientific community: microfluidic design is helping shaping the future direction of this emerging field of research.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Microfluídica , Podossomos , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Podossomos/metabolismo , Pesquisa/tendências
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