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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692770

RESUMO

In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising a workshop for researchers ("bottom-up") and discussions with senior faculty on institutional policies ("top-down"). During the first day, we facilitated a workshop to introduce research integrity and promote best practices with regards to authorship, plagiarism, redundant publication and conflicts of interest. We used a variety of interactive teaching approaches to facilitate learning, including individual and group activities, small group discussions and case-based learning. We met with senior faculty on the following day to provide feedback and insights from the workshop, review current institutional policies and provide examples of what other research groups are doing. We evaluated the process. Participants actively engaged in discussions, recognised the importance of the topic and acknowledged that poor practices occurred at their institution. Discussions with senior researchers resulted in the establishment of a working group tasked with developing a publication policy for the institution. Our approach kick-started conversations on research integrity at institutions. There is a need for continued discussions, integrated training programmes and implementation of institutional policies and guidelines to promote good practices.


Assuntos
Política Organizacional , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , África , Autoria/normas , Humanos , Publicações/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Pesquisadores/educação
5.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(4): 217-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448777

RESUMO

Vulnerability in research occurs when the participant is incapable of protecting his or her interests and therefore, has an increased probability of being intentionally or unintentionally harmed. This manuscript aims to discuss the conditions that make a group vulnerable and the tools and requirements that can be used to reduce the ethical breaches when including them in research protocols. The vulnerability can be due either to an inability to understand and give informed consent or to unequal power relationships that hinder basic rights. Excluding subjects from research for the only reason of belonging to a vulnerable group is unethical and will bias the results of the investigation. To consider a subject or group as vulnerable depends on the context, and the investigator should evaluate each case individually.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Ética em Pesquisa , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Populações Vulneráveis , Viés , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Pesquisadores/ética , Pesquisadores/organização & administração
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 110(6): 285-291, 2019 06.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282484

RESUMO

Despite the presence of experienced and multidisciplinary staff is now essential due to the increasing complexity of clinical research, many national collective health contracts do not yet contemplate the new professional figures. This instability risks causing an alarming professional gap, especially for non-profit clinical research. For this reason, we would try to evaluate the extent to which the problem is widespread among Italian clinical research coordinators, verifying how much the Italian institutes have permanently integrated this professional figure into organic plant, through stable and specific employment contracts. In November 2016, when the Italian Government has declared for the first time its intention to prevent further renewal of contracts with atypical employment, we conducted a survey with the intent of mapping the extent of the contractual issues related to the figure of the clinical research coordinator. Two years later, we repeated the survey to see if something was changed and if it was any improvement in the employment situation. In November 2016, only a small fraction of the respondents (13.8%) was hired with a permanent contract, while the majority (73.2%) were employed with an atypical one. Regarding the impossibility to renew the atypical contracts due to the new Government provisions starting from January 2017: the 67.5% of the respondents stated that the issue would directly affect him. Two years later, the situation looks even worse: only the 11.5% of the respondents are hired on a permanent contract, while there is a very high percentage (74.8%) of atypical contracts, with even some coordinators who say they have been working for several months as unpaid volunteers. It is interesting to note that over 30% of staff with atypical contracts work in research institutes and research-related scientific societies, with a strong interest in non-profit clinical research. Adopt Clinical Trials Units officially and contractually recognized would be essential to bring back our nation on the top of the world health systems ranking, but yet the Italian research-dedicated infrastructures continue to be a ghost reality, deeply characterized by a continuous professional turnover and by the lack of long-term prospects. In the absence of a permanent solution, Italy is unlikely to reach the required standards, denying patients of possible therapeutic available options. Our non-profit research will pay the most for it.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Emprego , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Contratos , Humanos , Itália , Papel Profissional
10.
J Health Organ Manag ; 33(4): 380-395, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282816

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore health researchers' involvement of policy or decision makers in knowledge translation activities in Malawi. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The case study collected quantitative through questionnaire from health researchers from the University of Malawi. The study used inferential statistics for the analysis of the quantitative data. Pearson χ2 test was used to establish the relationship between categorical data and determine whether any observed difference between the data sets arose by chance. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine if there were statistically significant differences between independent variable and dependent variables. Data has been presented in a form of tables showing means, standard deviation and p-values. FINDINGS: Health researchers sometimes involve policy or decision makers in government-sponsored meetings (M=2.5, SD=1.17). They rarely involve policy or decision makers in expert committee or group meetings (M=2.4, SD=1.20). Researchers rarely involve policy or decision makers in conferences and workshops (M=2.4, SD=1.31). Rarely do researchers involve policy or decision makers in formal private or public networks (M=2.4, SD=1.17). In events organised by the colleges researchers rarely involve policy or decision makers (M=2.3, SD=1.11); and rarely share weblinks with policy or decision makers (M=2.0, SD=1,17). On average, health researchers occasionally conduct deliberate dialogues with key health policy makers and other stakeholders (M=2.5, SD=1.12). The researchers rarely established and maintained long-term partnerships policy or decision makers (M=2.2, SD=1.20). They rarely involve policy or decision makers in the overall direction of the health research conducted by themselves or the Colleges (M=2.1, SD=1.24). RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The study recommends that there should be deliberate efforts by health researchers and policy makers to formally engage each other. Individuals need technical skills, knowledge of the processes and structures for engaging with health research evidence to inform policy and decision making. At the institutional level, the use of research evidence should be embedded within support research engagement structures and linked persons. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Formal interactions in a form of expert meetings and technical working groups between researchers and policy makers can facilitate the use of health research evidence in policy formulation. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: In terms of framework there is need to put in place formal interaction frameworks between health researchers and policy makers within the knowledge translation and exchange. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: There is dearth of literature on the levels of involvement and interaction between health researchers and health policy or decision makers in health policy, systems and services research in Malawi. This study seeks to bridge the gap with empirical evidence.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Pessoal Administrativo/organização & administração , Humanos , Malaui , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(5): 1617-1626, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166497

RESUMO

This paper analyzes capacity building in practice, addressing the expectations, imaginaries and experiences of health researchers from Mozambique and Angola. The empirical data stems from the Erasmus+ funded project "University Development and Innovation - Africa (UDI-A)", a consortium established between European and African institutions to promote the mobility and empowerment of African academics, the establishment of North/South research partnerships and the strengthening of African institutions. Through qualitative research methods - semi-structured interviews and a focus group with African participants, and participant observation - this article analyzes the experiences of African academics working in the health field, their perceptions of capacity building and aspirations during their stay in Portugal in 2018. By addressing some of their concerns and achievements, this paper reflects on the performativity of capacity building methodologies, exploring a wide range of issues that emerge within the framework of North/South partnerships, inquiring whether it would be possible to decolonize capacity-building methodologies.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Angola , Comportamento Cooperativo , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Entrevistas como Assunto , Moçambique , Portugal
12.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(3): 149-156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184330

RESUMO

It is often unclear to the clinical investigator whether observational studies should be submitted to a research ethics committee (REC), mostly because, in general, no active or additional interventions are performed. Moreover, obtaining an informed consent under these circumstances may be challenging, either because these are very large epidemiological registries, or the subject may no longer be alive, is too ill to consent, or is impossible to contact after being discharged. Although observational studies do not involve interventions, they entail ethical concerns, including threats such as breaches in confidentiality and autonomy, and respect for basic rights of the research subjects according to the good clinical practices. In this context, in addition to their main function as evaluators from an ethical, methodological, and regulatory point of view, the RECs serve as mediators between the research subjects, looking after their basic rights, and the investigator or institution, safeguarding them from both legal and unethical perils that the investigation could engage, by ensuring that all procedures are performed following the international standards of care for research. The aim of this manuscript is to provide information on each type of study and its risks, along with actions to prevent such risks, and the function of RECs in each type of study.


Assuntos
Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/organização & administração , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/ética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Sistema de Registros/ética , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 89(3): 329-336, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070418

RESUMO

Despite efforts to increase the diversity of academia, minority scholars continue to face significant barriers (e.g., higher financial burden, lack of institutional support for research interests, social isolation) that undermine their representation in the field and overall professional success. Researchers have suggested increased mentorship as a means of mitigating these challenges. In 2015, with the support of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a panel of senior investigators met via WebEx to discuss strategies to improve the mentorship of underrepresented scholars. The topics covered by this panel included factors that optimize or challenge mentorship based on personal experience, what is special about mentorship in the context of race/ethnicity, relational dynamics, work-life balance, discrimination, and how to address challenges to the mentoring relationship. The current article provides an overview of the convening and synthesizes the lessons learned by panelists' first-hand experiences of mentoring trainees and junior faculty of color. Authors conclude with recommendations and a description of the social and institutional implications of bolstering the professional support of minority scholars. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Relações Interprofissionais , Tutoria/métodos , Racismo/etnologia , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Humanos , Tutoria/organização & administração , Universidades , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
15.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(3): 252-258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975493

RESUMO

Mid-career nurse scientists in academia are at risk for burnout and departing scientific careers, particularly those in research-intensive academic settings. With the shortage of nursing faculty and the public health need for high-quality nursing research, it is critical to retain current research-focused individuals in nursing. In this paper, we discuss definitions and expectations of mid-career scientists, challenges and barriers faced by mid-career scientists, and opportunities for mid-career scientists, informed by both nursing and non-nursing literature. Finally, we focus on definitions and expectations, challenges, and opportunities specifically related to mid-career nurse scientists in research-intensive academic settings.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Docentes de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Recenti Prog Med ; 110(2): 65-67, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843530

RESUMO

The increasing complexity that characterizes the world of clinical trials, both in terms of procedures and bureaucracy, has made it necessary to create dedicated infrastructures composed of experienced and qualified personnel, who constantly work to ensure high ethical and qualitative standards. A key role in these infrastructures is played by the clinical research coordinator, a key figure able to manage the workflow required, placing himself as a reference for the coordination of the various activities and professional figures involved. The literature has widely demonstrated how the presence of this professional figure is a valid contribution both from a documentary and administrative point of view as well as a crucial resource for what concerns the indicators of ethics and quality of research. Despite that, there is no yet an institutional recognition of the professional figure, neither a specific economical agreement within the National Health System. The lack of institutional recognition is causing a worrying phenomenon of migration of qualified personnel towards contract research organizations and pharmaceutical companies. That could be detrimental to the competitiveness of Italian clinical research and hinder the possibility of offering innovative experiments therapies to patients, with serious ethical consequences.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Humanos , Itália , Papel Profissional
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