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1.
Bull Hist Med ; 93(2): 180-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303628

RESUMO

This article analyzes the gap between the defectological narrative of care and the reality of institutional life for children with learning disabilities in the Soviet Union of the 1930s. It shows that, under Stalin, the Soviet discipline of defectology entailed a promise of correction and social integration that aligned well with the official rhetoric of triumphant socialism and that incorporated new, specific ideological meanings into its long-standing narrative of care. I also show that the defectological narrative was rarely realized in practice due to not only scarce material resources but also a profound reversal of defectological and Marxist conceptions of labor. By analyzing the disconnect between rhetoric and reality in the treatment of "mentally retarded" children in prewar Stalinism, this article contributes to a deeper understanding of the Soviet system and ideology of care.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunismo , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/reabilitação , Socialismo , U.R.S.S.
3.
Nervenarzt ; 88(9): 1065-1073, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Bavarian psychiatric hospitals approximately 15,000 people with mental handicaps and mental illnesses were killed after the so-called Action T4. The Heil- und Pflegeanstalt (psychiatric hospital) Günzburg was a so-called Zwischenanstalt (interim institution). The aim of the study was to analyze its role in carrying out "regionalized euthanasia". METHODS: Based on defined criteria the patient records of deceased patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital between July 1941 and December 1943 were analyzed to establish whether criteria for "regionalized euthanasia" were fulfilled. RESULTS: During the study period 45 patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital probably died following actions by direct or indirect intention to kill using malnutrition, neglect, medication overdose or a combination of these actions. CONCLUSION: The Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital was involved in "regionalized euthanasia".


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Eutanásia/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Registros Médicos , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Public Health ; 107(1): 50-54, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27854540

RESUMO

From 1919 to 1952, approximately 20 000 individuals were sterilized in California's state institutions on the basis of eugenic laws that sought to control the reproductive capacity of people labeled unfit and defective. Using data from more than 19 000 sterilization recommendations processed by state institutions over this 33-year period, we provide the most accurate estimate of living sterilization survivors. As of 2016, we estimate that as many as 831 individuals, with an average age of 87.9 years, are alive. We suggest that California emulate North Carolina and Virginia, states that maintained similar sterilization programs and recently have approved monetary compensation for victims. We discuss the societal obligation for redress of this historical injustice and recommend that California seriously consider reparations and full accountability.


Assuntos
Compensação e Reparação , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Esterilização Reprodutiva/história , California , Política de Planejamento Familiar/história , História do Século XX , Humanos
6.
Asclepio ; 68(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158647

RESUMO

Some recent OECD-studies tackle new psychosomatic symptoms in the context of work. So we find the paradoxical situation, that although the state of health and well-being in societies grows, statistics show growing rates of burn-out syndroms together with uneasiness, addiction and non-functioning. One in five workers suffer from a mental illness, such as depression or anxiety, and many more are struggling to cope. In a closer reading we can see, that the social-medical model still dominates this actual policy research, although the cultural model has gained growing recognition in the last fifteen years. But we find a double blank spot with relevance for historical knowledge formation: On the one side, studies on work that use the tool set of cultural studies can rarely be found. On the other side, disability studies that work with the cultural model are rarely tackling the working subject. Starting from this analytical point, this contribution wants to stimulate historical knowledge formation on the working subject. The epistemic perspective of this study is coined by the cultural model of disability; the methodology is based on the visual, the spatial and the linguistic turn. In studying historical artefacts like film scenes or juridical definitions, we can come to a closer understanding of how we conceptualise human beings. The thesis is, that during the 20th-century the changing 'microphysics of power' (Foucault) produced new forms of subjectivation: Either, workers tried to assimilate to the 'machine rhythms' or they uttered their needs in 'embodied dissent'. There are multilayered facets in between. I want to develop the argumentation that the body/mind-centering seems to be at the heart of the postfordist transformation. The article concludes by underlining the possibility to read bodies as a source, an approach Bryan S. Turner has theorized in his article 'Disability and the Sociology of the Body' (AU)


Algunos estudios recientes de la Organización para la Cooperación Económica y el Desarrollo (OECD) hablan de la aparición de nuevos síntomas psicosomáticos en el ámbito del trabajo. Nos encontramos con la paradoja de que a pesar de que el estado de salud y de bienestar crece en la sociedad, las tasas del síndrome de burnout, junto con la ansiedad, adicción y disfunción cada vez son más altas. Uno de cada cinco trabajadores padece algún tipo de enfermedad mental, como depresión o ansiedad, y muchos otros luchan para enfrentarse a ella. Una lectura atenta nos permite ver que el modelo socio-médico domina la investigación, a pesar de que en los últimos 15 años el modelo cultural ha ido cobrando cada vez más importancia. Sin embargo, existen dos puntos relevantes para el conocimiento histórico que necesitan mayor desarrollo: por un lado, existen pocos estudios sobre el trabajo que usen las herramientas de los estudios culturales y, por otro, los estudios sobre discapacidad basados en el modelo cultural raramente abordan el ámbito del sujeto trabajador. Partiendo de este punto de análisis, este artículo pretende estimular la reflexión sobre la formación del conocimiento histórico en el ambito del trabajo. La perspectiva epistemológica (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XX , Defesa das Pessoas com Deficiência/história , Pessoas com Deficiência/história , Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/história , Conhecimento , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Saúde da Pessoa com Deficiência
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 143(5): 658-62, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26203578

RESUMO

Maria Montessori is one of the most well-known women in Italian history. Although she was the first woman who graduated in medicine in Italy, she is mostly known as an educator. Her teaching method--the Montessori Method- is still used worldwide--Because she could not speak English during the imprisonment in India, there was a big obstacle for her communication with children. However, the need to adopt a non-verbal communication, led her to a sensational discovery: children use an innate and universal language. This language, made of gestures and mimic, is called extra verbal communication.


Assuntos
Ensino/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Itália , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Comunicação não Verbal , Filatelia/história , Direitos da Mulher/história
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(5): 658-662, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-751710

RESUMO

Maria Montessori is one of the most well-known women in Italian history. Although she was the first woman who graduated in medicine in Italy, she is mostly known as an educator. Her teaching method -the Montessori Method- is still used worldwide. Because she could not speak English during the imprisonment in India, there was a big obstacle for her communication with children. However, the need to adopt a non-verbal communication, led her to a sensational discovery: children use an innate and universal language. This language, made of gestures and mimic, is called extra verbal communication .


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Ensino/história , Itália , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Comunicação não Verbal , Filatelia/história , Direitos da Mulher/história
11.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 7(2): 190-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24677671

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While numerous studies relating to the lives of intellectually challenged people have been published previously, most have been from the caregiver's perspective and lack an insider's view. In addition, none of them were conducted in a Chinese context. Our purpose is to fill this gap by studying the life of Sue Leung, an intellectually disabled Chinese woman in Hong Kong. METHODS: Using a narrative approach that combined interviews and observational data collected over an extended time period, the research sought a holistic understanding of her life, how she interacts with others and the challenges and difficulties she faces. RESULTS: Sue Leung's life proved to be complex with social, spiritual, psychological, sexual and financial dimensions. Her story, in which she herself and other mentally impaired people are the actors, reflects to some degree the world of mentally impaired people, at least in Hong Kong. Their world is just as complex as that of anyone else. Violence, dangers, romances, friendships and goodwill also exist in that world. DISCUSSION: Sue Leung's story has helped to unravel the various dimensions of her life and enabled a deeper understanding of the challenges and difficulties a mildly intellectually disabled woman has to face in her life in Hong Kong. Social implications are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/história , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Narração , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hong Kong , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia
12.
Psychiatr Pol ; 48(1): 205-20, 2014.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24946446

RESUMO

The article describes the considerations that were carried out by Polish psychiatrists and neurologists in the thirties of the twentieth century, due to the sterilization of persons with mental disorders. The paper presents a short history of sterilization laws in the world. The reaction to the German Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseased Offspring (1933) among Polish psychiatrists was presented. The views of psychiatrists and neurologists to the proposed sterilization law in Poland were also outlined. Two projects of eugenic laws in Poland came from psychiatrists. Sterilization Law in Poland ultimately was enacted.


Assuntos
Legislação Médica/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Esterilização Involuntária/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Polônia , Esterilização Involuntária/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 41(3): 173-9, 2013 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639925

RESUMO

«Euthanasia¼ was the cynical euphemism used by the Nazis to refer to the systematic murder of hundreds of thousands of mentally sick and handicapped people between 1939 and 1945, at least 6,000 of whom were children. Based on the example of Günter Nevermann, this paper provides insight into the complex acts of registering, selecting, and targeting children labelled as "inferior" and "unworthy to live." This case clearly shows that Nazi doctors were not necessarily enmeshed in some tragic conflict. Rather, apparently without any qualms, they sacrificed the sick children who had been entrusted to their care, for the ideal of obtaining a "racially healthy corpus," a term used without being questioned. Most of the perpetrators were never brought to justice, and not a few of them later held managerial positions in child and adolescent psychiatry in the two German states. Many of them were members or even honorary members of the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie e. V." in its present or previous form. We feel it is necessary to inform the public effectively about this state of affairs, to discover what really happened and to determine who was responsible.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/história , Crianças com Deficiência/história , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Eutanásia/história , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente/tendências , Criança , Psiquiatria Infantil/tendências , Previsões , Alemanha , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 9(373): 365-8, 2013 Feb 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23477069

RESUMO

Disability, especially if related to a psychiatric disorder, such as somatoform pain disorder, is characterized by medical, psychological, relational, social and societal, as well as financial and political aspects. This manuscript, part of a PhD thesis which reflects on a possible dialogue between an ancient text and the modern conceptualization of disability, tries to address the phenomenological, historical and political dimensions of disability.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/história , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Transtornos Somatoformes/história , Doença Crônica , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Mundo Grego , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Medição da Dor/história , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicoterapia/história , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apoio Social , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 47(8): 508-11, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21843187

RESUMO

Although they are the lesser known Nazi atrocities, it is estimated that some 5000-8000 children with physical and intellectual disabilities were killed in Nazi Germany under a programme of euthanasia. Chronologically, they were a precedent, being the Nazis' first organised and systematic killing programme that would later enlarge to include adults with disabilities and ultimately, to the broader programme of racially motivated 'euthanasia' of the holocaust. The programme intimately involved medical staff, including a number of paediatricians, many of whom would go unpunished and continue to practice for many years after the war. This paper outlines the origins and development of the programme, examines how families were involved and affected and looks at what motivated the medical staff involved with the killing. The history of the Nazi child euthanasia programme has a number of important lessons for practicing doctors and health policy-makers in the 21st century.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência/história , Eutanásia/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ética Médica/história , Eutanásia/psicologia , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Pediatria/história , Médicos/história
18.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 28(1): 95-122, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21595365

RESUMO

The development of a specialist intellectual disability workforce in independent Ireland by the Royal Medico-Psychological Association was influenced by nursing regulatory bodies and Catholic religious orders, the latter of which provided lay residential education to people with intellectual disabilities. Although the RMPA shaped curriculum and examinations, practice scope, clinical assessment and practical skills were weighted more heavily towards bedside nursing, psychology and education due to the input of the religious orders and nursing board.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/história , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/história , Catolicismo , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/história , Deficiência Intelectual/enfermagem , Irlanda , Psiquiatria/história , Religião e Psicologia , Sociedades Médicas/história
20.
J Med Ethics ; 35(6): 361-4, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19482979

RESUMO

In Nazi Germany, approximately 200 000 mentally ill people were murdered under the guise of euthanasia. Relatively little is known regarding the fate of the Jewish mentally ill patients targeted in this process, long before the Holocaust officially began. For the Nazis, Jewish mentally ill patients were doubly cursed since they embodied both "precarious genes" and "racial toxin". To preserve the memory of the victims, Yad Vashem, the leading institution dedicated to documentation of the Holocaust, actively collects information and documents the fate of victims in an open online database. Recently, a list of approximately 1200 names of Jewish mentally ill euthanasia victims has been compiled from hospital archives. Their fate remains unknown to surviving family members. Given the duty to preserve medical confidentiality, can this list be publicised for public interest and for notifying families-publicising names and death circumstances, including where "killed" would immediately indicate that the person had had a mental illness? Does the right to medical confidentiality lapse upon death? Is time elapsed since death a factor? Can opposing obligations of preserving victims' memory over-ride medical confidentiality? What if a family member objects to a grandparent's name being exposed on the list of mentally ill patients? This article considers these issues as well as the "rational" and "non-rational" factors in ethical decisional making surrounding this unique dilemma. Several possible solutions are proposed including preserving the list in a locked database for access by families and researchers, publicising in the media that such a list exists, publishing the information online without any identifiers and submitting the information to historians, allowing them to process the data as they see fit.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade/ética , Homicídio/ética , Registros Médicos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Editoração/ética , Revelação da Verdade/ética , Temas Bioéticos , Vítimas de Crime , Família/psicologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Judeus/etnologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/história , Socialismo Nacional , Grupos Populacionais/etnologia
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