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1.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1053-1062, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396137

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third coronavirus outbreak that has emerged in the past 20 years, after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). One important aspect, highlighted by many global health organizations, is that this novel coronavirus outbreak may be especially hazardous to healthcare personnel, including laboratory professionals. Therefore, the aim of this document, prepared by the COVID-19 taskforce of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), is to provide a set of recommendations, adapted from official documents of international and national health agencies, on biosafety measures for routine clinical chemistry laboratories that operate at biosafety levels 1 (BSL-1; work with agents posing minimal threat to laboratory workers) and 2 (BSL-2; work with agents associated with human disease which pose moderate hazard). We believe that the interim measures proposed in this document for best practice will help minimazing the risk of developing COVID-19 while working in clinical laboratories.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pessoal de Laboratório
5.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(SI-1): 578-584, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299205

RESUMO

In the COVID-19 pandemic, which affects the whole world, healthcare professionals (HCP) are at high risk of transmission due to their direct contact with patients with COVID-19. Therefore, how to ensure the triage of the patient with acute respiratory symptoms should be determined in advance, the contact distance should be arranged to be at least 2 m, COVID-19 suspect or diagnosed patient should be instructed to wear a surgical mask. During the care of these patients, HCP should wear their personal protective equipment (PPE) in accordance with the procedure and should not neglect hand hygiene. The samples of the patient with known or suspected COVID-19, patient should also be known to be risky in terms of contamination, and a risk assessment should be performed for the procedures to be performed in laboratories. The PPE should be used in accordance with the procedure to be performed. The protection of the HCP, who sacrifice at the risk of life, is possible only by complying with infection control and precautions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pessoal de Laboratório , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Medição de Risco
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-02-06.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51906

RESUMO

In December 2019 a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was identified as the causative agent of a severe acute respiratory illness among people exposed in a seafood market in Wuhan, China. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, including in healthcare workers, and aerosol-generating procedures (AGP)† may play a role in the spread of the disease. There are uncertainties in the natural history of the 2019-nCoV, including source(s), transmissibility mechanisms, viral shedding, and persistence of the virus in the environment and on fomites. As of 6 February 2020, the following precautions are recommended for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV: For any suspected or confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV: standard + contact + droplet precautions; for any suspected or confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV and AGP: standard + contact + airborne precautions. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare workers requires an evaluation of the risk related to healthcare-related activities. These recommendations are preliminary and subject to review as new evidence becomes available.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Aerossóis , Vírus da SARS , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Pessoal de Laboratório , Especificações Técnicas
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-02-06.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51905

RESUMO

En diciembre de 2019, un nuevo coronavirus (2019-nCoV) fue identificado como el agente etiológico de una enfermedad respiratoria aguda severa en personas expuestas a un mercado de mariscos en Wuhan, China. La transmisión interhumana ha sido documentada, incluso en trabajadores de salud y los procedimientos generadores de aerosoles (PGA)† pueden tener un rol en la diseminación de la enfermedad. Hay muchas incertidumbres respecto a la historia natural de la enfermedad por el 2019-nCoV, incluyendo fuente(s), los mecanismos de transmisión, la capacidad de diseminación del virus, y la persistencia del virus en el ambiente y fómites. Al 06 de febrero de 2020, se recomiendan las siguientes precauciones para el cuidado del pacientes sospechosos o confirmados de 2019-nCoV: Para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de 2019-nCoV: precauciones estándares + contacto + precauciones en la transmisión por gotitas; para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de 2019-nCoV y procedimientos generadores de aerosoles: precauciones estándares + contacto + transmisión aérea (aerosoles o núcleo de gotitas). El uso de equipos de protección personal (EPP) por los trabajadores de salud requiere de la evaluación del riesgo relacionada a las actividades de salud. Estas recomendaciones son preliminares y sujetas a revisión hasta que nuevas evidencias estén disponibles.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Aerossóis , Laboratórios , Pessoal de Laboratório , Prevenção de Doenças , Avaliação de Risco e Mitigação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio
8.
J Prosthodont ; 29(2): 114-123, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893566

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In-laboratory assessment by laboratory technicians may offer insight to increase clinical success of dental crowns, and research in this area is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network enrolled patients in a study about single-unit crowns; laboratory technicians evaluated the quality of tooth preparations and impressions. The primary outcome for each crown was clinical acceptability (CAC), as judged by the treating dentist. A secondary outcome was "Goodness of Fit (GOF)," a composite score of several aspects of clinical fit, also judged by the study dentist. A mixed-effects logistic regression was used to analyze associations between laboratory technician ratings and the CAC and GOF. RESULTS: Dentists (n = 205) evaluated 3731 crowns. Technicians ranked the marginal detail of impressions as good or excellent in 92% of cases; other aspects of the impression were ranked good or excellent 88% of the time. Regarding tooth preparation, about 90% of preparations were considered adequate (neither excessive nor inadequate reduction). Factors associated with higher CAC were more preparation taper, and use of optical imaging. Factors associated with better GOF were higher impression quality, greater occlusal reduction, more preparation taper, and optical imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Overall quality of preparations and impressions was very high, as evaluated by laboratory technicians. Several clinical parameters were associated with higher CAC and GOF. Clinicians who struggle with crown remakes might consider less conservative tooth preparation, as well as using digital impression technology.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Laboratório , Dente , Coroas , Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Odontólogos , Humanos
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-01-28. (PAHO/PHE/IHM/COVID-19/20-007).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51897

RESUMO

In January 2020, the etiologic agent responsible for a cluster of severe pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was identified as a novel beta-coronavirus (2019-nCoV), distinct than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (1) (2) (3). The complete genomic sequence of this new agent is available and different detection protocols have been developed, although they have not been fully validated yet. However, in light of the possible introduction of a suspected case related to 2019-nCoV in the Region of the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO / WHO) recommends that Member States ensure its timely identification either by the shipment of the samples to national or reference laboratories, or the implementation of the molecular detection protocol for 2019-nCoV, depending on the laboratory's capacity. To date, the pathogenic potential and transmission dynamics of 2019-nCoV is not fully understood. For this reason and in the light of the knowledge of other similar viruses (e.g., MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV), it is necessary to maintain and strengthen biosafety measures including personal protection procedures, to work with samples from suspected cases of respiratory pathogen infection.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Manejo de Espécimes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pneumonia , Pessoal de Laboratório
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-01-28. (OPS/PHE/IHM/COVID-19/20-007).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51896

RESUMO

En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo betacoronavirus (2019-nCoV), distinto del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV (1) (2) (3). La secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente está disponible y se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de detección, aunque aún no se han validado por completo. Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales o de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio. Hasta la fecha, no es completamente claro el potencial patogénico ni la dinámica de transmisión del 2019-nCoV. Por esta razón y a la luz del conocimiento de otros virus similares (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV), es necesario mantener y fortalecer las medidas de bioseguridad y elementos de protección personal para el trabajo con muestras sospechosas de infección con patógenos respiratorios.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Manejo de Espécimes , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia , Pessoal de Laboratório
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 117-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733053

RESUMO

Ethiopia aims to diagnose and treat all clinical malaria within 24 hours of fever onset in its stride to eliminate the disease by 2030. Microscopy remains to be the mainstay for diagnosis at the health center and hospital level. Continuous evaluation and performance upgrading of malaria microscopists is one of the cornerstones in this effort. We assessed the performance of malaria microscopists compared with reference readers in diagnosing, identifying the species, and quantifying parasitemia. A total of 174 microscopists were enrolled from health facilities located in 86 districts in Oromia region (Ethiopia) from January 2017 to June 2018. Panel slides with known Plasmodium species, diagnostic blood stage, and parasite density were prepared by the reference readers. Sociodemographics, education, in-service training, and routine practice of participants were captured. Sensitivity, specificity, percent agreement, and kappa score were calculated. An overall low performance was observed that could threaten the malaria diagnostic service. Of all the slides distributed (1,218), only 17.0% of the positive and 30.0% of the negative slides were correctly identified and 22.4% were correctly quantified. Compared with the reference readers, participants had lower competence in diagnosing (74.3% agreement and kappa 0.45) and identifying the species (71.2% agreement and kappa 0.40). Two-fifths of the participants were graded as "in training" with respect to identifying the species (41.0%) and the diagnostic stages (40.0%). An in-service training/retraining and supportive supervision are needed to raise and maintain the competence of microscopists in settings with a recent decline in malaria transmission and aiming for ultimate elimination of the disease.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Laboratório/normas , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Microscopia/normas , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Erros de Diagnóstico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Public Health Rep ; 134(2_suppl): 37S-42S, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682560

RESUMO

International initiatives to strengthen national health laboratory systems in resource-poor countries are often hampered by unfamiliarity with the country's health laboratory environment and turnover of international partners during the initiative. This study provides an overview of, and lessons learned from, the use of a laboratory long-term partnership approach (ie, "twinning") to strengthen the national public health laboratory system in an international setting. We focused on the partnering of the Uganda Ministry of Health Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) with the New Mexico State Public Health Laboratory to help the CPHL become Uganda's national public health reference laboratory (Uganda National Health Laboratory Services [UNHLS] Institute) and leader of its nascent Uganda National Health Laboratory Network (UNHLN). Via twinning, CPHL leadership received training on laboratory leadership and management, quality systems, facility management, and the One Health environmental strategy (ie, that the health of persons is connected to the health of animals and the environment), and drafted a National Health Laboratory Policy, UNHLS Institute business plan, and strategic and operating plans for the UNHLS Institute and UNHLN. The CPHL is now responsible for the UNHLS Institute and coordinates the UNHLN. Lessons learned include (1) twinning establishes stable long-term collaborations and (2) success requires commitment to a formal statement of activities and objectives, as well as clear and regular communication among partners.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Programas Governamentais/normas , Assistência Técnica ao Planejamento em Saúde/economia , Internacionalidade , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Assistência Técnica ao Planejamento em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Laboratórios/normas , Pessoal de Laboratório/educação , Liderança , New Mexico , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Saúde Pública/educação , Uganda
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(42): 20910-20916, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570599

RESUMO

The doctoral advisor-typically the principal investigator (PI)-is often characterized as a singular or primary mentor who guides students using a cognitive apprenticeship model. Alternatively, the "cascading mentorship" model describes the members of laboratories or research groups receiving mentorship from more senior laboratory members and providing it to more junior members (i.e., PIs mentor postdocs, postdocs mentor senior graduate students, senior students mentor junior students, etc.). Here we show that PIs' laboratory and mentoring activities do not significantly predict students' skill development trajectories, but the engagement of postdocs and senior graduate students in laboratory interactions do. We found that the cascading mentorship model accounts best for doctoral student skill development in a longitudinal study of 336 PhD students in the United States. Specifically, when postdocs and senior doctoral students actively participate in laboratory discussions, junior PhD students are over 4 times as likely to have positive skill development trajectories. Thus, postdocs disproportionately enhance the doctoral training enterprise, despite typically having no formal mentorship role. These findings also illustrate both the importance and the feasibility of identifying evidence-based practices in graduate education.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Laboratório/educação , Competência Profissional , Pesquisa/educação , Adulto , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 76(4): 157-165, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594453

RESUMO

Advances in molecular genetics have identified several species of RNA that fail to translate - hence the non-coding RNAs. The two major groups within this class of nucleic acids are microRNAs (miRNA) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA). There is growing body of evidence supporting the view that these molecules have regulatory effect on both DNA and RNA. The objective of this brief review is to explain the molecular genetic of these molecules, to summarize their potential as mediators of disease, and to highlight their value as diagnostic markers and as tools in disease management.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório/educação , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(42): 943-946, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647789

RESUMO

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an orthopoxvirus used in smallpox vaccines, as a vector for novel cancer treatments, and for experimental vaccine research (1). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends smallpox vaccination for laboratory workers who handle replication-competent VACV (1). For bioterrorism preparedness, the U.S. government stockpiles tecovirimat, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved antiviral for treatment of smallpox (caused by variola virus and globally eradicated in 1980*,†) (2). Tecovirimat has activity against other orthopoxviruses and can be administered under a CDC investigational new drug protocol. CDC was notified about an unvaccinated laboratory worker with a needlestick exposure to VACV, who developed a lesion on her left index finger. CDC and partners performed laboratory confirmation, contacted the study sponsor to identify the VACV strain, and provided oversight for the first case of laboratory-acquired VACV treated with tecovirimat plus intravenous vaccinia immunoglobulin (VIGIV). This investigation highlights 1) the misconception among laboratory workers about the virulence of VACV strains; 2) the importance of providing laboratorians with pathogen information and postexposure procedures; and 3) that although tecovirimat can be used to treat VACV infections, its therapeutic benefit remains unclear.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Laboratório , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/virologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/virologia , Vaccinia/terapia , Adulto , California , Feminino , Humanos
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 656, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Laboratory professionals play a vital role in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. Knowledge of workplace variables that either motivates staff to keep working or quit their jobs is important for decision making. Thus, this study aimed to assess intentions to leave workplace and associated factors among laboratory professionals working at public hospitals of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. RESULTS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 16 to March 14, 2016, among 336 randomly selected laboratory professionals. The study revealed that 65.5% (95% CI 60-70) of professionals had intentions to leave their hospitals. Dissatisfaction with the provision of educational opportunities (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI 1.61-7.99), poor pays and benefits (AOR: 3.89, 95% CI 1.53-9.89), lack of recognition (AOR: 2.69, 95% CI 1.35-5.38), poor working environments (AOR: 2.77, 95% CI 1.45-3.30), high workload (AOR: 1.94, 95% CI 1.04-3.63), low affective commitment (AOR: 2.05, 95% CI 1.10-3.82), and being unmarried (AOR: 2.46, 95% CI 1.32-4.58) were factors significantly associated with intentions to leave. Magnitude of laboratory professionals' intention to leave was so high. Healthcare policymakers and hospital managers need to develop and institutionalize evidence-based retention strategies to reduce the intention of laboratory professionals to leave their workplace.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos , Intenção , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Pessoal de Laboratório/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Pessoal de Laboratório/psicologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4331, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575871

RESUMO

Setbacks are an integral part of a scientific career, yet little is known about their long-term effects. Here we examine junior scientists applying for National Institutes of Health R01 grants. By focusing on proposals fell just below and just above the funding threshold, we compare near-miss with narrow-win applicants, and find that an early-career setback has powerful, opposing effects. On the one hand, it significantly increases attrition, predicting more than a 10% chance of disappearing permanently from the NIH system. Yet, despite an early setback, individuals with near misses systematically outperform those with narrow wins in the longer run. Moreover, this performance advantage seems to go beyond a screening mechanism, suggesting early-career setback appears to cause a performance improvement among those who persevere. Overall, these findings are consistent with the concept that "what doesn't kill me makes me stronger," which may have broad implications for identifying, training and nurturing junior scientists.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Laboratório/psicologia , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Pesquisa/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574105

RESUMO

In order to support decision making on how to most effectively improve broiler welfare an innovative expert survey was conducted based on principles derived from semantic modelling. Twenty-seven experts, mainly broiler welfare scientists (n = 20; and 7 veterinarians), responded (response rate 38%) by giving welfare scores (GWS, scale 0-10) to 14 benchmarking housing systems (HSs), and explaining these overall scores by selecting, weighing and scoring main welfare parameters, including both input and output measures. Data exploration followed by REML (Linear Mixed Model) and ALM (Automatic Linear Modelling) analyses revealed 6 clusters of HSs, sorted from high to low welfare, i.e. mean GWS (with superscripts indicating significant differences): 1. (semi-natural backyard) Flock (8.8a); 2. Nature (7.7ab), Label Rouge II (7.4ab), Free range EU (7.2ab), Better Life (7.2ab); 3. Organic EU (7.0bc), Freedom Food (6.2bc); 4. Organic US (5.8bcd), Concepts NL (5.6abcdef), GAP 2 (4.9bcd); 5. Conventional EU (3.7de), Conventional US (2.9ef), Modern cage (2.9abcdef); 6. Battery cage (1.3f). Mean weighting factors (WF, scale 0-10) of frequently (n> = 15) scored parameters were: Lameness (8.8), Health status (8.6), Litter (8.3), Density (8.2), Air quality (8.1), Breed (8.0), Enrichment (7.0) and Outdoor (6.6). These did not differ significantly, and did not have much added value in explaining GWS. Effects of Role (Scientist/Vet), Gender (M/F) and Region (EU/non-EU) did not significantly affect GWS or WF, except that women provided higher WF than men (7.2 vs 6.4, p<0.001). The contribution of welfare components to overall welfare has been quantified in two ways: a) using the beta-coefficients of statistical regression (ALM) analyses, and b) using a semantic-modelling type (weighted average) calculation of overall scores (CalcWS) from parameter level scores (PLS) and WF. GWS and CalcWS were highly correlated (R = ~0.85). CalcWS identified Lameness, Health status, Density, Breed, Air quality and Litter as main parameters contributing to welfare. ALM showed that the main parameters which significantly explained the variance in GWS based on all PLS, were the output parameter Health status (with a beta-coefficient of 0.38), and the input parameters (stocking) Density (0.42), Litter (0.14) and Enrichment (0.27). The beta-coefficients indicated how much GWS would improve from 1 unit improvement in PLS for each parameter, thus the potential impact on GWS ranged from 1.4 welfare points for Litter to 4.2 points for Density. When all parameters were included, 81% of the variance in GWS was explained (77% for inputs alone; 39% for outputs alone). From this, it appears that experts use both input and output parameters to explain overall welfare, and that both are important. The major conventional systems and modern cages for broilers received low welfare scores (2.9-3.7), well below scores that may be considered acceptable (5.5). Also, several alternatives like GAP 2 (4.9), Concepts NL (5.6), Organic US (5.8) and Freedom Food (6.2) are unacceptable, or at risk of being unacceptable due to individual variation between experts and farms. Thus, this expert survey provides a preliminary semi-quantified decision-support tool to help determine how to most effectively improve broiler welfare in a wide range of HSs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Fazendas/normas , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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