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4.
AMA J Ethics ; 21(1): E113-118, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672429

RESUMO

More people, including children and pregnant women, are being detained for longer periods in a patchwork of over 200 detention centers around the country, most of which are private facilities or county jails. Human Rights Watch has documented systemic medical care failures at these facilities, including incompetent treatment, which is linked to patient deaths. Clinicians working in these facilities face formidable obstacles to providing adequate care, two of which are the Department of Homeland Security's lack of reasonable alternatives to detention and insufficient staffing. Harm caused by these conditions and detention itself should be enough to prompt clinicians to insist that the government enable provision of care consistent with generally accepted standards, including through reducing the detained population.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/ética , Imigrantes Indocumentados , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
5.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(4): 1147-1165, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721846

RESUMO

Corruption in the construction industry is a serious problem in China. As such, fighting this corruption has become a priority target of the Chinese government, with the main effort being to discover and prosecute its perpetrators. This study profiles the demographic characteristics of major incidences of corruption in construction. It draws on the database of the 83 complete recorded cases of construction related corruption held by the Chinese National Bureau of Corruption Prevention. Categorical variables were drawn from the database, and 'association rule mining analysis' was used to identify associations between variables as a means of profiling perpetrators. Such profiling may be used as predictors of future incidences of corruption, and consequently to inform policy makers in their fight against corruption. The results signal corruption within the Chinese construction industry to be correlated with age, with incidences rising as managers' approach retirement age. Moreover, a majority of perpetrators operate within government agencies, are department deputies in direct contact with projects, and extort the greatest amounts per case from second tier cities. The relatively lengthy average 6.4-year period before cases come to public attention corroborates the view that current efforts at fighting corruption remain inadequate.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/economia , Indústria da Construção/ética , Indústria da Construção/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento Criminoso , Demografia , Pessoal Administrativo/economia , Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Pessoal Administrativo/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Cidades , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 608, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By tradition, the Swedish health care system is based on a representative and parliamentary form of government. Recently, new management forms, inspired by market principles, have developed. The steering system is both national and regional, in that self-governing county councils are responsible for the financing and provision of health care in different regions. National and local documents regulating Swedish health care mention several ethical values, such as equity in health for the whole population and respect for autonomy and human dignity. It is therefore of interest to investigate the status of such ethical statements in Swedish health care management. METHOD: The aim of the present study was to investigate perceptions of the status of ethics in the daily work of politicians, chief civil servants and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) from care-giver organizations in the county council of Stockholm. A qualitative method was used, based on inductive content analysis of individual interviews with 13 health care managers. RESULTS: The content analysis resulted in four categories: Low status of ethics; Cost-effectiveness over ethics; Separation of ethics from management; and Lack of opportunities for ethical competence building. The informants described how they prioritized economic concerns over ethics and separated ethics from their daily work. They also expressed that they experienced that this development had been enforced by the marketization of the health care system. Further, they described how they lacked opportunities for ethical discussions, which could have helped develop their ethical competence. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve the status of ethics in health care management, ethical considerations and analyses must be integrated in the regular work tasks of politicians, chief civil servants and CEOs; such as decision-making, budgeting and reform work. Further, opportunities for ethical dialogues on a regular basis should be organized, in order to improve ethical competence on the management level. New steering forms, less focused upon market principles, might also be needed, in order to improve the status of ethics in the health care management organization.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Empregados do Governo , Cuidadores , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Administradores de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Governo Local , Política , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suécia
7.
J Med Ethics ; 44(11): 746-750, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The principle of equivalence in prison health has been established for nearly four decades. It seeks to ensure that prisoners have access to the same level of healthcare as members of society at large, which is entrenched within the international legal framework and England's national health policies. AIMS: This study examined how key policymakers interpret and implement the principle of equivalence in English prisons. It also identified opportunities and threats associated with the application of the principle. METHODS: In total, 30 policymakers took part in this research. These participants engaged in policymaking activities and occupied positions of authority in the prison field. RESULTS: Despite the policymakers' consensus on the importance of the equivalence principle, there was a varying degree of understanding regarding what constitutes 'equivalence'. Participants described how the security culture impedes prisoners' access to healthcare services. Additionally, the increasing size and complexity of the prison population, coupled with a diminishing level of resources, reduce the level of care being provided in prisons and thus compromise implementation of equivalence in English prisons. CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistent interpretation of equivalence, the prevailing security drive, increasing numbers and health complexities of prisoners and fiscal austerity threaten the implementation of equivalence in English prisons. This research calls for new guidance on how to interpret and implement equivalence, along with measures to educate prison governors and staff on the prison rehabilitation value, ensure greater investment in prison health and consider alternatives to imprisonment to future-proof the principle of equivalence in the English prison system.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Prisioneiros , Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Inglaterra , Ética Médica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/ética , Humanos , Prisões/ética
8.
BMC Med Ethics ; 19(1): 20, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in aggregating more biomedical and patient data into large health data sets for research and public benefits. However, collecting and processing patient data raises new ethical issues regarding patient's rights, social justice and trust in public institutions. The aim of this empirical study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the awareness of possible ethical risks and corresponding obligations among those who are involved in projects using patient data, i.e. healthcare professionals, regulators and policy makers. METHODS: We used a qualitative design to examine Swiss healthcare stakeholders' experiences and perceptions of ethical challenges with regard to patient data in real-life settings where clinical registries are sponsored, created and/or used. A semi-structured interview was carried out with 22 participants (11 physicians, 7 policy-makers, 4 ethical committee members) between July 2014 and January 2015. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed using a thematic method derived from Grounded Theory. RESULTS: All interviewees were concerned as a matter of priority with the needs of legal and operating norms for the collection and use of data, whereas less interest was shown in issues regarding patient agency, the need for reciprocity, and shared governance in the management and use of clinical registries' patient data. This observed asymmetry highlights a possible tension between public and research interests on the one hand, and the recognition of patients' rights and citizens' involvement on the other. CONCLUSIONS: The advocation of further health-related data sharing on the grounds of research and public interest, without due regard for the perspective of patients and donors, could run the risk of fostering distrust towards healthcare data collections. Ultimately, this could diminish the expected social benefits. However, rather than setting patient rights against public interest, new ethical approaches could strengthen both concurrently. On a normative level, this study thus provides material from which to develop further ethical reflection towards a more cooperative approach involving patients and citizens in the governance of their health-related big data.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Conscientização , Participação da Comunidade , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Obrigações Morais , Direitos do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Big Data , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sistema de Registros/ética , Controle Social Formal , Justiça Social , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Confiança
9.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 30(6): 298-301, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061075

RESUMO

Health leaders in Canada face a myriad of challenges with healthcare philanthropy-not just the practical question of how to be successful but also ethical questions. Is fundraising in partnership with companies that are implicated in the so-called lifestyle diseases appropriate? When does appropriate recognition for donors or volunteers cross the line into facilitating preferential access to care? Ethical decision-making in health philanthropy considers appropriate recognition or partnership in donor relations in the context of the public good with which healthcare institutions are entrusted and the fiduciary responsibilities of hospitals and clinicians to patients.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Ética Profissional , Obtenção de Fundos/ética , Humanos , Política Organizacional
17.
Am J Public Health ; 105(10): e68-75, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to learn how employees reacted to changes in the corporate narrative of Philip Morris Companies (PMC) in the late 1990s and early 2000s. METHODS: We analyzed archival internal tobacco industry documents about PMC's creation of a new corporate story. RESULTS: In response to litigation and public opprobrium, PMC replaced its market success-oriented corporate narrative with a new one centered on responsibility. Although management sought to downplay inconsistencies between the old and new narratives, some employees reportedly had difficulty reconciling them, concerned that the responsibility focus might affect company profitability. However, others embraced the new narrative, suggesting radical ideas to prevent youth smoking. These ideas were not adopted. CONCLUSIONS: PMC's new narrative was unconvincing to many of its employees, who perceived it either as a threat to the company's continued profits or as incongruous with what they had previously been told. As it had done with the public, PMC misled its employees in explaining a narrative repositioning that would help the company continue business as usual. Moving toward a tobacco endgame will require ongoing discursive and symbolic efforts to disrupt this narrative.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/ética , Relações Públicas , Responsabilidade Social , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Indústria do Tabaco/ética , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Objetivos Organizacionais , Valores Sociais , Estados Unidos
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