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1.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 39(6): 422-431, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of electronic head-mounted low vision aid (e-LVA) SightPlus (GiveVision, UK, givevision.net) and to determine which people with low vision would see themselves likely using an e-LVA like this. METHODS: Sixty participants with low vision aged 18 to 93 used SightPlus during an in-clinic study session based on a mixed methods design. Visual acuity (ETDRS), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson) and reading performance (MNREAD) were measured binocularly at baseline (no device), with the device in 'normal' mode (zoom only), and with preferred enhanced mode (zoom and one of four digital image enhancements). At the end of the session, a short questionnaire recorded willingness to use an e-LVA like SightPlus, potential use cases, positive/negative comments and adverse effects. RESULTS: Binocular distance visual acuity improved significantly by 0.63 logMAR on average (p < 0.0001) to 0.20 logMAR. Contrast sensitivity improved significantly by 0.22 log units (p < 0.0001) to 1.21 log units with zoom only and by 0.40 log units to 1.37 log units with zoom and preferred image enhancement. Reading performance improved significantly for near visual acuity and critical print size (p < 0.015), although reading speed significantly decreased (p < 0.0001). Nearly half (47%) of the participants indicated they would use an e-LVA like SightPlus, especially for television, reading and entertainment (e.g. theatre). Multivariate logistic regression showed that proportion of lifetime affected by sight loss, baseline contrast sensitivity and use of electronic LVAs explained 41% of the variation in willingness to use. CONCLUSIONS: SightPlus improves visual function in people with low vision and would be used in its current form by one half of the people who tried it. Adverse effects were infrequent and resolved when the device was removed. Future work should focus on comparing e-LVAs through repeatable real-world tasks and impact on quality of life.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Baixa Visão/reabilitação , Acuidade Visual , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Visuais , Baixa Visão/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 26(3): 127-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study sought to determine the quality of life (QOL) of patients with visual impairment in Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, with a view to making recommendations for comprehensive management of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study carried out at the Eye Clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Southeast Nigeria. New patients aged 18 years and older were consecutively recruited. Data were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire and a World Health Organization's QOL Scale-Short Form (WHO-QOL-BREF). Participants had comprehensive eye examinations, and data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. RESULTS: One hundred and eight (53.7%) females and 93 (46.3%) males with a mean age of 55.92 ± 16.94 years participated in the study. The major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error, glaucoma, and cataract. Glaucoma (6.5%) was the leading cause of blindness. The overall QOL score was 61.10 ± 19.75, with the lowest mean score in the environmental domain. With increasing visual impairment, there was a 19.1% reduction in QOL. QOL was also affected by age, duration of visual impairment, and history of poor near vision. CONCLUSION: The leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in this study are avoidable and treatable. Health education, appropriate intervention, and support groups should be encouraged. This may serve to reduce the burden of visual impairment and improve the QOL of patients.


Assuntos
Cegueira/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Baixa Visão/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cegueira/etiologia , Catarata/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glaucoma/complicações , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Erros de Refração/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 634-643, oct 2019. fig
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046862

RESUMO

This article describes technical means of data communication for blind and visually impaired people. Radically new method of haptic and fingerspelling data coding is proposed based on fractal self-similarity of binary code. It would be possible to develop numerous typhlo-appliances at reasonable and low price, thus simplifying teaching Braille system both in conventional, manual, and computer variants. Coding of typhlodata on the basis of fractal self-similarity is referred to as fractal Braille. On the basis of fractal self-similarity of binary code, the concept of haptic and fingerspelling alphabet has been developed which combines essentially different methods of data coding in a single morphological base.


Assuntos
Fractais , Comunicação , Meios de Comunicação , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Bibliotecas Digitais
4.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 26(2): 101-106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to ascertain the current magnitude and causes of blindness and visual impairment in persons aged 50 years and over and to assess the impact of a 10-year eye care program in Sokoto State, Nigeria. METHODS: A rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey (in persons 50 years and over) was conducted in 2016. Participants were selected in Wurno health zone using a two-stage cluster randomized sampling with probability proportional to size. Operational definitions were based on RAAB and World Health Organization eye examination record definitions. Eye care program documents were reviewed and data from a baseline survey undertaken in 2005 were reanalyzed. RESULTS: A response of 89.1% (2405 of 2700 participants) was obtained in the 2016 survey. With available correction, the unadjusted prevalence of blindness was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4, 8.9). The odds of blindness were 1.8 times higher in females than males (95% CI: 1.3, 2.4; P < 0.001). Major causes of blindness were cataract (48.9%) corneal disease (20.1%), glaucoma (10.3%), and uncorrected refractive error/aphakia (8.7%). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of blindness has declined from 11.6% (95% CI: 7.4, 17.0) in 2005 to 6.8% (95% CI: 5.6, 8.0%) in 2016. CONCLUSION: The blindness prevalence is high, and the major causes are avoidable in the health zone. The findings suggest that investments in the program over the last 10 years might have led to almost a halving in the prevalence of blindness in th e population. However, the small sample size of persons 50+ years from Wurno zone in the 2005 survey necessitate caution when comparing the 2005 and the 2016 surveys.


Assuntos
Cegueira/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cegueira/etiologia , Catarata/complicações , Doenças da Córnea/complicações , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Glaucoma/complicações , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Exame Físico , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/complicações , Baixa Visão/etiologia
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480451

RESUMO

Nineteen million Americans have significant vision loss. Over 70% of these are not employed full-time, and more than a quarter live below the poverty line. Globally, there are 36 million blind people, but less than half use white canes or more costly commercial sensory substitutions. The quality of life for visually impaired people is hampered by the resultant lack of independence. To help alleviate these challenges this study reports on the development of a low-cost, open-source ultrasound-based navigational support system in the form of a wearable bracelet to allow people with the lost vision to navigate, orient themselves in their surroundings and avoid obstacles when moving. The system can be largely made with digitally distributed manufacturing using low-cost 3-D printing/milling. It conveys point-distance information by utilizing the natural active sensing approach and modulates measurements into haptic feedback with various vibration patterns within the four-meter range. It does not require complex calibrations and training, consists of the small number of available and inexpensive components, and can be used as an independent addition to traditional tools. Sighted blindfolded participants successfully demonstrated the device for nine primary everyday navigation and guidance tasks including indoor and outdoor navigation and avoiding collisions with other pedestrians.


Assuntos
Impressão Tridimensional , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 267: 189-196, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483272

RESUMO

Various reasons lead to non-adherence to drug therapy, such as forgotten reordering of medications or wrong intake behavior. Blind and visually impaired persons face additional challenges, such as recognizing the medication package or reading the package insert which additionally impacts on patient safety. To address these challenges, we developed a concept for supporting medication management. In the center of the concept is the mobile application MyPills. It reminds on drug intake and reordering. These functionalities are made available to blind and visually impaired persons using screen reader functionalities. The current medication is entered into MyPills using the eMediplan, a Swiss national exchange format for eMedication. Beyond, package inserts are made accessible through voice output. MyPills supports in scanning the global trade item number (GTIN) for medication package identification. A usability tests carried out with six participants including two blind persons showed that users get along well with the app and the functionalities are helpful. In future studies with patients, it should be checked whether the MyPills app can improve compliance with drug therapy and impacts on intake behavior.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Aplicativos Móveis , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 529, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the knowledge and sources of accessing sexual and reproductive health services and care information among visually impaired women in Ghana. Qualitative data involving in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among 21 visually impaired women selected through purposive and snowballing sampling techniques. Thematic Analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The study showed that visually impaired women were active seekers of SRH information (knowledgeable about SRH information and understand the relevance of accessing such information) and passive recipient of SRH information (through formal and informal sources). However, some contextual factors (lack of family and caregivers support services) created barriers for visually impaired women when accessing SRH information. Government advocacy and awareness campaigns on SRH services should consider both formal and informal sources. Family caregivers and SRH health centres should provide adequate support services for visually impaired women regarding information on SRH service.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Gana , Educação em Saúde , Humanos
8.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3163, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate knowledge about sexual health, with blind people, before and after educational intervention. METHOD: action research conducted with 58 blind people enrolled in a philanthropic educational institution. A form with sociodemographic and knowledge variables about Sexually Transmitted Infections was used. The Chi-square and Fisher tests were performed. RESULTS: men presented higher frequency of alcoholism (p <0.001) and illicit drugs (p = 0.006). It was found that they used a male condom more frequently than women using a female condom (p = 0.003), although they had more knowledge about the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (p = 0.006). Among these infections, Trichomonas vaginalis (52.4%) was more frequent. Knowledge gaps on risk factors and safe sex were identified. After the intervention, an increase in the knowledge about sexual health was detected. CONCLUSION: the educational intervention, in the light of problematizing pedagogy, (re) constructed the knowledge on sexual health, empowering the participants regarding the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections. Therefore, it is necessary that nurses carry out educational interventions with this clientele, aiming to soften deficits of knowledge about the thematic in screen.


Assuntos
Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Preservativos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/classificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(7): 988-996, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293266

RESUMO

Background: Health-seeking behavior is important as it reveals the preventive, curative, and rehabilitative actions taken by individuals to rectify perceived ill-health. Aim and Objectives: To identify existing eye health-seeking behavior, factors influencing such behavior, and suggest ways in which the system can respond to the needs of the target population in order to reduce visual impairment and blindness. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study; 600 respondents were interviewed using a semistructured pretested questionnaire administered to every fifth new patient attending the eye clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) for a period of 5 months by a single interviewer. People unable to respond appropriately were interviewed alongside their caregivers. Results: Poor distant vision was the most frequent ocular complaint in this study. The mean duration of complaint before presentation to any health facility was 370.65 ± 889.48 days with a range of 0-9,125 days. Nature of eye complaint was the most significant factor that determined how early respondents sought help (P < 0.001). Place of residence, nature of eye complaint, and employment status were significant determinants of the choice of place of first presentation for ocular complaints. Conclusion: There is need for improved eye health education and awareness for prompt presentation to an appropriate eye care professional at the onset of symptoms and even case finding for potentially blinding eye conditions.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Rehabil ; 33(10): 1596-1606, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between strengths use and self-esteem among visually impaired individuals in Study 1 and reveal the causal effect of a strengths intervention in Study 2. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional design in Study 1 and a randomized controlled, open-label, parallel-group comparative design in Study 2. SETTING: Several welfare institutions for visually impaired individuals in the Kanto area of Japan. SUBJECTS: In Study 1, 59 participants with visual impairments (mean age = 49.34 ± 4.89 years, range = 22-82 years) were recruited. In Study 2, participants (mean age = 41.36 ± 12.09 years, range = 22-61 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 11) or wait-list control group (n = 11). INTERVENTION: A strengths intervention was performed in Study 2. MAIN MEASURES: In Study 1, we examined the association between Strengths Use Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores. In Study 2, the primary outcome was the difference in change in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores from baseline to one-month follow-up between the groups. RESULTS: In Study 1, simple and multiple regression analyses revealed that the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale score was significantly associated with the Strengths Use Scale score (ß = 0.60, P < 0.001; ß = 0.55, P < 0.001, respectively). In Study 2, we found a significant between-groups difference in the improvement in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores from baseline to one-month follow-up (F(1, 19) = 18.61, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Utilizing psychological strengths might improve self-esteem among visually impaired individuals.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Trials ; 20(1): 417, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI), including perceptual visual dysfunction (PVD), is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Inventories of questions relating to practical aspects of visual perception in everyday life, in particular the closed-ended Insight Questions Inventory (IQI), can be used to assess CVI/PVD. Studies linking responses to the inventory with specific visual support strategies, aimed at modifying the child's environment and/or behaviour to minimize the impact of the CVI/PVD, have been piloted. The IQI and tailored strategies have not been used in an African population, nor have they been tested in a controlled trial. This trial will compare the effectiveness of the IQI and linked visual support strategies versus general supportive treatments on the quality of life of children with CVI/PVD and CP through a randomized controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome is change in quality of life scores between the two arms of the trial at 6 weeks, assessed using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) generic 4.0 and CP 3.0 module. All children will undergo baseline assessment including the Open Questions Inventory, IQI, PedsQL 3.0, PedsQL 4.0 generic, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Eligible children with CP aged 4 years to < 16 years will be stratified and blocked by the age groups 4-9 and 10 to < 16 years and by Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels 1-3 and 4-5. Families in the intervention arm will receive tailored insight visual support strategies and telephone calls during the 6-week trial period. The control arm will receive standard treatment and the intervention after the 6-week trial period. Follow-up interviews will be performed in both arms at 6 weeks with a repeat administration of the PedsQL CP 4.0 and 3.0, the IQI and the SDQ. Secondary outcomes include a change in functional vision. DISCUSSION: This randomized controlled trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention for children with CP in a resource-poor setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registration, PACTR201612001886396 . Registered on 3 December 2016.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia
13.
Adapt Phys Activ Q ; 36(3): 388-398, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155904

RESUMO

In judo competition for visual impairment, athletes of different classes compete against each other in the same category; B1 athletes are totally blind, whereas B2 and B3 athletes are partially sighted. To test for potential competition disparities due a single category of athletes, this study aimed to compare competitive and technical-tactical performance in visually impaired judo athletes with different degrees of visual impairment. The authors analyzed 340 judo matches from the 2012 and 2016 Paralympic Games. The scores, penalties, efficiency index, and types of medals were examined, as well as the technical variation and temporal structure. The main finding was that blind judo athletes presented lower scores (p < .05; effect size [ES] = 0.43-0.73), medals (p < .05), and efficiency (p < .05; ES = 0.40-0.73); different patterns of play; and a shorter time to lose than partially sighted athletes (p = .027; ES = 0.10-0.14). However, the penalties were similar between classes (p > .05; ES = 0.07-0.14). The odds ratio of a winning medal was 3.5-8 times less in blind athletes than in partially sighted athletes (p < .01). In conclusion, blind judo athletes presented lower competitive and technical-tactical performance than athletes with some residual functional vision. These findings provide support for the development of new evidence-based criteria for judo classification based on vision impairment.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Artes Marciais , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Observação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Adapt Phys Activ Q ; 36(3): 399-405, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155913

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the degree to which children and adolescents with and without visual impairments (VIs) met national physical activity, screen-time, and sleep guidelines. This observational, cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health focused on children (age 6-12 yr) and adolescents (age 13-17 yr) with and without VIs. The sample included 241 (weighted n = 472,127) and 17,610 (weighted n = 28,249,833) children, and 255 (weighted n = 505,401) and 17,417 (weighted n = 20,071,557) adolescents with and without VIs, respectively. Chi-square statistics were computed to examine the degree to which participants with and without VIs met health-behavior guidelines. Children (p = .02) with VIs were less likely to meet screen-time guidelines, but adolescents with VIs were not (p = .87). VI status was not associated with the likelihood of meeting physical activity or sleep guidelines (p < .05). Low numbers of children and adolescents with and without VIs meeting health-behavior guidelines warrant targeted interventions aimed at enhancing engagement.


Assuntos
Exercício , Tempo de Tela , Sono , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Comportamento Sedentário
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226796

RESUMO

The development of computer vision based systems dedicated to help visually impaired people to perceive the environment, to orientate and navigate has been the main research subject of many works in the recent years. A significant ensemble of resources has been employed to support the development of sensory substitution devices (SSDs) and electronic travel aids for the rehabilitation of the visually impaired. The Sound of Vision (SoV) project used a comprehensive approach to develop such an SSD, tackling all the challenging aspects that so far restrained the large scale adoption of such systems by the intended audience: Wearability, real-time operation, pervasiveness, usability, cost. This article is set to present the artificial vision based component of the SoV SSD that performs the scene reconstruction and segmentation in outdoor environments. In contrast with the indoor use case, where the system acquires depth input from a structured light camera, in outdoors SoV relies on stereo vision to detect the elements of interest and provide an audio and/or haptic representation of the environment to the user. Our stereo-based method is designed to work with wearable acquisition devices and still provide a real-time, reliable description of the scene in the context of unreliable depth input from the stereo correspondence and of the complex 6 DOF motion of the head-worn camera. We quantitatively evaluate our approach on a custom benchmarking dataset acquired with SoV cameras and provide the highlights of the usability evaluation with visually impaired users.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Humanos , Orientação/fisiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071127

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To obtain new rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) data on the prevalence, causes and trends of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery; and compare the new 2018 data with the older RAAB 2009 data. METHODOLOGY: The second nationwide RAAB used android based mRAAB technique and technology for data collection. Using the compact segment sampling probability proportionate to size, 5,050 participants from 101 clusters of 50 people aged 50 years and older were enrolled through house-to-house visits. Eligible participants received ophthalmic examination and interview by the ophthalmologist-led emuneration team as per the RAAB protocol. RESULTS: The age-sex adjusted magnitude of bilateral blindness in Bhutan was 1.0% (95% Confidence Interval, CI 0.5-1.4) with relatively higher prevalence in rural population (Odds Ratio, OR 1.5, p = 0.13) and women (OR 1.6, p = 0.06). Untreated cataract accounted for the most of blindness (53.8%), severe vision impairment (57.1%), and moderate visual impairment (65.3%); uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of early visual impairment (46.7%). Cataract Surgical Coverage was 86.1% with relatively better coverage in men (76.7% men; 73.1% female) and urban population (79.2% urban; 70.2% rural). Good cataract surgical outcome was achieved in 67.3% and leading cause of poor outcome was ocular comorbidity (43.6%). Accessibility was a significant barrier to the uptake of cataract surgical services. CONCLUSION: There is a 33% reduction in blindness from 1.5% to 1.0%, since the first RAAB survey in 2009. In order to further reduce blindness and visual impairment, Bhutan should continue to implement long-term strategic action plan for eye health focused on strengthening primary eye care and comprehensive eye care service.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Extração de Catarata , Catarata/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Butão/epidemiologia , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067769

RESUMO

The ability to precisely locate and navigate a partially impaired or a blind person within a building is increasingly important for a wide variety of public safety and localization services. In this paper, we explore indoor localization algorithms using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons. We propose using the BLE beacon's received signal strength indication (RSSI) and the geometric distance from the current beacon to the fingerprint point in the framework of fuzzy logic for calculating the Euclidean distance for the subsequent determination of location. According to our results, the fingerprinting algorithm with fuzzy logic type-2 (hesitant fuzzy sets) is fit for use as an indoor localization method with BLE beacons. The average error of localization is only 0.43 m, and the algorithm obtains a navigation precision of 98.2 ± 1%. This precision confirms that the algorithms provide great aid to a visually impaired person in unknown spaces, especially those designed without physical tactile guides, as confirmed by low Fréchet and Hausdorff distance values and high navigation efficiency index (NEI) scores.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(3): 7303205070p1-7303205070p11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to test the psychometrics of Smith's (2013) Low Vision Independence Measure (LVIM) using the Rasch model. METHOD: A cohort design was used with 93 participants receiving occupational therapy for low vision. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a parceling approach was used to test the LVIM factors and Rasch analysis to examine item-level psychometrics. RESULTS: Participants' average age was 78.9 yr (standard deviation = 12.1), and the majority were female (72.8%) with macular degeneration (62.3%). The CFA revealed two measurement factors: visual field or scotoma (n = 28) and visual acuity (n = 24). We removed six misfitting items, and the two factors of the revised LVIM demonstrated good rating scale function, good internal consistency (person reliability: visual field, .87; visual acuity, .90), good precision (person strata: visual field, 3.91; visual acuity, 4.40), no ceiling or floor effects, and no differential item functioning. CONCLUSION: The revised LVIM demonstrates good psychometrics on the Rasch model and can be used as a valid outcome measure in low vision rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Baixa Visão , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Baixa Visão/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
19.
Technol Health Care ; 27(S1): 165-173, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assistant equipment for the visually impaired has a white cane. If the information in the three-dimensional space is transmitted by sound, the blind can draw a three-dimensional space. OBJECTIVE: This study developed "Visual System," an ambulation aid/guide for the blind that transforms visual-spatial information into auditory information, and verified its utility. Unlike conventional systems, which are in essence simple collision-warning systems, Visual System helps the visually impaired to recreate their surroundings and to be cognizant of the location and proximity of obstacles. METHODS: Ten subjects with normal vision (mean age: 32.4 years; male-to-female ratio: 6 to 4) were selected for blind tests. The subjects were instructed to detect and avoid obstacles presented in various three-dimensional settings. Prior to the tests, experiments were conducted to determine the distance to each subject. Upon completion of Visual System-based detection training, obstacles were presented and tests conducted. For evaluation, the subjects' vertical position detection, horizontal position detection, distance detection, and overall performance success were each evaluated. RESULTS: The total performance scores ranged between 88 (lowest) and 100 (highest), with a mean score of 91.5. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that Visual System as a product can assist the visually impaired in their daily functioning.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Processamento Espacial , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Caminhada , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Segurança
20.
Optom Vis Sci ; 96(5): 345-353, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046017

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The successful uptake, integration, and use of vision rehabilitation devices with speech output depend to a large part on their audibility. However, individuals with combined vision and hearing impairments are at a disadvantage when using devices that do not consider multiple impairments. PURPOSE: Sensory rehabilitation for individuals with combined vision and hearing impairment often relies on the use of assistive technology devices that use speech outputs (e.g., talking clock), but in individuals with dual impairment, their use is likely compromised by a concurrent hearing loss. The goal of this study was to evaluate the audibility of these devices in a population of individuals with acquired dual sensory impairment. METHODS: We measured the ability to correctly repeat speech output presented by three assistive technology devices (talking watch, calculator, scanner) and confidence levels in response accuracy in 24 participants with visual impairment only and in 22 individuals with dual sensory loss. Stimuli were presented at three volumes that were repeated one or four times. Participants were placed at a fixed distance of 74 cm from the sound source. RESULTS: The pattern of results was similar across the different devices, whereby an interaction of volume and repetition indicated that participants' accuracy to repeat a phrase and their confidence in their response improved with increasing volume, but more so at higher numbers of repetition (P < .05; ω, from 0.005 to 0.298). Participants with dual sensory loss generally had lower accuracy and confidence. CONCLUSIONS: Scores and confidence levels being very low across devices and users suggest that even participants with normal hearing for their age experienced a certain level of difficulty understanding speech output, confirming the need for better assistive technology device design.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/reabilitação , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Baixa Visão/reabilitação , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/instrumentação , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Baixa Visão/fisiopatologia
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