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2.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066336

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. The role of wild species in PPRV epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR. These studies aimed to investigate PPRV infection in wild artiodactyls in the Greater Serengeti and Amboseli ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. Out of 132 animals purposively sampled in 2015-2016, 19.7% were PPRV seropositive by ID Screen PPR competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; IDvet, France) from the following species: African buffalo, wildebeest, topi, kongoni, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle, warthog and gerenuk, while waterbuck and lesser kudu were seronegative. In 2018-2019, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected African buffalo and Grant's gazelle herds was conducted. The weighted estimate of PPRV seroprevalence was 12.0% out of 191 African buffalo and 1.1% out of 139 Grant's gazelles. All ocular and nasal swabs and faeces were negative by PPRV real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Investigations of a PPR-like disease in sheep and goats confirmed PPRV circulation in the area by rapid detection test and/or RT-qPCR. These results demonstrated serological evidence of PPRV infection in wild artiodactyl species at the wildlife-livestock interface in this ecosystem where PPRV is endemic in domestic small ruminants. Exposure to PPRV could be via spillover from infected small ruminants or from transmission between wild animals, while the relatively low seroprevalence suggests that sustained transmission is unlikely. Further studies of other major wild artiodactyls in this ecosystem are required, such as impala, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Ecossistema , Gado/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/fisiologia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/história , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Quênia/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/história , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 299, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939008

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are two important pathogens associated with a variety of disease syndromes that result in substantial financial losses in animal husbandry. This study was performed to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to BVDV and PPRV among alpacas raised in Shanxi Province of northern China. Serum samples were obtained from 246 alpacas in Taiyuan (n=182), Xinzhou (n=31), and Jinzhong cities (n=33) of Shanxi Province, and serological testing was carried out using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall seroprevalence to BVDV was 3.25% (95% CI 1.03-5.47), and seropositive alpacas were found only in Taiyuan City. The overall PPRV seroprevalence in alpacas was 28.86% (95% CI 23.20-34.52). While no PPRV-seropositive alpacas were found in Xinzhou City, the seroprevalence of PPRV was 90.91% (95% CI 81.10-100.72) in Jinzhong City and 22.53% (95% CI 16.46-28.60) in Taiyuan City, respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference. To our knowledge, the present work is the first report on seroprevalence of BVDV and PPRV in alpacas in China, which provides baseline information for the control of infection.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804146

RESUMO

This study was aimed to understand the temporal and spatial epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in India using national surveillance data available in the National Animal Diseases Referral Expert System (NADRES) along with its control plan undertaken. On analysis of the outbreaks/cases reports in sheep and goats in NADRES database from 1995 to 2019, it was observed that PPR features among the top ten diseases and stands first among viral diseases, and among reported deaths, PPR accounts for 36% of mortality in sheep and goats. PPR outbreaks occur round the year in all the seasons but are encountered most frequently during the lean period especially, in the winter season (January to February) in different regions/zones. The reported outbreaks have been progressively declined in most of the states in India due to the implementation of a mass vaccination strategic program since 2011. On state-wise analysis, the PPR risk-areas showed wide variations with different levels of endemicity. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Karnataka were the top three outbreaks reported states during 1995-2010, whereas Jharkhand and West Bengal states reported more outbreaks during 2011-2015 and 2016-2019 periods. The temporal and spatial distribution of PPR in India provides valuable information on the hotspot areas/zones to take appropriate policy decisions towards its prevention and control in different regions/zones of India. The study also identifies when and where intensive surveillance and vaccination along with biosecurity measures need to be implemented for the control and eradication of the disease from India in consonance with the PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Cabras , Índia/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Vacinação/veterinária
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009397, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735294

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a deadly viral disease that mainly affects small domestic ruminants. This disease threaten global food security and rural economy but its control is complicated notably because of extensive, poorly monitored animal movements in infected regions. Here we combined the largest PPR virus genetic and animal mobility network data ever collected in a single region to improve our understanding of PPR endemic transmission dynamics in West African countries. Phylogenetic analyses identified the presence of multiple PPRV genetic clades that may be considered as part of different transmission networks evolving in parallel in West Africa. A strong correlation was found between virus genetic distance and network-related distances. Viruses sampled within the same mobility communities are significantly more likely to belong to the same genetic clade. These results provide evidence for the importance of animal mobility in PPR transmission in the region. Some nodes of the network were associated with PPRV sequences belonging to different clades, representing potential "hotspots" for PPR circulation. Our results suggest that combining genetic and mobility network data could help identifying sites that are key for virus entrance and spread in specific areas. Such information could enhance our capacity to develop locally adapted control and surveillance strategies, using among other risk factors, information on animal mobility.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , África Ocidental , Animais , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Ovinos
6.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466238

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a transboundary viral disease that threatens more than 1.74 billion goats and sheep in approximately 70 countries globally. In 2015, the international community set the goal of eradicating PPR by 2030, and, since then, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) have jointly developed and implemented the Global Control and Eradication Strategy for PPR. Here, data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database (FAOSTAT), the OIE World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS), Regional Roadmap Meetings, and countries' responses to PPR Monitoring and Assessment Tool (PMAT) questionnaires were analyzed to inform on current progress towards PPR eradication. OIE recorded the use of over 333 million doses of vaccine in 12 countries from 2015 to 2018, 41.8% of which were used in Asia and 58.2% in Africa. Between 2015 and 2019, a total of 12,757 PPR outbreaks were reported to OIE: 75.1% in Asia, 24.8% in Africa, and 0.1% in Europe. The number of global outbreaks in 2019 fell to 1218, compared with 3688 in 2015. Analysis of vaccine use and PPR outbreaks in countries indicates that disease control strategies, particularly vaccination campaigns and vaccine distribution strategies, still require scientific evaluation. It is imperative that vaccination is undertaken based on the epidemiology of the disease in a region and is coordinated between neighboring countries to restrict transboundary movements. Strengthening surveillance and post-vaccination sero-monitoring at the national level is also essential. The PPR vaccine stock/bank established by FAO, OIE, and other partners have improved the quality assurance and supply of vaccines. However, to achieve PPR eradication, filling the funding gap for vaccination campaigns and other program activities will be critical.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Saúde Global , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
7.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 87(1): e1-e6, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354977

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the presence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in pneumonic lung tissues from clinically apparently healthy sheep and goats and further demonstrating its prevalence in Gezira state, central Sudan. During March 2019, 99 pneumonic lung samples were collected from apparently healthy sheep (80) and goats (19) from Al-Hasaheisa slaughterhouse located in Al-Hasaheisa locality, Gezira state. Using the haemagglutination (HA) test for the detection of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) antigen, an overall antigenic prevalence of 86.9% was demonstrated in sheep and goats lung tissue homogenate. Of note, the prevalence of PPRV is higher in goats (100%) compared to sheep (83.7%). In this study, the reported increasing prevalence of PPR in central Sudan might be because of insufficient vaccination of animals. The findings of the present study indicated the widespread of PPR amongst sheep and goats in Al-Hasaheisa, Gezira state. Detection of PPRV antigen in the pneumonic lung samples is an indication of exposure of these animals to PPRV or presence of PPR viral infection and demonstrates the role of PPR as the cause of pneumonia in small ruminants. In fact, the circulation of the virus in clinically apparently healthy animals poses a threat for other in-contact susceptible animals and could play a significant role in the spread of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Sudão/epidemiologia
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 527-534, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810832

RESUMO

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious, economically important transboundary viral disease of small ruminants. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of PPR in small ruminants in selected districts of Horo Guduru Zone, Western Ethiopia. A total of 806 blood samples, corresponding to 124 flocks comprised of 387 sheep and 419 goats, were collected using multi-stage sampling. The sera were tested using competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA). A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on potential risk factors for PPRV infection. Pearson's Chi-Square and logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of the seroprevalence with potential risk factors. The flock-level overall seroprevalence of PPR was 27.42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.79-36.15%). An overall animal level seroprevalence of 5.71% (95% CI: 4.21-7.54%) was recorded with 6.98% (95% CI: 4.65-10.00%) seroprevalence in sheep and 4.53% (95% CI: 2.75-6.99%) in goats. There was a significant association between the seroprevalence and risk factors that were sharing common grazing land (P = 0.032), the introduction of newly purchased animals into the flock (P = 0.011), and uncontrolled animal movements in goats (P = 0.018). Sharing common grazing land with other flocks in goats (P = 0.026) and midland altitude in sheep (P = 0.029) were the other predictors of PPR. The seropositivity in unvaccinated small ruminants suggests the circulation of the virus. Therefore, awareness creation, vaccination, strengthening the disease surveillance system and large-scale epidemiological and molecular studies are suggested.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
9.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847058

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an infectious disease of high morbidity and mortality among sheep and goats which impacts millions of livestock keepers globally. PPRV transmission risk varies by production system, but a deeper understanding of how transmission scales in these systems and which husbandry practices impact risk is needed. To investigate transmission scaling and husbandry practice-associated risk, this study combined 395 household questionnaires with over 7115 cross-sectional serosurvey samples collected in Tanzania among agropastoral and pastoral households managing sheep, goats, or cattle (most managed all three, n = 284, 71.9%). Although self-reported compound-level herd size was significantly larger in pastoral than agropastoral households, the data show no evidence that household herd force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) increased with herd size. Seroprevalence and FOI patterns observed at the sub-village level showed significant spatial variation in FOI. Univariate analyses showed that household herd FOI was significantly higher when households reported seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat introduction to the compound, death, sale, or giving away of animals in the past 12 months, when cattle were grazed separately from sheep and goats, and when the household also managed dogs or donkeys. Multivariable analyses revealed that species, production system type, and goat or sheep introduction or seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat death or sales, or goats given away in the past 12 months significantly increased odds of seroconversion, whereas managing pigs or cattle attending seasonal grazing camps had significantly lower odds of seroconversion. Further research should investigate specific husbandry practices across production systems in other countries and in systems that include additional atypical host species to broaden understanding of PPRV transmission.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/imunologia , Densidade Demográfica , Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3285-3291, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712808

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, trans-boundary viral disease of sheep and goats that have hindered successful small ruminant farming. Its current status in South East Nigeria with respect to its prevalence and farmers' awareness was studied. Three states, Anambra, Ebonyi, and Enugu, were randomly selected for the study. Sera samples from 113 goats and 172 sheep (collected from December 2017 to June 2018) were randomly collected and analysed for the presence of PPRV antibodies, while structured interview schedules were conducted to elicit information on farmers' awareness of the disease and PPR vaccination and use of veterinary services. An overall seroprevalence of 42.5% (121/285) was recorded. The seroprevalence in decreasing order was 62.2% (Enugu), 34.8% (Anambra) and 20.3% (Ebonyi). There was a significant association (X2 = 36.08, df = 2, p = 0.0001) between seroprevalence and the state sampled. Lack of awareness of PPR vaccination among small ruminant farmers, their limited use of veterinary services (38% consult veterinarians) and non-availability of the vaccine at veterinary establishments in the sampled states are potential risk factors of PPR prevalence in South East Nigeria. Consequently, an effective control measure like mass vaccination is recommended for the study area. Also, there is a need for an extension program for stakeholders and farmers in the study area and country on the grave importance and economic benefits of PPR vaccination and the use of veterinary services.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fazendeiros , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2147-2163, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653984

RESUMO

Small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goats) contribute considerably to the cash income and nutrition of small farmers in most countries in Africa and Asia. Their husbandry is threatened by the highly infectious transboundary viral disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Given its social and economic impact, PPR is presently being targeted by international organizations for global eradication by 2030. Since its first description in Côte d'Ivoire in 1942, and particularly over the last 10 years, a large amount of molecular epidemiological data on the virus have been generated in Africa. This review aims to consolidate these data in order to have a clearer picture of the current PPR situation in Africa, which will, in turn, assist authorities in global eradication attempts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Ovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 3033-3037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374929

RESUMO

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus member of the genus Morbillivirus, which mainly affects goats, sheep and wild ruminants. It is considered one of the most significant transboundary infectious diseases and represents an animal health concern in developing countries. Spain is considered a PPR-free country. Nevertheless, given its geographical proximity to countries in North Africa where PPR virus (PPRV) has been circulating in recent years, the south of Spain can be considered a risk area for the introduction of PPRV. The aim of the present study was to assess circulation of PPRV in domestic and wild ruminant species in this country. During the period 2015-2017, a total of 910 sera from domestic, wild and captive ruminants were analysed using a commercial blocking ELISA to detect antibodies against PPRV. None of the 910 (0.0%; 95% CI: 0.0-0.3) animals tested were positive for anti-PPRV antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serosurvey study of PPR in Spain. The results indicate absence of circulating PPRV in the south of Spain during the study period. Due to the risk of PPRV introduction into European countries of the Mediterranean basin, epidemiological surveillance should be maintained and extended in this region.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244509

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro District. During June 2015, 33 PPR-like disease reports were investigated in different parts of the district, using semi-structured interviews, clinical examinations, PPR virus rapid detection test (PPRV-RDT), and laboratory analysis. Ten flocks were confirmed as PPRV infected by PPRV-RDT and/or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and two flocks were co-infected with bluetongue virus (BTV), confirmed by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analysis of six partial N gene sequences showed that the PPR viruses clustered with recent lineage III Tanzanian viruses, and grouped with Ugandan, Kenyan and Democratic Republic of Congo isolates. No PPR-like disease was reported in wildlife. There was considerable variation in clinical syndromes between flocks: some showed a full range of PPR signs, while others were predominantly respiratory, diarrhoea, or oro-nasal syndromes, which were associated with different local disease names (olodua-a term for rinderpest, olkipiei-lung disease, oloirobi-fever, enkorotik-diarrhoea). BTV co-infection was associated with severe oro-nasal lesions. This clinical variability makes the field diagnosis of PPR challenging, highlighting the importance of access to pen-side antigen tests and multiplex assays to support improved surveillance and targeting of control activities for PPR eradication.


Assuntos
Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bluetongue/diagnóstico , Bluetongue/patologia , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/diagnóstico , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/patologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/imunologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Ovinos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Ital ; 56(1)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343096

RESUMO

A seroprevalence study of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in small ruminants was carried out in the different states (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura) in the North Eastern Region (NER) of India using serum samples collected from April 2017 to March 2018. A total number of 4,163 sera [sheep (n = 508) and goats (n = 3,655)] collected from 345 epi­units/villages covering 176 municipalities in NER were screened by competitive ELISA kit for the detection of PPR virus antibodies. The results revealed that the seroprevalence of PPR in small ruminants in Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura was 34.3%, 10.3%, 4.7%, 15.7%, 14.7%, and 5.5%, respectively with an overall 14.5% prevalence.Association between the presence of antibodies and goats has been showed to be significant (p < 0.01) at the NER level level and within every single state. This manuscript highlights the need for continuous monitoring of this important disease as for the severe economic impact PPR may have in the affected countries.


Assuntos
Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Cabras , Índia/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/sangue , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
15.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105435, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142734

RESUMO

An extended range of host susceptibility including camel has been evidenced for some of the important veterinary and public health pathogens, such as brucellosis, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and bluetongue (BT). However, in disease endemic settings across many parts of the globe, most of the disease control interventions accounts for small and large ruminants, whereas unusual hosts and/or natural reservoirs, such as camels, remain neglected for disease control measures including routine vaccination. Such a policy drawback not only plays an important role in disease epizootiology particularly in settings where disease is endemic, but also serves an obstacle in disease control and subsequent eradication in future. With this background, using pre-validated ELISA and molecular assays [multiplex PCR, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and real-time (rt)-PCR], we conducted a large-scale pathogen- and antibody-based surveillance for brucellosis, peste des petits ruminants and bluetongue in camel population (n = 992) originating from a wide geographical region in southern part of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Varying in each of the selected districts, the seroprevalence was found to be maximum for bluetongue [n = 697 (70.26%, 95% CI: 67.29-73.07)], followed by PPR [n = 193 (19.46%, 95% CI: 17.07-22.09)] and brucellosis [n = 66 (6.65%, 95% CI: 5.22-8.43)]. Odds of seroprevalence were more significantly associated with pregnancy status (non-pregnant, OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.86-5.63, p<0.01), farming system (mixed-animal, OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.56-4.29, p<0.01), breed (Desi, OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.28-4.03, p<0.01) and farmer education (illiterate, OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.45-6.93, p<0.01) for BTV, body condition (normal, OR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.92-6.54, p<0.01) and breed (Desi, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.09-4.40, p<0.01) for brucellosis, and feeding system for PPR (grazing, OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.79-4.22, p<0.01). Among the total herds included (n = 74), genome corresponding to BT virus (BTV) and brucellosis was detected in 14 (18.92%, 95 CI: 11.09-30.04) and 19 herds (25.68%, 95% CI: 16.54-37.38), respectively. None of the herds was detected with genome of PPR virus (PPRV). Among the positive herds, serotype 1, 8 and 11 were detected for BTV while all the herds were exclusively positive to B. abortus. Taken together, the study highlights the role of potential disease reservoirs in the persistence and transmission of selected diseases in their susceptible hosts and, therefore, urges necessary interventions (e.g., inclusion of camels for vaccine etc.) for the control of diseases from their endemic setting worldwide.


Assuntos
Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Camelus/microbiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo
16.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156067

RESUMO

In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife-livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in the northern Albertine Rift. PPRV antibodies indicated a widespread exposure in apparently healthy wildlife from South Sudan (2013) and Uganda (2015, 2017). African buffaloes and Uganda kobs <1-year-old from Queen Elizabeth National Park (2015) had antibodies against PPRV N-antigen and local serosurvey captured a subsequent spread of PPRV in livestock. Outbreaks with PPR-like syndrome in sheep and goats were recorded around the Greater Virunga Landscape in Kasese (2016), Kisoro and Kabale (2017) from western Uganda, and in North Kivu (2017) from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This landscape would not be considered typical for PPR persistence as it is a mixed forest-savannah ecosystem with mostly sedentary livestock. PPRV sequences from DRC (2017) were identical to strains from Burundi (2018) and confirmed a transboundary spread of PPRV. Our results indicate an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Gado/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Cabras , Masculino , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
17.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046120

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a contagious disease of high morbidity and mortality in global sheep and goat populations. To better control this disease and inform eradication strategies, an improved understanding of how PPRV transmission risk varies by age is needed. Our study used a piece-wise catalytic model to estimate the age-specific force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) among sheep, goats, and cattle from a cross-sectional serosurvey dataset collected in 2016 in Tanzania. Apparent seroprevalence increased with age, reaching 53.6%, 46.8%, and 11.6% (true seroprevalence: 52.7%, 52.8%, 39.2%) for sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among pastoral animals than agropastoral animals across all ages, with pastoral sheep and goat seroprevalence approaching 70% and 80%, respectively, suggesting pastoral endemicity. The best fitting piece-wise catalytic models merged age groups: two for sheep, three for goats, and four for cattle. The signal of these age heterogeneities were weak, except for a significant FOI peak among 2.5-3.5-year-old pastoral cattle. The subtle age-specific heterogeneities identified in this study suggest that targeting control efforts by age may not be as effective as targeting by other risk factors, such as production system type. Further research should investigate how specific husbandry practices affect PPRV transmission.


Assuntos
Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Masculino , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1863-1867, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953693

RESUMO

The present study investigated the status of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) for the first time in the camels of Pakistan. The samples were collected from the camel residing area of Sindh, Pakistan, and analyzed for breeds (Dhatti and Larri), districts (Tharparkar and Umerkot), age (young, adult, and old), and sexes (male and female). The sera samples (n = 200) were analyzed for the detection of antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Moreover, the nasal and fecal samples were screened for the PPR virus. Finally, the positive nasal and fecal samples were validated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ic-ELISA). The cELISA results showed an overall prevalence of 8.5% PPR in the study area. The camels of Tharparkar (10.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.2-12.9) showed higher seroprevalence of PPR antibodies than those of Umerkot (5.5%; 95% CI 4.1-7.2). Moreover, the Larri breed exhibited slightly greater resistance against the disease, because the camels of Dhatti breed (9.0%; 95% CI 7.5-11.0) exhibited a numerically higher (p > 0.05) seroprevalence of PPR in comparison with those of Larri breed (7.9%; 95% CI 6.4-9.9). Furthermore, the young and old camels were more susceptible to the disease attack, because the adults (6.3%; 95% CI 5.0-7.8) exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower prevalence rate than the young (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6-11.1) and old (10.3%; 95% CI 8.9-11.9) camels. Finally, the results of the Ic-ELISA and HA test established the 8.3 and 8.2% prevalence of PPR antigen in nasal and fecal material samples, respectively, while the RT-PCR results validated the seropositive animals. These findings confirmed that the prevalence of PPRV infection in the camels of the Sindh province of Pakistan hence urged the need to take effective measures for prevention and control of the disease.


Assuntos
Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Camelus , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 35-42, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917649

RESUMO

Since its first report in 1942, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) has caused several epidemics in a wide range of susceptible hosts around the world. In the last 30 years, the evidence of natural and experimental infections and virus isolation were reported from novel but unusual hosts such as camel, cattle, buffalo, dogs, Asiatic lion and pigs. In addition, PPRV in a potential vector, biting midges (Culicoides imicola), has been reported. Either presented as clinical and/or subclinical infections, the presence of the virus in an extended range of susceptible hosts highlights the cross-species transmission and supports the hypothesis of an endemic circulation of PPRV among susceptible hosts. However, the potential role of large ruminants, camels and unusual hosts for PPRV epidemiology is still obscure. Therefore, there is a need for molecular and epidemiological investigations of the disease among usual and unusual hosts to achieve the goals of disease control and eradication programmes initiated by national and international organisations, such as the FAO and OIE. This review is the first to summarise the scattered data on PPR in large ruminants, camels and unusual hosts to obtain the global scientific communities' attention for further research on epidemiological aspects, not only in its native hosts, but also in large ruminants, camels and other unusual hosts.


Assuntos
Búfalos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913305

RESUMO

A string of complete genome sequences of Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV) have been reported from different parts of the globe including Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Despite individual genome sequence-based analysis, there is a paucity of comparative genomic and evolutionary analysis to provide overarching and comprehensive evolutionary insights. Therefore, we first enriched the existing database of complete genome sequences of SRMVs with Pakistan-originated strains and then explored overall nucleotide diversity, genomic and residue characteristics, and deduced an evolutionary relationship among strains representing a diverse geographical region worldwide. The average number of pairwise nucleotide differences among the whole genomes was found to be 788.690 with a diversity in nucleotide sequences (0.04889 ± S.D. 0.00468) and haplotype variance (0.00001). The RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (L) gene revealed phylogenetic relationship among SRMVs in a pattern similar to those of complete genome and the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Therefore, we propose another useful molecular marker that may be employed for future epidemiological investigations. Based on evolutionary analysis, the mean evolution rate for the complete genome, N, P, M, F, H and L genes of SRMV was estimated to be 9.953 × 10-4, 1.1 × 10-3, 1.23 × 10-3, 2.56 × 10-3, 2.01 × 10-3, 1.47 × 10-3 and 9.75 × 10-4 substitutions per site per year, respectively. A recombinant event was observed in a Pakistan-originated strain (KY967608) revealing Indian strains as major (98.1%, KR140086) and minor parents (99.8%, KT860064). Taken together, outcomes of the study augment our knowledge and current understanding towards ongoing phylogenomic and evolutionary dynamics for better comprehensions of SRMVs and effective disease control interventions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genoma Viral , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Genômica , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética
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