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2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 393-402, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767799

RESUMO

This is a discussion paper on research in clinical pharmacology in the field of psychiatry. In addition to other factors the decline in discovery and development of new drugs in the field of psychiatry and the developments and growing complexity in the field of clinical trial technology, including outsourcing and risk based monitoring, reduced the number of young clinical researchers interested in this important field. The challenges posed by the restructuring within the pharmacological industry - including digitalization - should induce changes in the structure and in the processes of clinical pharmacology research and in the training of clinical research staff members. The approval of esketamine nasal spray for treatment resistant depression by the FDA and the results of research with psychedelics call for more education and training in this specific field.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Psiquiatria/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Pesquisadores/provisão & distribução , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Sprays Nasais , Serviços Terceirizados
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692770

RESUMO

In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising a workshop for researchers ("bottom-up") and discussions with senior faculty on institutional policies ("top-down"). During the first day, we facilitated a workshop to introduce research integrity and promote best practices with regards to authorship, plagiarism, redundant publication and conflicts of interest. We used a variety of interactive teaching approaches to facilitate learning, including individual and group activities, small group discussions and case-based learning. We met with senior faculty on the following day to provide feedback and insights from the workshop, review current institutional policies and provide examples of what other research groups are doing. We evaluated the process. Participants actively engaged in discussions, recognised the importance of the topic and acknowledged that poor practices occurred at their institution. Discussions with senior researchers resulted in the establishment of a working group tasked with developing a publication policy for the institution. Our approach kick-started conversations on research integrity at institutions. There is a need for continued discussions, integrated training programmes and implementation of institutional policies and guidelines to promote good practices.


Assuntos
Política Organizacional , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , África , Autoria/normas , Humanos , Publicações/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Pesquisadores/educação
6.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1670002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570070

RESUMO

Doctoral training has increasingly become the requirement for faculty in institutions of higher learning in Africa. Africa, however, still lacks sufficient capacity to conduct research, with just 1.4% of all published research authored by African researchers. Similarly, women in Sub-Saharan Africa only constitute 30% of the continent's researchers, and correspondingly publish little research. Challenging these gendered inequities requires a gender responsive doctoral program that caters for women's gender roles that likely affect their enrollment in, and completion of, doctoral programs. In this article, we describe a public and population health multidisciplinary doctoral training program - CARTA and its approach to supporting women. This has resulted in women's enrollment in the program equaling men's and similar throughput rates. CARTA has achieved this by meeting women's practical needs around childbearing and childrearing and we argue that this has produced some outcomes that challenge gender norms, such as fathers being child minders in support of their wives and creating visible female role models.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Pesquisadores/educação , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos , Fatores Sexuais
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 297, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome cohort studies are used to analyze interactions between genetic and environmental factors, providing valuable information for personalized healthcare. Large-scale and long-term cohort studies require a number of specially trained personnel, of whom those involved in obtaining informed consent play a vital role, especially during the initial phase of such studies. The Japanese Society of Human Genetics (JSHG) previously established a certification system for genome medical research coordinators (GMRCs) responsible for obtaining written consent via face-to-face explanation. Meanwhile, in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo), GMRCs are expected to play important roles not only in obtaining informed consent and conducting various assessments, but also in communicating with participants throughout the long-term follow-up. Based on the JSHG program, we therefore developed a specific education and training program for ToMMo GMRCs consisting of 17 lectures, one practical training session on the informed consent procedure, and written and interview examinations. Re-education workshops aimed at self-improvement are also carried out following certification. In this study, we evaluated the education and training program in terms of overall understanding, usefulness, and satisfaction using an anonymous questionnaire. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire addressing each aspect of the education and training program (understanding, usefulness, and satisfaction) was distributed among 152 qualified ToMMo GMRCs. Responses were received from 94 participants (61.8%). RESULTS: There was a significant association between the level of overall understanding of lectures and medical qualification (nurse or clinical laboratory technologist), but not with age or educational background. The level of understanding and overall usefulness were lower in sessions related to genetics and epidemiology than those dealing with ToMMo practices. In the re-education workshops, GMRCs showed a preference for and hoped to learn more about both background knowledge and research progress in the ToMMo. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our questionnaire suggest that not all ToMMo GMRCs are able to understand everything during the initial education and training program, especially in terms of genomic medicine. Continuous re-education is therefore vital in improving knowledge, skills and motivation, and preparing GMRCs for a specialist role in community-based personalized healthcare.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Genoma , Aprendizagem , Pesquisadores/educação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Currículo , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 89(4): 434-441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305112

RESUMO

Researchers generally engage in few interactions with policymakers, which limits the extent to which empirical evidence is used to guide public policy and, consequently, the potential effectiveness of public policies in improving societal wellbeing. Although many researchers wish to see their work used for social impact, several factors contribute to researchers' limited policy engagement, including a lack of opportunities for developing policy competencies (i.e., knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy that support effective policy engagement) and limited support or incentives from research, training, and philanthropic institutions. Moreover, despite work that shows that researchers are more likely to engage in policy when they report greater policy competencies, little descriptive or evaluative research has explored the effectiveness of policy training. The current work seeks to expand the limited empirical base by drawing connections between training approaches and conditions that support policymakers' use of research evidence. Policy training approaches that combine direct instruction (i.e., information-based, often didactic teaching via classes) and experiential learning (i.e., skills and knowledge obtained through active engagement, hands-on application) appear most promising. Various pathways for policy training are described, and one specific policy training and engagement strategy is further described alongside evaluation data regarding benefits associated with direct instruction and experiential learning approaches. We conclude with recommendations to strengthen researchers' policy competency development and engagement. These recommendations range from increasing access to training opportunities to adjusting institutional incentive systems that currently hinder researchers' policy engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/educação , Política de Saúde , Pesquisadores/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(6): 2203-2210, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269179

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stricto sensu postgraduate courses were regulated to enhance the training of university professors and researchers in order to attend the expansion of higher education and promote scientific research development. Today, Brazilian postgraduate programs transcend the academic limits, especially after the establishment of professional masters and doctorate programs. METHODS: This is a documentary study, which included ESCS management reports, as well as bibliographic and technical productions. RESULTS: The ESCS currently provides three postgraduate programs: Professional Masters in Health Sciences, Academic Masters in Health Sciences, and Professional Masters in Family Health (ProfSaúde). CONCLUSION: The ESCS experience is an effort to integrate teaching, research and health care in which we should highlight the concern with the development of the interface with public health policies. However, the institutional environment is complex because ESCS is a higher education institution linked to a State Health Secretariat, which supports the full development of the critical, creative and humanistic potential of professors and students. However, this challenges the scientific consistency and disruptive nature of their products and processes.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Docentes/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Brasil , Saúde da Família/educação , Humanos , Universidades
12.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(3): 432-441, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258450

RESUMO

Background: Librarians developed a pilot program to provide training, resources, strategies, and support for medical libraries seeking to establish research data management (RDM) services. Participants were required to complete eight educational modules to provide the necessary background in RDM. Each participating institution was then required to use two of the following three elements: (1) a template and strategies for data interviews, (2) the Teaching Toolkit to teach an introductory RDM class, or (3) strategies for hosting a data class series. Case Presentation: Six libraries participated in the pilot, with between two and eight librarians participating from each institution. Librarians from each institution completed the online training modules. Each institution conducted between six and fifteen data interviews, which helped build connections with researchers, and taught between one and five introductory RDM classes. All classes received very positive evaluations from attendees. Two libraries conducted a data series, with one bringing in instructors from outside the library. Conclusion: The pilot program proved successful in helping participating librarians learn about and engage with their research communities, jump-start their teaching of RDM, and develop institutional partnerships around RDM services. The practical, hands-on approach of this pilot proved to be successful in helping libraries with different environments establish RDM services. The success of this pilot provides a proven path forward for libraries that are developing data services at their own institutions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , /métodos , Bibliotecários/educação , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Serviços de Biblioteca/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS Biol ; 17(6): e3000312, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173580

RESUMO

The MooSciTIC project is a capacity-building initiative targeting West African research scientists and higher education teachers. The project aimed to improve the self-reliance of researchers and upgrade research practices by providing on-site summer schools on trans-disciplinary topics such as scientific writing, communication, and integrity. Here, we explain how this program was designed and implemented and share the positive responses from our trainees, hoping to inspire similar initiatives.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Laboratório/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Ensino/educação , África Ocidental , Comunicação , Humanos , Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0212501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042751

RESUMO

Visual design, learning sciences, and nanotechnology may be strange bedfellows; yet, as this paper highlights, peer interaction between a designer and a scientist is an effective method for helping scientists acquire visual design skills. We describe our findings from observing twelve sessions at the Design Help Desk, a tutoring center at the University of Washington. At each session, a scientist (who is expert in his own domain but a novice in design) consulted a designer (who is expert in design but a novice in science) in order to receive advice and guidance on how to improve a scientific visualization. At the Design Help Desk, this pairing consistently produced a momentary disequilibrium in the scientist's thought process: a disequilibrium that led to agency (where the scientist gained ownership of his/her own learning) and conceptual change in the scientist's understanding of visual design. Scientists who visited the Design Help Desk were satisfied with their experience, and their published work demonstrated an improved ability to visually communicate research findings-a skill critical to the advancement of science. To our knowledge, the Design Help Desk is a unique effort to educate scientists in visual design; we are not aware of any other design-advice/tutoring centers at public or private universities in the United States or abroad.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Nanotecnologia , Universidades
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better research data management (RDM) provides the means to analyze data in new ways, effectively build on another researcher's results, and reproduce the results of an experiment. Librarians are recognized by many as a potential resource for assisting researchers in this area, however this potential has not been fully realized in the biomedical research community. While librarians possess the broad skill set needed to support RDM, they often lack specific knowledge and time to develop an appropriate curriculum for their research community. The goal of this project was to develop and pilot educational modules for librarians to learn RDM and a curriculum for them to subsequently use to train their own research communities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We created online modules for librarians that address RDM best practices, resources and regulations, as well as the culture and practice of biomedical research. Data was collected from librarians through questions embedded in the online modules on their self-reported changes in understanding of and comfort level with RDM using a retrospective pre-post design. We also developed a Teaching Toolkit which consists of slides, a script, and an evaluation form for librarians to use to teach an introductory RDM class to researchers at their own institutions. Researchers' satisfaction with the class and intent to use the material they had learned was collected. Actual changes in RDM practices by researchers who attended was assessed with a follow-up survey administered seven months after the class. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The online curriculum increased librarians' self-reported understanding of and comfort level with RDM. The Teaching Toolkit, when employed by librarians to teach researchers in person, resulted in improved RDM practices. This two-tiered curriculum provides concise training and a ready-made curriculum that allows working librarians to quickly gain an understanding of RDM, and translate this knowledge to researchers through training at their own institutions.


Assuntos
/educação , Bibliotecários/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica , Currículo , Educação a Distância , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Projetos Piloto
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 134, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomedicine needs innovative professionals. Inquiry-based learning (IBL) aims to develop higher order thinking skills, such as creativity and research. Stimulatory techniques and interprofessional education, which requires students from different fields to collaborate, also enhances creativity. In this study, the effectiveness of an interprofessional IBL course that introduces a creativity workshop based on stimulatory techniques to develop creative and research skills is examined. METHODS: 529 undergraduate human biology and medical students performed the interprofessional IBL course, 198 with the creativity workshop and 331 without. Students' perceptions of learning processes and outcomes were assessed in surveys and focus groups by the authors of this study. As well, the final learning results from both groups of students were analyzed by the teachers of the course and the researchers. RESULTS: The results show that the open IBL approach promoted the development of these skills, interprofessionality acted as a creativity enhancer and stimulatory techniques contributed to improve the learning outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into how open interprofessional IBL fosters acquisition of complex skills and knowledge, pointing out the benefits and limitations of this approach in health sciences studies.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Pesquisadores/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Pensamento , Criatividade , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Modelos Educacionais
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