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5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726338

RESUMO

Despite the need to map research careers, the empirical evidence on career patterns of researchers is limited. We also do not know whether career patterns of researchers can be considered conventional in terms of steady progress or international mobility, nor do we know if career patterns differ between men and women in research as is commonly assumed. We use sequence analysis to identify career patterns of researchers across positions and institutions, based on full career histories of applicants to the European Research Council frontier research grant schemes. We distinguish five career patterns for early and established men and women researchers. With multinomial logit analyses, we estimate the relative likelihood of researchers with certain characteristics in each pattern. We find grantees among all patterns, and limited evidence of gender differences. Our findings on career patterns in research inform further studies and policy making on career development, research funding, and gender equality.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Pesquisadores/normas , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Análise de Sequência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/normas
7.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(22): 1365-1371, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699001

RESUMO

Questionable research practices (QRPs) are intentional and unintentional practices that can occur when designing, conducting, analysing, and reporting research, producing biased study results. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) research is vulnerable to the same QRPs that pervade the biomedical and psychological sciences, producing false-positive results and inflated effect sizes. Approximately 90% of biomedical research reports supported study hypotheses, provoking suspicion about the field-wide presence of systematic biases to facilitate study findings that confirm researchers' expectations. In this education review, we introduce three common QRPs (ie, HARKing, P-hacking and Cherry-picking), perform a cross-sectional study to assess the proportion of original SEM research that reports supported study hypotheses, and draw attention to existing solutions and resources to overcome QRPs that manifest in exploratory research. We hypothesised that ≥ 85% of original SEM research studies would report supported study hypotheses. Two independent assessors systematically identified, screened, included, and extracted study data from original research articles published between 1 January 2019 and 31 May 2019 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, Sports Medicine, the American Journal of Sports Medicine, and the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy We extracted data relating to whether studies reported that the primary hypothesis was supported or rejected by the results. Study hypotheses, methodologies, and analysis plans were preregistered at the Open Science Framework. One hundred and twenty-nine original research studies reported at least one study hypothesis, of which 106 (82.2%) reported hypotheses that were supported by study results. Of 106 studies reporting that primary hypotheses were supported by study results, 75 (70.8%) studies reported that the primary hypothesis was fully supported by study results. The primary study hypothesis was partially supported by study results in 28 (26.4%) studies. We detail open science practices and resources that aim to safe-guard against QRPs that bely the credibility and replicability of original research findings.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pesquisa/normas , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisadores/normas
9.
Nature ; 582(7810): 84-88, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483374

RESUMO

Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses1. The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset2-5. Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Ciência de Dados/métodos , Ciência de Dados/normas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Neuroimagem Funcional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Neurológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisadores/normas , Software
12.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47553

RESUMO

A corrida pelo desenvolvimento da vacina ou de um tratamento adequado para o combate ao novo coronavírus são a esperança para enfrentamento da Covid-19, doença que em poucos meses ceifou milhares de vidas e modificou a rotina de populações de diversos países, levando também a impactos econômicos


Assuntos
Vacinas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pesquisadores/normas
19.
Ethics Hum Res ; 42(2): 13-27, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233117

RESUMO

We found no studies in the United States that explored research participants' perspectives about sharing their qualitative data. We present findings from interviews with 30 individuals who participated in sensitive qualitative studies to explore their understanding and concerns regarding qualitative data sharing. The vast majority supported sharing qualitative data so long as their data were deidentified and shared only among researchers. However, they raised concerns about confidentiality if the data were not adequately deidentified and about misuse by secondary users if data were shared beyond the research community. These concerns, though, did not deter them from participating in research. Notably, participants hoped their data would be shared and may have expected or assumed this was already happening. While many could not recollect details about data-sharing plans for studies in which they participated, they trusted researchers and institutions to appropriately handle data sharing. If individuals view data sharing as an extension or integral part of their participation in qualitative research, then researchers may have a stronger obligation to share qualitative data than previously thought. Guidelines and tools to assist researchers and institutional review board members in ethical and responsible qualitative data sharing are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade/ética , Anonimização de Dados/normas , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pesquisadores/normas , Confiança , Estados Unidos
20.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-47051

RESUMO

A Fiocruz reuniu uma série de link referentes às fontes de informações mais importantes sobre a epidemia, para facilitar a circulação do conhecimento e ajudar toda a comunidade científica a ficar a par das últimas novidadessobre a doença.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Pesquisadores/normas , Troca de Informação em Saúde/normas
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