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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(9): e28999, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244075

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The local economy is often supported by small and medium-sized enterprises. There is a need to consider effective promotion methods for mental health measures in these enterprises in depopulated mountainous areas. It is important to understand managers' awareness when considering effective mental health measures in these enterprises. The study's aim is to explore managers' awareness of mental health measures for employees in small and medium-sized enterprises in depopulated mountainous areas in Japan.Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 managers in 2019. The primary issues addressed by the interview were regarding the awareness among managers about mental health promotion measures for employees. These are the primary prevention measures. The interview also addressed issues related to the awareness of measures for mental health problems that are fundamental to the secondary and tertiary prevention measures. A qualitative descriptive analysis was conducted.Three categories and 8 subcategories emerged regarding the managers' awareness of mental health promotion measures for employees. The 3 categories were: "Individual support, including their life's aspect, while taking advantage of formal and informal relationships," "The difficulty of drawing out an employees' motivation to work, due to the changes over time in the work size or in their working relationships," and "Creating a comfortable working environment for employees, by complying with the labor standards and adjusting relationships." Regarding managers' awareness of the measures for mental health problems, four categories and 8 subcategories emerged. The 4 categories were: "Prevention and awareness of the incidence of mental health problems," "Individual support based on the enterprise's or employee's characteristics," "A lack of support for the manager to address employees' mental health problems," and "Employees quitting the job, due to the lack of appropriate support."Though managers in depopulated mountainous areas were well aware of the mental health activities offered, the categories showed the need to foster social capital. It also showed the need to collaborate with external support organizations, and the difficulties faced by small and medium-sized enterprises.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde Mental , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Japão , Setor Privado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264590, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213649

RESUMO

It is argued that ports are playing a crucial role in developing nations' economy. Still, solutions to improving port service quality (PSQ) to boost ports' competitive capacity is questionable. Hence, this study aims to investigate port service quality (PSQ) by using integration of the extension Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) from port users' perspectives. From the relevant literature and expert interview, the hierarchical structure of PSQ embracing six dimensions with 29 criteria was first established. To test the research model, the Dong Nai port joint stock company (DNPC) and their port-service users were empirically investigated. It is found that: (1) the importance degree of dimensions is ranked as follow: empathy (21.07%), tangibles (20.15%), assurance (15.97%), reliability (15.54%), responsiveness (12.53%), diversity (14.74%); (2) for criteria of PSQ, top five criteria concerned by shipping companies and ocean freight forwarders comprise: "proactive provision of vessel schedules", "cargo handling facilities and equipment", "detailed schedule", "accuracy and consistency of schedules", and "geographical location"; (3) there are four service attributes (SAs) needing to prioritize for improvement, including "perfect transportation of cargos", "ability in dealing with cargo damage", "willingness in helping customers", "provision of special cargo-related services". The practical policy is that port authorities should transfer the limited resources from SAs in Quadrant IV to Quadrant II to enhance the PSQ.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257597, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supervision by surgical specialists is beneficial because they can impart skills to district hospital-level surgical teams. The SURG-Africa project in Zambia comprises a mentoring trial in selected districts, involving two provincial-level mentoring teams. The aim of this paper is to explore policy options for embedding such surgical mentoring in existing policy structures through a participatory modeling approach. METHODS: Four group model building workshops were held, two each in district and central hospitals. Participants worked in a variety of institutions and had clinical and/or administrative backgrounds. Two independent reviewers compared the causal loop diagrams (CLDs) that resulted from these workshops in a pairwise fashion to construct an integrated CLD. Graph theory was used to analyze the integrated CLD, and dynamic system behavior was explored using the Method to Analyse Relations between Variables using Enriched Loops (MARVEL) method. RESULTS: The establishment of a provincial mentoring faculty, in collaboration with key stakeholders, would be a necessary step to coordinate and sustain surgical mentoring and to monitor district-level surgical performance. Quarterly surgical mentoring reviews at the provincial level are recommended to evaluate and, if needed, adapt mentoring. District hospital administrators need to closely monitor mentee motivation. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical mentoring can play a key role in scaling up district-level surgery but its implementation is complex and requires designated provincial level coordination and regular contact with relevant stakeholders.


Assuntos
Tutoria/métodos , Políticas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Hospitais de Distrito , Humanos , Tutoria/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Zâmbia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256073, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506493

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Heightened immigration enforcement may induce fear in undocumented patients when coming to the Emergency Department (ED) for care. Limited literature examining health system policies to reduce immigrant fear exists. In this multi-site qualitative study, we sought to assess provider and system-level policies on caring for undocumented patients in three California EDs. METHODS: We recruited 41 ED providers and administrators from three California EDs (in San Francisco, Oakland, and Sylmar) with large immigrant populations. Participants were recruited using a trusted gatekeeper and snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews and analyzed the transcripts using constructivist grounded theory. RESULTS: We interviewed 10 physicians, 11 nurses, 9 social workers, and 11 administrators, and identified 7 themes. Providers described existing policies and recent policy changes that facilitate access to care for undocumented patients. Providers reported that current training and communication around policies is limited, there are variations between who asks about and documents status, and there remains uncertainty around policy details, laws, and jurisdiction of staff. Providers also stated they are taking an active role in building safety and trust and see their role as supporting undocumented patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces ED-level health system perspectives and recommendations for caring for undocumented patients. There is a need for active, multi-disciplinary ED policy training, clear policy details including the extent of providers' roles, protocols on the screening and documentation of status, and continual reassessment of our health systems to reduce fear and build safety and trust with our undocumented communities.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Medo , Política de Saúde , Confiança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255537, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to connect two strands of the psychology and economics literature, i.e., behavioural finance and agent-based macroeconomics, to assess the impact of managerial overconfidence at the micro and macro levels of the economy as a whole. METHOD: We build a macroeconomic stock-flow consistent agent-based model that is calibrated for the specific case of Poland to explore whether the overconfidence of top corporate managers in the context of their initial capital structure decisions is detrimental for the firms being managed in this way, the financial market dynamics, and the selected macroeconomic indicators. We model heterogeneous firms with different capital structure decision criteria depending on their degree of managerial overconfidence. Our model also includes a complete macroeconomic closure with aggregated households, capital producers, banking, and a public sector. RESULTS: We find that firms with overconfident managers outperform in terms of investment and size but are also more fragile, thereby making them more likely to default. Finally, we run policy shocks and show that while investors' flight to liquidity creates financial turmoil and increases the probability of default. CONCLUSIONS: This paper contributes to the knowledge base by linking behavioural corporate finance and agent-based macroeconomics. In general, the excess overconfidence on the micro level, either an increase in the proportion of overconfident firms or a higher degree of overconfidence among managers, has a strong destabilizing impact on the economy as a whole on the macro level.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Administração Financeira/normas , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Assunção de Riscos , Humanos , Julgamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26541, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at investigating the effect of rational emotive occupational health coaching on quality of work-life among primary school administrators. METHOD: This is a double blinded and randomized control design study. A total of 158 administrators were sampled, half of them were exposed to rational emotive occupational health treatment package that lasted for 12 sessions. Two self-report measures were utilized in assessing the participants using quality of work life scale. Data collected were analyzed using MANOVA statistical tool. RESULT: The results showed that rational emotive occupational health coaching is effective in improving perception of quality of work-life among public administrators. A follow-up result showed that rational emotive occupational health coaching had a significant effect on primary school administrators' quality of work life. CONCLUSION: This study concluded rational emotive occupation health coaching is useful therapeutic strategy in improving quality of work of primary school administrators, hence, future researchers and clinical practitioners should adopt cognitive-behavioral techniques and principles in helping employers as well as employees. Based on the primary findings and limitations of this study, future studies, occupational psychotherapists should qualitatively explore the clinical relevance of rational emotive occupational health practice across cultures using different populations.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Tutoria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/métodos , Pessoal Administrativo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Método Duplo-Cego , Pessoal de Educação/psicologia , Pessoal de Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 80(1): 1959700, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378496

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to identify how managers of micro-sized enterprises experience the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on their business operations, work-life balance and well-being. Further, the study aims to make comparisons between managers of micro-sized businesses and managers of small-sized businesses. This mixed-method study is based on qualitative interviews with ten managers of micro-sized enterprises and a questionnaire answered by 95 managers of micro-sized and small-sized enterprises in regions in the north of Sweden. Managers of micro-sized enterprises reported significantly worse scores for mental well-being, job satisfaction and life satisfaction in comparison with managers of small-sized enterprises. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: Changed leadership role, Impact on private life and Impact on well-being. In the interviews, the managers of micro-sized enterprises reported that the pandemic had increased their workload and forced them to mobilise strategies for enterprise survival. This study indicates that managers of micro-sized enterprises had changed their leadership role and increased their workload and number of work tasks, including supporting the employees, developing strategies for business survival and applying for governmental support. However, the managers demonstrated creativity in finding new solutions for their enterprises.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Empreendedorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Empresa de Pequeno Porte/organização & administração , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Suécia
8.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 50-59, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077144

RESUMO

The KSA 2030 vision makes special reference to women's empowerment as an important strategy for Saudi community transformation. Studies related to women's empowerment, especially in the Saudi context, are still not enough and unclear. The current study explored the predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitudes among Saudi academic and administrative staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 15 Saudi government-owned universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants during the period April to September 2020. The study instrument consisting of three main parts; basic demographic data, questionnaire assessed the knowledge regarding women's empowerment, and women empowerment attitude scale. The results showed good knowledge of empowerment among the women with 75.5% of the participants demonstrating good knowledge. The total women empowerment attitude was positive among 65.9% of the participants. The association between demographic data and women empowerment knowledge and attitude showed a significant association with marital status, residence, education, and occupation (p <0.05). Linear regression on marital status, education, residence, and occupation, are confirmed as significant predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitude (p <0.05). Mother's education level is shown as a predictor for women empowerment attitude (p>0.005). Three-quarters of Saudi academic and administrative staff have a good women empowerment knowledge score, and more than two-thirds have a positive attitude. Demographic characteristics are important predictors for women empowerment knowledge and attitude. The results of this study will help decision-makers to design and implement goal-directed women empowerment programs.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 60-68, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077145

RESUMO

Women in Saudi Arabia constitute nearly 50% of the population, but their participation in economic and social activities are far below the kingdom's potential. According to the 2030 vision, women empowerment is an essential requirement for community transformation and development. The study aims to explore women empowerment among academic and administrative staff in Saudi Universities. A cross-sectional research design was conducted at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select 5587 participants. The data collection starts from April to September 2020. The current study results illustrate statistically significant differences between academic and administrative staff in the total women empowerment score and all of its dimensions (p <0.05). The majority of academic staff (84.4%) have high personal empowerment compared to 73.7% of the administrative staff. The study concluded that women empowerment is higher among academics compared to administrative staff in Saudi Universities.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
10.
Dan Med J ; 68(6)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was established that otorhinolaryngologists were at a high risk of contracting the infection due to examinations of the upper airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health among healthcare workers (HCWs) in primary ear-nose-throat (ENT) practices. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among HCWs assessing symptoms of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder, ten-item scale) and depression (Patients Health Questionnaire, nine-item scale). The survey targeted otolaryngologists and staff in primary private practices in the Capital Region of Denmark during the COVID-19 lock-down in May 2020. RESULTS: For 30% of the participants, signs were observed of depressive symptoms and 13% had signs of anxiety symptoms. Seventy percent felt sufficiently protected by their available personal protective equipment. Fifty-two percent worried about becoming infected in relation to their work and 56% feared infecting their families. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in Danish primary ENT practices did not display extraordinary stress reactions during the first wave of the pandemic. Noticeably, participants were concerned about acquiring the infection or transmitting it to their household. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Otolaringologia , Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Otorrinolaringologistas/psicologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Prática Privada , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 50(9): 102186, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the various treatment methods and recurrence rates regarding Bartholin's gland abscesses under office conditions in our clinic. METHODS: In our study, the data of 155 patients who applied to the gynaecology and obstetrics clinic of our hospital between January 2017 and November 2020 and had Bartholin's abscess that was treated with surgical methods under office conditions were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the 155 patients included in the study, 111 underwent incision drainage, 22 underwent marsupialization, and 22 underwent incision drainage+ silver nitrate. Bartholin's abscess was localized on the right side in 48.4% of the patients and on the left side in 51.6% of the patients. Recurrence was detected in 53 of 155 patients included. Recurrence was detected in 39.6% of the patients who underwent incision drainage in the first treatment, 31.8% of those who underwent marsupialization, and 9.1% of those who underwent incision+silver nitrate. The difference in success, based on recurrence rates, was found to be statistically significantly in favour of silver nitrate (p<0.05). In secondary treatments for recurrent cases, marsupialization or incision+silver nitrate treatment was effective in over 90% of cases, while incision drainage was effective in 30% of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings of our study show that silver nitrate application led to a lower recurrence rate than the other two methods. In view of this, we recommend that marsupialization or silver nitrate be preferred, especially in the treatment of recurrent cases.


Assuntos
Abscesso/cirurgia , Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Glândulas Vestibulares Maiores/cirurgia , Paracentese/métodos , Abscesso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Glândulas Vestibulares Maiores/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paracentese/normas , Paracentese/estatística & dados numéricos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26361, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Work-life balance (WLB) is an essential precursor of workers' mental health. The theory of rational emotive behaviour therapy proposes that an imbalance in work and family life may result from people's dysfunctional perceptions of their work and other aspects of their personal life. Also, the constructive philosophies of rational emotive behavior therapy are said to be congruent with most religious belief systems of Christian clients. Therefore, our research examined the efficacy of Christian religious rational emotive behaviour therapy (CRREBT) on WLB among administrative officers in Catholic primary schools. METHODS: This is a group randomized trial involving 162 administrative officers from Catholic primary schools in Southeast Nigeria. The treatment process involved an 8-session CRREBT programme. RESULTS: The scores for WLB of the administrative officers enrolled in the CRREBT programme were significantly improved compared to those in the control group at the end of the study. At the follow-up phase, the CRREBT programme proved to be effective over a 3-month period. CONCLUSION: CRREBT is an effective therapeutic strategy for managing WLB among Catholic school administrative officers.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Catolicismo , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e26385, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the German government and the 16 German federal states implemented a variety of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to decelerate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and thus prevent a collapse of the health care system. These measures comprised, among others, social distancing, the temporary closure of shops and schools, and a ban of large public gatherings and meetings with people not living in the same household. OBJECTIVE: It is fair to assume that the issued NPIs have heavily affected social life and psychological functioning. We therefore aimed to examine possible effects of this lockdown in conjunction with daily new infections and the state of the national economy on people's interests, motives, and other psychological states. METHODS: We derived 249 keywords from the Google Trends database, tapping into 27 empirically and rationally selected psychological domains. To overcome issues with reliability and specificity of individual indicator variables, broad factors were derived by means of time series factor analysis. All domains were subjected to a change point analysis and time series regression analysis with infection rates, NPIs, and the state of the economy as predictors. All keywords and analyses were preregistered prior to analysis. RESULTS: With the pandemic arriving in Germany, significant increases in people's search interests were observed in virtually all domains. Although most of the changes were short-lasting, each had a distinguishable onset during the lockdown period. Regression analysis of the Google Trends data confirmed pronounced autoregressive effects for the investigated variables, while forecasting by means of the tested predictors (ie, daily new infections, NPIs, and the state of economy) was moderate at best. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that people's interests, motives, and psychological states are heavily affected in times of crisis and lockdown. Specifically, disease- and virus-related domains (eg, pandemic disease, symptoms) peaked early, whereas personal health strategies (eg, masks, homeschooling) peaked later during the lockdown. Domains addressing social life and psychosocial functioning showed long-term increases in public interest. Renovation was the only domain to show a decrease in search interest with the onset of the lockdown. As changes in search behavior are consistent over multiple domains, a Google Trends analysis may provide information for policy makers on how to adapt and develop intervention, information, and prevention strategies, especially when NPIs are in effect.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Conflito de Interesses , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
15.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 71: 88-94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have a sustained psychological impact on healthcare workers. We assessed individual characteristics related to changes in emotional exhaustion and psychological distress over time. METHODS: A survey of diverse hospital staff measured emotional exhaustion (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and psychological distress (K6) in Fall 2020 (T1) and Winter 2021 (T2). Relationships between occupational, personal, and psychological variables were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Of 539 T1 participants, 484 (89.9%) completed T2. Emotional exhaustion differed by occupational role (F = 7.3, p < .001; greatest in nurses), with increases over time in those with children (F = 8.5, p = .004) or elders (F = 4.0, p = .047). Psychological distress was inversely related to pandemic self-efficacy (F = 110.0, p < .001), with increases over time in those with children (F = 7.0, p = .008). Severe emotional exhaustion occurred in 41.1% (95%CI 36.6-45.4) at T1 and 49.8% (95%CI 45.4-54.2) at T2 (McNemar test p < .001). Psychological distress occurred in 9.7% (95%CI 7.1-12.2) at T1 and 11.6% (95%CI 8.8-14.4) at T2 (McNemar test p = .33). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers' psychological burden is high and rising as the pandemic persists. Ongoing support is warranted, especially for nurses and those with children and elders at home. Modifiable protective factors, restorative sleep and self-efficacy, merit special attention.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19 , Características da Família , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Papel Profissional , Angústia Psicológica , Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoeficácia , Sono , Adulto Jovem
16.
Malar J ; 20(1): 164, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wide-spread implementation of treatment regimens for the radical cure of vivax malaria is hindered by a range of factors. This has resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of vivax malaria and is an important obstacle in the achievement of global malaria elimination by 2030. The main objective of this study was to explore the current policies guiding the treatment plans on vivax malaria, and the factors affecting the implementation of radical cure in South/South East Asian and Asian Pacific countries. METHODS: This was a qualitative study among respondents who represented national malaria control programmes (NMCPs) or had a role and influence in the national malaria policies. 33 respondents from 17 countries in South/South East Asia and Asia Pacific participated in interviews between October 15 and December 15, 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted virtually except for two face to face interviews and audio-recorded. Transcribed audio-records underwent thematic analysis using QSR NVivo. RESULTS: Policies against vivax malaria were underprioritized, compared with the focus on falciparum malaria and, in particular, drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Despite the familiarity with primaquine (PQ) as the essential treatment to achieve the radical cure, the respondents contested the need for G6PD testing. Optional G6PD testing was reported to have poor adherence. The fear of adverse events led health workers to hesitate prescribing PQ. In countries where G6PD was mandatory, respondents experienced frequent stockouts of G6PD rapid diagnostic kits in peripheral health facilities, which was compounded by a short shelf life of these tests. These challenges were echoed across participating countries to various degrees. Most respondents agreed that a shorter treatment regimen, such as single dose tafenoquine could resolve these problems but mandatory G6PD testing will be needed. The recommendation of shorter regimens including tafenoquine or high dose PQ requires operational evidence demonstrating the robust performance of point of care G6PD tests (biosensors). CONCLUSION: There was sparse implementation and low adherence to the radical cure in South/South East Asian and Asian pacific countries. Shorter treatment regimens with appropriate point of care quantitative G6PD tests may resolve the current challenges. Operational evidence on point of care quantitative G6PD tests that includes the feasibility of integrating such tests into the radical cure regimen are critical to ensure its implementation.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Política de Saúde , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Ásia , Malária Vivax/psicologia
17.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(3): 310-317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 represents an unprecedented challenge to policy makers as well as those entrusted with capturing, monitoring, and analyzing COVID-19 data. Effective public policy is data-informed policy. This requires a liaison between public health scientists and public officials. OBJECTIVE: This article details the experience, challenges, and lessons learned advising public officials in a large metropolitan area from March to October 2020. METHODS: To effectively do this, an R Markdown report was created to iteratively monitor the number of COVID-19 tests performed, positive tests obtained, COVID-19 hospitalization census, intensive care unit census, the number of patients with COVID-19 on ventilators, and the number of deaths due to COVID-19. RESULTS: These reports were presented and discussed at meetings with policy makers to further comprehension. DISCUSSION: To facilitate the fullest understanding by both the general public and policy makers alike, we advocate for greater centralization of public health surveillance data, objective operational definitions of metrics, and greater interagency communication to best guide and inform policy makers. Through consistent data reporting methods, parsimonious and consistent analytic methods, a clear line of communication with policy makers, transparency, and the ability to navigate unforeseen externalities such as "data dumps" and reporting delays, scientists can use information to best support policy makers in times of crises.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 63-74, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727738

RESUMO

The Japanese government has made efforts towards the advancement of women into society; thereby, the proportion of female managers has been increasing. Recent reports have shown that managers tend to be in poor health condition. However, little research has been conducted to examine the psychological health of female managers. Therefore, the aim of our study was to reveal the difference of psychological distress by occupational position in female workers with focus on occupational stress. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 via an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to workers in Tsukuba City, Japan. Student unpaired t test was used to compare occupational stress and psychological distress by occupational position. Binomial logistic regressions were used to analyze factors that affect psychological distress separately in managers and non-managers. A total of 1543 women (168 managers, 1375 non-managers) were analyzed. Managers showed higher occupational stress but lower psychological distress than non-managers. Problems in interpersonal relationships was positively associated with psychological distress, whereas occupation as a researcher/academic was negatively associated with psychological distress in managers. Mental workload and problems in interpersonal relationships were positively associated with psychological distress, whereas reward from work and support were negatively associated with psychological distress in non-managers. Managers and non-managers both showed an association between psychological distress and problems of interpersonal relationships. Non-managers might have higher psychological distress due to lower reward from work. It is important to increase reward from work and to develop female workers' interpersonal skills in order to reduce the psychological distress of female workers.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Recompensa , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248345, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720968

RESUMO

The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) created an international public health emergency, challenging the psychological resilience of the general population. Regarding this matter, a web-based survey was performed. Data were collected from the following 1,668 self-selected volunteers: 800 athletes (28.30 ± 10.93 years old); 558 coaches (36.91 ± 11.93 years old); and 310 sports managers (42.07 ± 13.38 years old). To assess the level of psychological stress, an Impact of the Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire was used. The results indicated that 34.4% of the participants who were interviewed were affected by subjective distress while 26.4% rated their psychological impact from the sports activity interruption as severe. Separated one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed significant differences in the IES-R total score (TS), indicating that the level of stress in terms of gender revealed that women were more stressed than men (p = 0.000), for "sports roles" in which the manager and coaches were more stressed than the athletes (p < 0.05), and "type of sport" in which fitness and individual athletes were more stressed than team athletes (p < 0.01). The middle-level athletes showed significantly more hyperarousal levels than high-level athletes (p = 0.012). The results of this survey may raise awareness of this problem and help athletic associations to have appropriate guidelines in order to better sustain their memberships and organize an optimal resumption of their sports activities. Along these lines, social interactions, which are typical of team sports, are crucial to warrant resilience and psychological health. The athletes by managing independently the new rules and measures, thanks to a clear communication, could improve their adaptive stress reaction.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , COVID-19/patologia , Esportes , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena , Resiliência Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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