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1.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 87(11): 645-652, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to examine adolescence-specific treatment models throughout Germany, to describe the implementation process of transition psychiatric care and to identify relevant health care problem areas for adolescents with mental disorders. METHODOLOGY: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey (N = 26) of hospital-based adolescent psychiatric treatment models was conducted. Service structures, treatment groups and interventions were investigated by the 28-item questionnaire. RESULTS: There is an increase in adolescence-specific hospital-based services in Germany. These are characterized by multi-professional team work in diagnosis and adolescence-specific therapy approaches. Most of the treatment available is for young adults only (>18 years). Some of the services are organized in interdisciplinary cooperation models. Structural deficits in acute and crisis treatment, cross-sectoral cooperation and systematic transition are reported. Conclusions There is growing interest throughout Germany in the development of adolescent psychiatric treatment. Close interdisciplinary cooperation between child and adolescent psychiatry and adult psychiatry is necessary to overcome interface problems with the aim of a successful transition, but has not yet been implemented. Structural problems should be reduced in order to facilitate further development in transition psychiatry.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos
2.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 86(5): 334-341, 2019.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748108

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study aimed to map the use of imaging techniques and results reporting in polytrauma patients by the trauma centres in the Czech Republic. MATERIAL AND METHODS The representatives of radiology departments and units of all 12 trauma centres in the Czech Republic completed a questionnaire regarding the imaging in polytrauma patients. RESULTS The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) as an initial imaging is used by all the centres, the WholeBody CT scan (WBCT) is the dominant imaging technique everywhere and all the centres have standards in place for its performance. The WBCT examination protocol varies across the centres, just like the evaluation procedures of the CT scan and reporting of the results over to the indicating physicians. In majority of centres, there is a high percentage of WBCT with normal findings. One of the centres which uses also X-rays as a part of imaging algorithm, reports a notably higher percentage of WBCT positive findings. DISCUSSION When considering the radiation dose, data and time necessary for WBCT, work required to assess the WBCT and a large number of negative findings, it is disputable whether in a number of cases the WBCT is a suitable method for polytrauma patient examination. Similar conclusions have been drawn also by other authors who recommend that the WBCT is always used for unconscious polytrauma patients, in whom a clinical examination is virtually impossible. In the other cases, based on the clinical parameters the other imaging techniques and the focused CT (and in the indicated cases also the wholebody CT) can be safely used. CONCLUSIONS he diagnostic procedure in a polytrauma patient is not uniform in trauma centres and even the procedure for urgent reporting of crucial WBCT findings to clinical physicians has not been standardised. In a number of cases the indication for WBCT seems to be unnecessary. A more careful consideration of indications for imaging examinations based on the clinical finding may reduce the radiation exposure of patients while maintaining the diagnostic accuracy. A structured report on WBCT in polytrauma is not used even though it is recommended by the European Society of Radiology. Key words:polytrauma, diagnostic imaging, Whole-Body Computed Tomography, structured report.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Exposição à Radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 913-918, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622284

RESUMO

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that children be vaccinated against 14 potentially serious illnesses during the first 24 months of life (1). CDC used data from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage with the recommended number of doses of each vaccine at the national, state, territorial, and selected local levels* among children born in 2015 and 2016. Coverage by age 24 months was at least 90% nationally for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, although MMR coverage was <90% in 20 states. Children were least likely to be up to date by age 24 months with ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (56.6%). Only 1.3% of children born in 2015 and 2016 had received no vaccinations by the second birthday. Coverage was lower for uninsured children and for children insured by Medicaid than for those with private health insurance. Vaccination coverage can be increased by improving access to vaccine providers and eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate children during health care visits. Increased use of local vaccination coverage data is needed to identify communities at higher risk for outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610771

RESUMO

Immunisation at the earliest appropriate age and high levels of vaccine coverage at milestone ages are important in preventing the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases. At the Central Coast Public Health Unit, the authors sought to determine if follow-up of children said by the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) to be overdue for vaccination improved both of these factors. In a quality improvement activity, monthly ACIR lists of overdue Central Coast children aged 9 to 10 months of age were examined. The study alternated three months of intervention with three months of no intervention. The intervention was designed to find evidence of vaccination, first from the last known provider, and then if this was unsuccessful, from the parent. If no information was available, a letter was sent to the parents. If the child was indeed vaccinated, the register was updated. If the child was missing any vaccinations, the parent(s) were encouraged to complete the schedule. On reviewing routinely-published quarterly ACIR data at three-monthly intervals for 24 months after the intervention (or non-intervention), timeliness of vaccination improved in the intervention cohort. Central Coast fully vaccinated rates diverged from NSW rates during the study. In addition, the ACIR quarters that contained two out of three months of intervention rather than one out of three months of intervention had the highest rates of fully vaccinated children. The authors concluded that the intervention improved both timeliness of vaccination and the proportion of fully vaccinated children.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Sistema de Registros
5.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 395-404, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is, on the one hand, to describe the customs and attitudes of Swiss general practitioners (GP) considering cardiovascular risk, and on the other, to put into perspective with the national recommendation Eviprev (summary representations of the primary and secondary preventions recommendations for patients aged between 18 and 70 years old). METHODS: The study was based on an online survey sent to general practitioners belonging to the same research network and who were randomly selected. The sample was made of 200 Swiss GP. This article focuses on the frequency with which GP give advice related to consumption of tobacco and alcohol, exercising and nutrition during a regular meeting with their patient or a first visit. The results were analyzed according to age, sex, linguistic area and the extent to which they lived in a city or in the countryside. RESULTS: Results suggest that the majority (97.6%) of GP show concern about informing patients on cardiovascular risk factors. Nonetheless most of the advice given are usually related to the patient's case and not given in a systematic way. Tobacco addiction is the most systematically discussed theme during a first visit (33.9%), exercise comes second (25.6%), then nutrition (16.1%), and finally alcohol consumption (18.5%). Differences in numbers based on the different languages are little, except dealing with exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations on prevention are followed by a majority of GP. Improvements could be made considering the training given and the remuneration of these counseling activities.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the use of the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit in children from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort at 24 months. METHODS: A total of 4,014 children were monitored. We used descriptive statistics and Poisson regression to analyze the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, participation in daycare units, in the activities of the Pastoral da Criança and in the Primeira Infância Melhor program, low birth weight, hospitalization between 12 and 24 months, place of medical appointment, prevalence of medical appointment in the last 30 days, prescription of antibiotics, and administration of the first dose in the health care unit. RESULTS: A total of 1,044 children had medical appointments in the last 30 days, of which 45% were prescribed antibiotics and only 10.5% were administered the first dose of this medication in the health care unit. Children with brown, yellow or indigenous skin color were administered 2.5 times more antibiotics than white children. Children whose mothers had 12 years or more of education were administered 83.0% fewer antibiotics than those whose mothers had up to 4 years of education. Among those who were hospitalized for 12 to 24 months, the use of antibiotics was almost four times higher than among those who were not. Among the children served by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), only 15.3% were administered the first dose of antibiotic in the health care unit. When compared with children served by private health care or health plan, administration of the first dose in the SUS was 76.0% higher. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the efforts related to the Pastoral da Criança campaign "Antibiotic: first dose immediately," adherence to the provision of antibiotics in the health care unit is still low. Strategies are necessary and urgent so children have access to the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agendamento de Consultas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(10): 987-990, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584776

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: Although future atopic dermatitis (AD) clinical research is intended to improve standard-of-care treatment, how patients are currently treated is not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent medications prescribed in all ages of AD. Methods: The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) is a nationally representative survey of United States office-based ambulatory visits and records demographics, diagnoses, and treatments. This is a cross-sectional study using the NAMCS of all AD outpatient office visits from 2006 to 2015. Patient visits with an ICD-9-CM code for AD (691.8) were collected and analyzed. Frequency tables were created for age, race, providers managing AD, and treatment. Results: Patient demographics of AD visits included 51% male (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 44-58%), 71% white (65-77%), 19% African American (14-25%), and 10% Asian (6-14%). About 31% (24-37%) of visits were to pediatricians and 27% (22-33%) to dermatologists whereas per physician, dermatologists managed more AD visits than pediatricians. Topical corticosteroids (59%; 52-66%) were the most common class of medications prescribed followed by antibiotics (11%; 6-16%) and second generation antihistamines (6%; 3-10%). The most common topical corticosteroid prescribed in AD was triamcinolone (25% of office visits; 18-31%). Hydrocortisone was the most common topical corticosteroid prescribed to children <1 year of age and children aged 8 to 18, whereas triamcinolone was more common in children 2 to 7 years and adults >18 years. Discussion: Topical corticosteroids were the most frequent prescriptions provided at office-based ambulatory visits whereas antibiotics and second-generation antihistamines were the second and third most common prescribed medications, respectively. Although pediatricians manage more AD visits than dermatologists in total visits, dermatologists manage more AD visits than pediatricians per physician. Characterizing how AD patients are currently treated may build a reference for future clinical research investigating novel standard-of-care treatment in AD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(10):987-990.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dermatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
JAAPA ; 32(2): 52, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579253

RESUMO

PAs and NPs have broad prescribing authority in the United States, yet little is known about how the quality of their prescribing practices compares with that of physicians. The quality of prescribing practices of physicians, PAs, and NPs was investigated through a serial cross-sectional analysis of the 2006-2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Ambulatory care services in physician offices, hospital EDs, and outpatient departments were evaluated using a nationally representative sample of patient visits to physicians, PAs, and NPs. Main outcome measures were 13 validated outpatient quality indicators focused on pharmacologic management of chronic diseases and appropriate medication use. The study sampled 701,499 patient visits during the study period, representing about 8.3 billion visits nationwide. Physicians were the primary provider for 96.8% of all outpatient visits examined; PAs and NPs each accounted for 1.6% of these visits. The proportion of eligible visits in which quality standards were met ranged from 34.1% (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use for patients with heart failure) to 89.5% (avoidance of inappropriate medications in older adults). The median overall performance across all indicators was 58.7%. On unadjusted analyses, differences in quality of care between PAs, NPs, and physicians for each indicator did not consistently favor one practitioner type over others. After adjustment for potentially confounding patient and provider characteristics, the quality of prescribing by PAs and NPs was similar to the care delivered by physicians for 10 of the 13 indicators evaluated, and no consistent directional association was found between provider type and indicator fulfillment for the remaining measures. Although significant shortfalls exist in the quality of ambulatory prescribing across all practitioner types, the quality of care delivered by PAs, NPs, and physicians was generally comparable.1.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Assistentes Médicos , Médicos , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Soins ; 64(838): 20-24, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542113

RESUMO

Peripheral venous catheters are the most commonly used vascular devices in hospitals. The ageing population and the increase in comorbidities makes their insertion more complex. A survey carried out in surgical units describes the factors contributing to failures. It is important to improve the identification of patients with difficult venous access, to offer access to various techniques and devices, as well as to the expertise of a specialised team.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico , Idoso , Comorbidade , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Falha de Tratamento
10.
Bull Cancer ; 106(10): 847-859, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521255

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Cancer Observatory, from the OMEDITs (Observatory for Medicines and Medical Devices and Treatment Innovations) of Bretagne and Pays de la Loire areas has conducted a survey aiming to know and map the current practices of management of patients by Oral Anti-cancer Drug (OAD) in inter-region. METHODS: Forty eight cancer centers received by e-mail in July and October 2016 a questionnaire concerning the management of OADs : from prescription by the specialist of oncology, to the intervention of the pharmacist (analysis and pharmaceutical consulting), to follow-up by nurse, as well as the financing of this activity and the feelings of the actors about this organizational set up. RESULTS: Fifty-seven professionals from 31 centers, including the most important ones, responded to the survey. As a result, half of the establishments carry out a pharmaceutical analysis for some or all of the OAD prescriptions and only 30% carry out a pharmaceutical consulting. The nurse consultation is, on the other hand, more largely implanted (74% of the centers) as well as the telephone follow-up (6%). More than 90% of professionals believe that the organizational set up could be improved and more secure by, at least, the stronger involvement of pharmacists, the development of tools for nurse (for monitoring, therapeutic education…) and by improving the city-hospital link. CONCLUSION: This survey shows the variability in the management of patients under OAD because of the lack of resources to ensure the fairness and sustainability of the organizational set up. The hospital/city link could still be optimized to secure patient care.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , França , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Objetivos Organizacionais , Satisfação do Paciente , Farmacêuticos , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Telefone
11.
J Med Vasc ; 44(5): 331-335, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of death worldwide. In a previous survey, we have shown that the management of patients with atherosclerosis by general practitioners depends on the locations of the disease. The aim of this survey was to assess general practice residents' (GPR) knowledge on three clinical presentations which are ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease (CAD), and peripheral artery disease (PAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2017 and September 2017, a national self-administered survey that we previously used to assess the GPs' knowledge was emailed to GPRs from French medicine faculties. The questionnaire was composed of three clinical cases dealing with transient ischemic attack (TIA), stable angina (SA) and intermittent claudication (IC). Each clinical case was explored by seven similar questions. The primary endpoint was the number of GPRs who correctly answered 5 of the 7 questions for each clinical case. RESULTS: Five hundred and fifty-three GPRs (10%) answered the questionnaire entirely. There is a significant difference between TIA knowledge (19.9% of correct answers) which is greater than SA knowledge (0.9%) and IC knowledge (0.4%). The diagnosis was correctly done by 525 (94.9%) GPRs for TIA, 513 (92.8%) for SA, and 532 (96.2%) for IC. The main difficulties encountered by the GPRs concerned complementary investigations and treatment. CONCLUSION: As for general practitioners, this study reveals a difference in GPRs' knowledge depending on the location of the atherosclerosis. Considering the results, the improvement of initial training and continuing medical education (CME) in general medicine would be desirable.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/terapia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Medicina Geral/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internato e Residência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Angina Estável/diagnóstico , Angina Estável/terapia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia
12.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 72-75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560667

RESUMO

The aims of our study were to determine antibiotic prescribing rates for prevention and treatment of infections in pediatric units, to evaluate the number and type of antimicrobial agents and administration route, reveal commonly used antibiotic subgroups and identify targets for improving the quality of antimicrobial prescribing. A 1-day PPS (Point Prevalence Study) on antibiotic use in hospitalized children was performed in Georgia from 2015 to 2019. 18 clinics in different regions of Georgia were included in the survey. Antimicrobial prevalence rates increased over the years from 60.1% in 2015 to 92.6% in 2018. The most commonly, antibiotics were prescribed for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In 2015 25.1% of LRTI were treated by ampicillin-sulbactam but the next year it replaced with ceftriaxone (37.1% in 2017 and 38.2% in 2018). In pediatric surgical ward, the antibiotics were commonly prescribed for surgical prevention (54.1% in 2015, 32.3% in 2018). The most common conditions treated with antibiotics in neonates were sepsis (30.1%) and LRTI (45.3%). The most used antibiotic was ceftriaxone (33.3% in 2015). Ampicilin-sulbactam was prescribed in 28.1% of pneumonia case in neonates in 2018. In 2015 antibiotics were mainly prescribed empirically (98.0%). In 2018 resistance of MRSA was 8.1%, and resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin 17.3%. Prevalence rate of antibiotics for prevention and treatment of infection disease in pediatric units increased in 2018. Main feasible targets for optimization of antibiotic prescribing have been identified: high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospitals, high frequency of empirical treatment, rarely performed culture tests, prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery patients and an alarming raise of resistant strains. The implementation of disease-specific clinical pathways associated with annual PPSs could be a good way to monitor and improve antibiotic prescription patterns in neonatal and pediatric inpatients over time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pediatria , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 517-519, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471256

RESUMO

Ten years after the beginning of CREX in radiotherapy departments we wanted to know about users' feeling. We sent a survey to 168 centers in the whole country and a hundred of them answer. The time, top management's involvement and professionals' training seem to be the key success factors. Systemic analysis methods and mainly the Orion© one are not identified as an issue. The main challenge for the next years will be the effectiveness check of actions.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Institutos de Câncer , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Gestão de Riscos/estatística & dados numéricos , França , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Comitê de Profissionais , Gestão de Riscos/métodos
14.
N C Med J ; 80(5): 261-268, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Successful diabetes care requires patient engagement and health self-management. Diabetes shared medical appointments (SMAs) are an evidence-based approach that enables peer support, diabetes group education, and medication management to improve outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn how diabetes SMAs are being delivered in North Carolina, including the characteristics of diabetes SMAs across the state.METHOD Twelve health systems in the state of North Carolina were contacted to explore clinical workflow and intervention characteristics with a member of the SMA care delivery team. Surveys were used to assess intervention characteristics and delivery.RESULTS Diabetes SMAs were offered in 10 clinics in 5 of the 12 health systems contacted with considerable heterogeneity across sites. The majority of SMAs were open cohorts (80%), offered monthly (60%) for 1.5 hours (60%). SMAs included a mean of 7.5 ± 3.4 patients with a maximum of 11.2 ± 2.7 patients. Survey data revealed barriers (cost-sharing and provider buy-in) to, and facilitators (leadership support and clinical champions) of, clinical adoption and sustained implementation.LIMITATIONS External validity is limited due to the small sample size and geographic clustering.CONCLUSION There is significant heterogeneity in the delivery and characteristics of diabetes SMAs in North Carolina with only modest uptake across the health systems. Further research to determine best practices and effectiveness in diverse, real-world clinical settings is required to inform implementation and dissemination efforts.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , North Carolina
15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5203-5207, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the survival outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) based on time period. We hypothesized that improvement has been obtained with the time-dependent therapeutic era and rise in the gross domestic product (GDP) and Human Development Index (HDI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 710 children who were treated for ALL between 1958 and 2018 at a single pediatric center were analyzed for probability of 5-year overall survival (pOS), event-free survival (pEFS) and relapse risk (pRR). Time periods were defined by the treatment protocols used in seven consecutive therapeutic eras. RESULTS: Over the 60-year period analyzed, pOS increased from 1.2% to 90.7%, pEFS from 1.2% to 86.6%, and pRR decreased from 98.8% to 9.9% for patients treated in the past decade. Risk of mortality for patients who received chemotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplant was reduced to 9.9% in the recent era, however, no statistically significant survival difference was found between patients treated with stem cell transplant and those not. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic era, related to improved GDP and HDI, was a statistically significant predictor of increased OS from ALL.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, German hospitals have been requested to record and evaluate antibiotic use in their institution. In this publication, the use of antibiotics in hospitals belonging to the administrative district Frankfurt/Main between 2012 and 2017 is presented and discussed with regards to the targets set in 2014. These targets are to improve the perioperative prophylaxis, reduce the use of cefuroxime, and increase the penicillin/cephalosporin ratio. METHODS: Since 2012, hospitals in Frankfurt/Main have been transmitting the defined daily doses (DDD) of all antibiotics used, the absolute number of patients, and their days of treatment. Since 2013, the data have also distinguished between intensive care and other units. The Frankfurt health authority calculated the total number of antibiotics and the DDD/100 patient days for all hospitals combined as well as for every hospital compared to each other. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2017, the number of absolute annual patient days increased from 1,592,161 to 1,615,180. Antibiotic use decreased from 1,073,975 DDD to 953,349 DDD, leading to a decrease from 67.5 DDD per 100 patient days to 59.0 DDD per 100 patient days. Cefuroxime was the most frequently used antibiotic in all hospitals. The use of cefuroxime showed a significant decrease between 2012 and 2017 (from 250,398 in 2012 to 165,160 DDD in 2017, a decrease of 34%). The use of ceftriaxone was reduced by 27%, ciprofloxacin by 9%, and levofloxacin by 16%. DISCUSSION: The targets set in 2014 were reached in the entirety of Frankfurt hospitals. However, there were significant differences between the hospitals taking part. The results were given as feedback to the hospitals in order to support their efforts in further improving antibiotic stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Regulamentação Governamental , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Vigilância da População
17.
Int J Med Inform ; 129: 260-266, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic visits (e-visits) have the potential to expand patients' access to care and reduce healthcare costs. We aimed to describe trends in e-visit adoption among the U.S. office-based physicians and examine physician-and practice-level factors associated with e-visit adoption. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of 2011-2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We used the Cochran-Armitage tests to evaluate trend changes in e-visit adoption among the U.S. office-based physicians. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of adopting e-visits adjusting for physician and practice characteristics. RESULTS: Our sample included 10,767 respondents, representing 327,836 office-based physicians in the U.S. Our analysis indicated that, in 2015, 15.9% of physicians adopted e-visits, which is a minor increase of 2.2% in total utilization of 13.7% in 2011. The likelihood of adopting e-visits was 2.7 times higher for physicians who have fully implemented electronic health records systems compared (odds ratio, 2.66, [95% CI, 2.16-3.28]) to physicians who have not implemented EHRs. Other predictors of e-visit adoption included primary care rather than specialty care, capitated payment model, and having a secure messaging capability. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that overall e-visit adoption is low and has not been implemented as rapidly as other health information technologies. While use of secure information technology could be a facilitator for e-visit implementation, there are other barriers affecting widespread adoption. E-visits are a promising strategy for increasing patients' access to care. Future research is needed to explore implementation barriers that might be impeding e-visit adoption.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(32): 693-697, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415490

RESUMO

An estimated 45 million U.S. residents enjoy the benefits of contact lens wear, but many of them might be at increased risk for complications stemming from improper wear and care behaviors (1). One of the most serious complications of contact lens wear is a corneal infection known as microbial keratitis, which can sometimes result in reduced vision or blindness (2). In 2014, 50% of contact lens wearers reported ever sleeping in contact lenses, and 55% reported topping off* their contact lens solutions (3), which put them at greater risk for a contact lens-related eye infection (2,4). Data on communication between eye care providers and contact lens wearers on contact lens wear and care recommendations are limited. Two surveys were conducted to better understand and assess contact lens education about nine recommendations: the first assessed contact lens wearer experiences regarding recommendations received from eye care providers during their most recent appointment; the second evaluated provider-reported practices for communicating contact lens wear and care recommendations to their patients. One third (32.9%) of contact lens wearers aged ≥18 years recalled never hearing any lens wear and care recommendations. Fewer than half (47.9%) recalled hearing their provider recommend not sleeping in lenses at their last visit, and 19.8% recalled being told to avoid topping off their contact lens solution. A majority of providers reported sharing recommendations always or most of the time at initial visits, regular checkups, and complication-related visits. Providers reported sharing nearly all recommendations more frequently at initial and complication-related visits than at regular checkups. Of the nine recommendations for safe contact lens wear and care, eye care providers at regular checkups most often recommend complying with the recommended lens replacement schedules (85% of regular visits), not sleeping in lenses (79.0% of regular visits), and not topping off solutions (64.4% of regular visits). Eye care providers play an important role in the health of their contact lens-wearing patients and can share health communication messages with their patients to help educate them about healthy wear and care habits. These findings can assist in the creation of health communication messages to help encourage eye care providers to communicate more effectively with their patients.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comunicação em Saúde , Rememoração Mental , Oftalmologistas/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Lentes de Contato/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1104, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is rising and substantially affecting the low-income countries, including Tanzania. Integrated management of TB and DM is becoming of importance in TB high burden countries. In this study, we sought to assess the availability and readiness of diabetes facilities to manage TB in Tanzania. METHODS: The present study was based on a secondary analysis of the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment Survey data. We calculated the service availability as a percentage of diabetes facilities offering TB services: diagnosis and treatment. Regarding the readiness of diabetes facilities to provide TB management, we calculated based on the three domains: staff training and guideline, diagnostics, and medicines as identified by World Health Organization-Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) manual. A score of at least half (≥50%) of the indicators listed in each of the three domains was considered as high readiness. We used a descriptive statistics to present our findings. RESULTS: There were 619 DM facilities all over the country of which only 238 (38.4%) had TB services.72.6 and 62.6% of these DM facilities with TB services were publicly owned and located in rural settings respectively. Generally, DM facilities had low readiness to manage TB; 12·6%. More specifically, all DM facilities had low readiness in terms of trained staff and guidelines. However, in the domain of diagnostics and medications, higher levels of care (hospitals) had a comparatively higher level of readiness to manage TB. CONCLUSION: Most of the DM facilities had low availability and readiness to manage TB. The findings of our study display an urgent need to mobilize important resources to enhance the integration of TB services in DM facilities. This includes medications, management guidelines, diagnostics, and health professionals who have received refresher training on TB/DM co-management. However, presently, few DM facilities may be allowed to start managing TB as per the Strategic and Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases in Tanzania 2016-2020.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(8): 616-621, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422632

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the current clinical practice of implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) in China. Methods: The current survey was sponsored by Chinese Anti-Cancer Association, Committee of Breast Cancer Society and Chinese Society of Breast Surgeons. A survey was mailed to 110 hospitals in China, which have more than 200 breast cancer operations performed in 2017. The survey mainly included questions on the clinical practice of IBBR, sociodemographic and geographical factors associated with IBBR practice, reasons and concerns for selecting IBBR, type and timing of breast reconstruction, and the complications of IBBR. Data were analyzed using χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test or Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Results: IBBR was available in 86.4% (95/110) included hospitals. It was predominantly performed breast reconstruction surgery, the proportion of IBBR in all the breast reconstruction was 65.75% (4 296/6 534). However, the rate of IBBR in all the patients received mastectomy was only 7.06% (4 296/60 877). Among all the included hospitals, the number of implant reconstructions performed in 2017 was 24 (57.5) cases (M(Q(R)), range: 2-565 cases). Factors associated with the performance of IBBR including regional per capita gross domestic product (H=10.47, P=0.005) and annual surgery volume (H=8.30, P=0.016). The main reasons for choosing IBBR were relatively simple surgical procedure, short learning curve and short operation time. The effects of adjuvant radiotherapy on prosthesis, postoperative complications and patient satisfaction were the main concerns for implant reconstruction. Compared with delay reconstruction, a higher proportion of IBBR was observed in immediate reconstruction (83.1% vs. 62.0%, χ(2)=12.522, P=0.000). In all, 10.5% (10/95) hospitals reported more than 10% grade Ⅲ to Ⅳ capsular contracture. The incidence of infections need surgical intervention was reported between 10% and 20% by 4.2% (4/95) hospitals. Hospitals with 6% to 10% implant rupture and 6% to 15% implant removal were 1.1% (1/95) and 4.2% (4/95) respectively. Conclusions: IBBR was the most common used surgery in breast reconstruction after mastectomy. However, the proportion of IBBR in patients after mastectomy was still low. Reginal economy, surgery volume of hospitals, lack of specialty training program and the concern about complications and patient's satisfaction were the factors affecting the development of IBBR.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , China , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mastectomia
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