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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 10-15, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471899

RESUMO

Bean paste is a confectionery ingredient originating in Asia made from cooked beans and sugar. In Japan, bean paste-containing products play an important role in the traditional confectionery industry. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are used for making white bean paste, and the tebou market class is dedicated to white paste production. Bean paste qualities include paste yield, color, stickiness, smoothness, aroma and flavor. High paste yield, whiteness and smoothness are preferred. The ideal stickiness depends on the final product to be made using bean paste. In terms of aroma and flavor, high sweetness and low beaniness are generally desired. Most of the paste qualities can only be measured by preparing bean paste, which is labor intensive and low throughput. Yuki and Kinu tebou bean varieties were developed in this manner because the highest end-use quality is indispensable to domestic varieties. Tebou bean breeding in Japan is at the stage where more research is necessary to develop faster screening methods to predict important paste quality attributes. This review summarizes the literature on research on white bean paste quality and common bean breeding efforts conducted so far written either in English or Japanese, covering: (1) bean paste production and ingredient sources, (2) the selection criteria and methods used by Japanese breeders and (3) the resulting varieties developed for bean paste. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doces/análise , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/genética , Cruzamento , Humanos , Japão , Valor Nutritivo , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade , Paladar
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 442, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume for direct human consumption around the world, as it represents a valuable source of components with nutritional and health benefits. RESULTS: We conducted a study to define and explain the genetic relatedness and diversification level of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm from Portugal to Ukraine, along a western-to-eastern line of southern European countries, including Poland. This was based on the P. vulgaris genetic structure, and was designed to better describe its distribution and domestication pathways in Europe. Using the multi-crop passport descriptors that include geographic origin and different phaseolin types (corresponding to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools), 782 accessions were obtained from nine gene banks and 12 geographic origins. We selected 33 genome/ gene-related/ gene-pool-related nuclear simple sequence repeat markers that covered the genetic diversity across the P. vulgaris genome. The overall polymorphic information content was 0.800. Without specifying geographic origin, global structure cluster analysis generated 10 genetic clusters. Among the PvSHP1 markers, the most informative for gene pool assignment of the European P. vulgaris germplasm was PvSHP1-B. Results of AMOVA show that 89% of the molecular variability is shared within the 782 accessions, with 4% molecular variability among the different geographic origins along this western-to-eastern line of southern Europe (including Poland). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the diversification line of the European P. vulgaris germplasm followed from the western areas of southern Europe (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Slovenia) to the more eastern areas of southern Europe. This progression defines three geographically separated subgroups, as the northern (Poland, Ukraine, Romania), southern (Albania, Bulgaria), and central (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Hungary) areas of eastern Europe.


Assuntos
Pool Gênico , Variação Genética , Phaseolus/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Geografia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 143: 364-374, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542638

RESUMO

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is essential for the assimilation of symbiotically fixed nitrogen in ureidic legumes. Uric acid, produced in the reaction catalyzed by XDH, is the precursor of the ureides, allantoin and allantoate, which are the main N-transporting molecules in these plants. XDH and uric acid have been reported to be involved in the response to stress, both in plants and animals. However, the physiological role of XDH under stressful conditions in ureidic legumes remains largely unexplored. In vitro assays showed that Phaseolus vulgaris XDH (PvXDH) can behave as a dehydrogenase or as an oxidase. Therefore, it could potentially protect against oxidative radicals or, in contrast, it could increase their production. In silico analysis of the upstream genomic region of XDH coding gene from P. vulgaris revealed the presence of several stress-related cis-regulatory elements. PvXDH mRNA and enzymatic activity in plants treated with stress-related phytohormones or subjected to dehydration and stressful temperatures showed several fold induction. However, PvXDH activity was in vivo and in vitro inhibited by nitric oxide in leaves but not in nodules. In extracts from RNAi PvXDH silenced nodules, with lower levels of uric acid, XDH activity was inhibited by SNP which indicates that uric acid produced by XDH in the nodules of this ureidic legume could help to protect XDH against the inhibitory effects of nitric oxide.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Xantina Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Phaseolus/genética , Xantina Desidrogenase/genética
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 171, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common bean is the most important staple grain legume for direct human consumption and nutrition. It complements major sources of carbohydrates, including cereals, root crop, or plantain, as a source of dietary proteins. It is also a significant source of vitamins and minerals like iron and zinc. To fully play its nutritional role, however, its robustness against stresses needs to be strengthened. Foremost among these is drought, which commonly affects its productivity and seed quality. Previous studies have shown that photosynthate remobilization and partitioning is one of the main mechanisms of drought tolerance and overall productivity in common bean. RESULTS: In this study, we sought to determine the inheritance of pod harvest index (PHI), a measure of the partitioning of pod biomass to seed biomass, relative to that of grain yield. We evaluated a recombinant inbred population of the cross of ICA Bunsi and SXB405, both from the Mesoamerican gene pool, to determine the effects of intermittent and terminal drought stresses on the genetic architecture of photosynthate allocation and remobilization in pods of common bean. The population was grown for two seasons, under well-watered conditions and terminal and intermittent drought stress in one year, and well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress in the second year. There was a significant effect of the water regime and year on all the traits, at both the phenotypic and QTL levels. We found nine QTLs for pod harvest index, including a major (17% of variation explained), stable QTL on linkage group Pv07. We also found eight QTLs for yield, three of which clustered with PHI QTLs, underscoring the importance of photosynthate remobilization in productivity. We also found evidence for substantial epistasis, explaining a considerable part of the variation for yield and PHI. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the genetic relationship between PHI and yield and confirm the role of PHI in selection of both additive and epistatic effects controlling drought tolerance. These results are a key component to strengthen the robustness of common bean against drought stresses.


Assuntos
Secas , Phaseolus/genética , Fotossíntese , Biomassa , Epistasia Genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pleiotropia Genética , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
J Genet ; 982019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945676

RESUMO

Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) are a family of transcription factors that play an important role in plants' response to the various biotic and abiotic stresses. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important crops in the world and plays a pivotal role in sustainable agriculture. To date, the composition of CAMTA genes in genomes of Phaseolus species and their role in resistance to drought stress are not known. In this study, five PhavuCAMTA genes were characterized in common bean genome through bioinformatics analysis, the morphological and biochemical response of 23 Ph.vulgaris genotypes to different levels of drought stress were evaluated and the expression patterns of PhCAMTA1 in the leaf tissues of sensitive and tolerant genotypes were analysed. Gene structure, protein domain organization and phylogenetic analyses showed that the CAMTAs of Phaseolus were structurally similar and clustered into three groups as other plant CAMTAs. Genotypes showeda differential response to drought stress. Thus, the plant height, number of nodes and flower, total chlorophyll and total protein content, and activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase and catalase) in plants significantly influenced by genotype and drought stress interaction. Moreover, the resistant and susceptible genotypes were identified according to three-dimensional plots and the expression patterns of PhavuCAMTA1 gene were studied using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study serve as the basis for future functional studies on the Phaseolus CAMTA family.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Phaseolus/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência
6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 312, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict more frequent incidents of heat stress worldwide. This trend will contribute to food insecurity, particularly for some of the most vulnerable regions, by limiting the productivity of crops. Despite its great importance, there is a limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms of variation in heat tolerance within plant species. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is relatively susceptible to heat stress, which is of concern given its critical role in global food security. Here, we evaluated three genotypes of P. vulgaris belonging to kidney market class under heat and control conditions. The Sacramento and NY-105 genotypes were previously reported to be heat tolerant, while Redhawk is heat susceptible. RESULTS: We quantified several morpho-physiological traits for leaves and found that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf area all increased under elevated temperatures. Leaf area expansion under heat stress was greatest for the most susceptible genotype, Redhawk. To understand gene regulatory responses among the genotypes, total RNA was extracted from the fourth trifoliate leaves for RNA-sequencing. Several genes involved in the protection of PSII (HSP21, ABA4, and LHCB4.3) exhibited increased expression under heat stress, indicating the importance of photoprotection of PSII. Furthermore, expression of the gene SUT2 was reduced in heat. SUT2 is involved in the phloem loading of sucrose and its distal translocation to sinks. We also detected an almost four-fold reduction in the concentration of free hexoses in heat-treated beans. This reduction was more drastic in the susceptible genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data suggests that while moderate heat stress does not negatively affect photosynthesis, it likely interrupts intricate source-sink relationships. These results collectively suggest a physiological mechanism for why pollen fertility and seed set are negatively impacted by elevated temperatures. Identifying the physiological and transcriptome dynamics of bean genotypes in response to heat stress will likely facilitate the development of varieties that can better tolerate a future of elevated temperatures.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Mudança Climática , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genótipo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Phaseolus/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sacarose/metabolismo
7.
Biochem Genet ; 57(6): 747-766, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997627

RESUMO

Beans are one of the most important staple crops in the world. Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is a small-scale agriculture crop compared to common bean (Phaseolusvulgaris). Beans have been introduced to Europe from the Central America to Europe and since then they have been scattered to different geographical regions. This has resulted in the generation of numerous local cultivars and landraces with distinguished characters and adaptive potential. To identify and characterize the underlying genomic variation of two very closely related runner bean cultivars, we performed RNA-Seq with de novo transcriptome assembly in two landraces of P. coccineus, 'Gigantes' and 'Elephantes' phenotypically distinct, differing in seed size and shape. The cleaned reads generated 37,379 and 37,774 transcripts for 'Gigantes' and 'Elephantes,' respectively. A total of 1896 DEGs were identified between the two cultivars, 1248 upregulated in 'Elephantes' and 648 upregulated in 'Gigantes.' A significant upregulation of defense-related genes was observed in 'Elephantes,' among those, numerous members of the AP2-EREBP, WRKY, NAC, and bHLH transcription factor families. In total, 3956 and 4322 SSRs were identified in 'Gigantes' and 'Elephantes,' respectively. Trinucleotide repeats were the most dominant repeat motif, accounting for 41.9% in 'Gigantes' and 40.1% in 'Elephantes' of the SSRs identified, followed by dinucleotide repeats (29.1% in both cultivars). Additionally, 19,281 putative SNPs were identified, among those 3161 were non-synonymous, thus having potential functional implications. High-confidence non-synonymous SNPs were successfully validated with an HRM assay, which can be directly adopted for P. coccineus molecular breeding. These results significantly expand the number of polymorphic markers within P. coccineus genus, enabling the robust identification of runner bean cultivars, the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, potentiating genome-wide association studies. They finally contribute to the genetic reservoir for the improvement of the closely related and intercrossable Phaseolus vulgaris.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Phaseolus/genética , Transcriptoma , Marcadores Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(7): 2003-2016, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976830

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The Common Bean Angular Leaf Spot Resistance Gene Phg-2 was fine-mapped to a 409-Kbp region, and molecular markers for breeders were developed and validated in field experiments. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important food legume in Latin America, Asia and Africa. It is an important source of protein, carbohydrates and micro-minerals, particularly for smallholder farmers. Common bean productivity is affected by angular leaf spot (ALS) disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Pseudocercospora griseola, resulting in significant yield losses, particularly in low-input smallholder farming systems in the tropics. The ALS resistance gene Phg-2, which was found in several highly resistant common bean genotypes, was investigated in crosses between Mesoamerican pre-breeding lines and elite Andean breeding lines. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data sets were used to design new SNP-based molecular markers. The Phg-2 locus was confirmed to be the major locus providing ALS resistance in these crosses. The locus was fine-mapped to a 409-Kbp region on chromosome 8. Two clusters of highly related LRR genes were identified in this region, which are the best candidate genes for Phg-2. Molecular markers were identified that are closely linked to the Phg-2 resistance gene and also highly specific to the donor germplasm. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) was used to introgress the Phg-2 resistance locus into Andean breeding germplasm using MAB lines. The usefulness of molecular markers in MAS was confirmed in several field evaluations in complex breeding crosses, under inoculation with different ALS pathotypes. This project demonstrates that NGS data are a powerful tool for the characterization of genetic loci and can be applied in the development of breeding tools.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 2721-2732, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843175

RESUMO

The calmodulin-binding transcriptional activator (CAMTA) family was first observed in tobacco (NtER1) during a screening for the CaM-binding proteins, which are known to be one of the fast response stress proteins. Due to the increased importance of plant transcription factors in recent years; genome-wide identification of CAMTA genes has been performed in several plant species, except for Phaseolus vulgaris. Therefore, our aim was to identify and characterize CAMTA genes in P. vulgaris via in silico genome-wide analysis approach. Our results showed a total of eight CAMTA genes that were identified and observed on five out of 11 chromosomes of P. vulgaris. Four gene couples were found to be segmentally-duplicated and these segmental duplication events were shown to occur from 29.97 to 92.06 MYA. The phylogenetic tree of CAMTA homologs from P. vulgaris, A. thaliana, and G. max. revealed three groups based on their homology and the intron numbers of Pvul-CAMTA genes, ranged from 11 to 12. According to the syteny analysis; CAMTA genes of P. vulgaris and G. max revealed higher similarity, because they have highly similar genomes compared to A. thaliana. All Pvul-CAMTA genes were targeted by miRNAs, which play a role in response mechanism of salt stress. To detect expression levels in different plant tissues, mRNA analysis of Pvul-CAMTA genes were performed using publicly available expression data in Phytozome v12.1. In addition, responses of Pvul-CAMTA genes to salt stress, were also examined via both RNAseq and qRT-PCR analysis. To identify and to obtain insight into biological functions of CAMTA genes in the genome of P. vulgaris, several analyses were conducted using many online and offline bioinformatic tools, genome databases and qRT-PCR analyses. Due to this study being the first in the identification of CAMTA genes in P. vulgaris, this study could be considered as an useful source for future CAMTA genes studies in either P. vulgaris or comparative different plant species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transativadores/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730982

RESUMO

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important high protein crop grown worldwide. North Dakota and Minnesota are the largest producers of common beans in the USA, but crop production is threatened by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) because most current cultivars are susceptible. Greenhouse screening data using SCN HG type 0 from 317 plant introductions (PI's) from the USDA core collection was used to conduct a genome wide association study (GWAS). These lines were divided into two subpopulations based on principal component analysis (Middle American vs. Andean). Phenotypic results based on the female index showed that accessions could be classified as highly resistant (21% and 27%), moderately resistant (51% and 48%), moderately susceptible (27% and 22%) and highly susceptible (1% and 3%) for Middle American and Andean gene pools, respectively. Mixed models with two principal components (PCs) and kinship matrix for Middle American genotypes and Andean genotypes were used in the GWAS analysis using 3,985 and 4,811 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively which were evenly distributed across all 11 chromosomes. Significant peaks on Pv07, and Pv11 in Middle American and on Pv07, Pv08, Pv09 and Pv11 in Andean group were found to be associated with SCN resistance. Homologs of soybean rhg1, a locus which confers resistance to SCN in soybean, were identified on chromosomes Pv01 and Pv08 in the Middle American and Andean gene pools, respectively. These genomic regions may be the key to develop SCN-resistant common bean cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Animais , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Biotechniques ; 66(2): 96-98, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744411

RESUMO

A modified protocol was developed to obtain high-quality total RNA from various mature organs, including leaves, seeds, pods and testae, from different cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown under optimal conditions or subjected to severe drought; stress conditions leading to the accumulation of numerous secondary metabolites can affect RNA quality. This modified procedure is based on CTAB extraction protocols. Modifications in this protocol prevent oxidation of phenolic complexes, the precipitation of proteins, DNA and degradation of RNA; also, it is effective at removing secondary metabolites. The RNA obtained following this procedure showed high quality as revealed by a high RNA integrity number and high 260/280 nm (>2) ratio, the requirements needed to increase reliability of diverse molecular analyses.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA de Plantas/química , RNA de Plantas/genética , Sementes/química
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6376948, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792994

RESUMO

Genetic resources comprised of 953 accessions of common (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and 47 accessions of runner (Phaseolus coccineus L.) bean from the national Slovene gene bank were characterized using fourteen morphological seed descriptors. Seeds of each accession were evaluated for six quantitative characteristics: seed length, seed thickness, seed width, seed length/width ratio, seed width/thickness ratio, and 100 or 10 seed weight. Furthermore, seeds were evaluated using eight qualitative characteristics: seed colour; number of seed colours; primary/main seed colour; predominant secondary seed colour; distribution of secondary seed colour; seed veining; seed shape; and seed colour (primary and secondary) and coat pattern. For each, common, and runner bean collection, first four components within principal component analysis explained 75.03% and 80.16% of morphological variability, respectively. Regarding Ward's method and squared Euclidian distance, three clusters with the most distinct characteristics were established for each species. The results of morphological seed characterization indicate the origin (Andean, Mesoamerican, putative hybrids between gene pools) and domestication pathways of common and runner bean. This is the first study describing morphological seed characteristics of the entire common and runner bean germplasm conserved in one of the Central European bean collections. The results obtained in this study are serving as the useful information on genetic diversity of common and runner bean accessions at the Slovene gene bank, which could be used for development of new bean varieties for studied seed characteristics.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Banco de Sementes , Sementes/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Phaseolus/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Eslovênia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703134

RESUMO

Progress in common bean breeding requires the exploitation of genetic variation among market classes, races and gene pools. The present study was conducted to determine the amount of genetic variation and the degree of relatedness among 192 selected common bean advanced cultivars using 58 simple-sequence-repeat markers (SSR) evenly distributed along the 11 linkage groups of the Phaseolus reference map. All the lines belonged to commercial seed type classes that are widely grown in the USA and include both dry bean and snap beans for the fresh and processing markets. Through population structure, principal components analyses, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes as well as most American commercial type classes could be distinguished. The genetic relationship among the commercial cultivars revealed by the SSR markers was generally in agreement with known pedigree data. The Mesoamerican cultivars were separated into three major groups-black, small white, and navy accessions clustered together in a distinct group, while great northern and pinto clustered in another group, showing mixed origin. The Andean cultivars were distributed in two different groups. The kidney market classes formed a single group, while the green bean accessions were distributed between the Andean and Mesoamerican groups, showing inter-gene pool genetic admixture. For a subset of 24 SSR markers, we compared and contrasted the genetic diversity of the commercial cultivars with those of wild and domesticated landrace accessions of common bean. An overall reduction in genetic diversity was observed in both gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican, from wild to landraces to advanced cultivars. The limited diversity in the commercial cultivars suggests that an important goal of bean breeding programs should be to broaden the cultivated gene pool, particularly the genetic diversity of specific commercial classes, using the genetic variability present in common bean landraces.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Phaseolus/classificação , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Plantas/genética , Análise Discriminante , Domesticação , Evolução Molecular , Phaseolus/genética , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763410

RESUMO

A complex landscape of anthracnose resistance genes (Co-) located at the telomeric regions of the bean chromosomes Pv01 and Pv04 has been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic and physical positions of genes conferring resistance to races 6, 38, 39, 357, 65, and 73 as well as the relationships among the resistance genes identified herein and the previously described Co- genes in these telomeric regions. The linkage analysis using a genetic map of 497 SNPs from the recombinant inbred line population Xana/BAT93 revealed that the gene conferring resistance to race 65 in cultivar Xana (Co-165-X) was located in the Co-1 cluster, at the distal end of chromosome Pv01. The fine mapping of Co-165-X indicated that it was positioned between the physical positions 49,512,545 and 49,658,821 bp. This delimited physical position agrees with the positions of the previously mapped genes Co- 14, Co-x, Co-14, Co-1HY, and Co-Pa. Responses to races 6, 38, 39, and 357 in BAT93 exhibited co-segregation suggesting that the same gene, or very closely linked genes, were involved in the control. The linkage analysis showed that the resistance gene to race 38 in the genotype BAT93 (Co-338-B) was located at the beginning of chromosome Pv04, in the genetic position of the Co-3 cluster, and was flanked by markers with physical positions between 1,286,490 and 2,047,754 bp. Thus, the genes Co-3, Co-9, Co-10, Co-16, and Co-338-B, found in this work, form part of the same anthracnose resistance cluster at the beginning of chromosome Pv04, which is consistent with the discontinuous distribution of typical R genes annotated in the underlying genomic region. Resistance loci involved in the response to race 73 in the genotypes Xana (R) and BAT93 (R) were mapped to the same positions on clusters Co-1 and Co-3, respectively. The positioning of the resistance genes in the bean genome based on fine linkage mapping should play an important role in the characterization and differentiation of the anthracnose resistance genes. The assignment of Co- genes to clusters of race specific genes can help simplify the current scenario of anthracnose resistance.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657755

RESUMO

Common bean is a highly important food in tropical regions, where most production occurs on small farms with limited use of technology and, consequently, greater vulnerability to abiotic stresses such as nutritional stress. Usually phosphorus (P) is the most limiting nutrient for crop growth in these regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the gene expression profiles of the genotypes of common bean IAC Imperador (P-responsive) and DOR 364 (P-unresponsive) under different P concentrations using RNA-seq transcriptome sequencing technology. Plants were grown hydroponically, with application of two P concentrations (4.00 mg L-1 restrictive level and 8.00 mg L-1 control level). Differential expression analyses, annotation, and functional classification were performed comparing genotypes within each P rate administered and comparing each genotype response to the different P levels. Considering differential expression analyses within genotypes, IAC Imperador exhibited 1538 up-regulated genes under P restriction and 1679 up-regulated genes in the control, while DOR 364 exhibited 13 up-regulated genes in the control and only 2 up-regulated genes under P restriction, strongly corroborating P-unresponsiveness of this genotype. Genes related to phosphorus restriction were identified among the differentially expressed genes, including transcription factors such as WRKY, ERF, and MYB families, phosphatase related genes such as pyrophosphatase, acid phosphatase, and purple acid phosphatase, and phosphate transporters. The enrichment test for the P restriction treatment showed 123 enriched gene ontologies (GO) for IAC Imperador, while DOR 364 enriched only 24. Also, the enriched GO correlated with P metabolism, compound metabolic processes containing phosphate, nucleoside phosphate binding, phosphorylation, and also response to stresses. Thus, this study proved to be informative to phosphorus limitation in common bean showing global changes at transcript level.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/genética , Fósforo/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Análise de Variância , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(1)2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658517

RESUMO

Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are conserved upstream signaling molecules that regulate several biological processes, including plant development and stress adaptation. Cysteine (C)-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) are an important class of RLK that play vital roles in disease resistance and cell death in plants. Genome-wide analyses of CRK genes have been carried out in Arabidopsis and rice, while functional characterization of some CRKs has been carried out in wheat and tomato in addition to Arabidopsis. A comprehensive analysis of the CRK gene family in leguminous crops has not yet been conducted, and our understanding of their roles in symbiosis is rather limited. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of the Phaseolus CRK gene family, including identification, sequence similarity, phylogeny, chromosomal localization, gene structures, transcript expression profiles, and in silico promoter analysis. Forty-six CRK homologs were identified and phylogenetically clustered into five groups. Expression analysis suggests that PvCRK genes are differentially expressed in both vegetative and reproductive tissues. Further, transcriptomic analysis revealed that shared and unique CRK genes were upregulated during arbuscular mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbiosis. Overall, the systematic analysis of the PvCRK gene family provides valuable information for further studies on the biological roles of CRKs in various Phaseolus tissues during diverse biological processes, including Phaseolus-mycorrhiza/rhizobia symbiosis.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Phaseolus/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Simbiose/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Micorrizas/genética , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Rizoma/genética
17.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(3): 181-190, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600448

RESUMO

Plant virus-based vectors provide attractive and valuable tools for rapid production of recombinant protein in large quantities as they produce systemic infections in differentiated plant tissues. In the present study, we engineered the Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) as a gene expression vector which is a promising candidate for systemic expression of foreign proteins in French bean plants. Full virus vector strategy was exploited for insertion of foreign gene by inserting MCS through PCR in the circular pJET-SYMMV clone. To examine the ability of the SYMMV vector system, GFP gene was cloned after the start codon of coat protein (CP) so that its expression was driven by the SYMMV-CP subgenomic promoter. When in vitro run off SYMMV-GFP transcript was mechanically inoculated to French bean leaves, good level of GFP expression was observed through confocal microscopy up to 40 dpi. Expression of heterologous protein was also confirmed through ISEM, DAC-ELISA and RT-PCR with specific primers at 20 dpi. The recombinant SYMMV construct was stable in in vitro runoff transcript inoculated plants but the inserted GFP was lost in progeny virion inoculated plants. The system developed here will be useful for further studies of SYMMV gene functions and exploitation of SYMMV as a gene expression vector.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Vírus de Plantas/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Soja/virologia
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(5): 1375-1387, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671587

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: QTL were identified for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean. These QTL were detected in both greenhouse and field studies, and many overlapped with previously reported QTL in diverse mapping populations. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity can be improved through the genetic enhancement of its symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) capacity. This study was aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of SNF through QTL analysis of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population contrasting for SNF potential. The mapping population consisted of 188 F4:5 RILs derived from a cross of Solwezi and AO-1012-29-3-3A that were evaluated for SNF in the greenhouse and field in Zambia. The population was genotyped with 5398 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. QTL for shoot biomass, nitrogen percentage in shoot biomass, nitrogen percentage in seed, total nitrogen derived from atmosphere (Ndfa) and percentage of nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) were identified. Three QTL for %Ndfa were identified on chromosomes Pv01, Pv04 and Pv09. Five QTL for Ndfa were identified on Pv04, Pv06, Pv07, Pv09 and Pv11. The QTL Ndfa9.1SA identified in the current study overlapped with a previously reported QTL for SNF. A major QTL Ndfa7.1DB, SA (R2 = 14.9%) was consistently identified in two greenhouse studies and overlapped with previously reported QTL. The QTL Ndfa4.2SA identified from the greenhouse experiment is novel and overlapped with the QTL %NB4.3SA, %NS4.2SA and %Ndfa4.2SA from the field experiment. These QTL identified in both greenhouse and field experiments, which overlap with previously reported QTL, could potentially be deployed by marker-assisted breeding to accelerate development of bean cultivars with enhanced SNF.


Assuntos
Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genótipo , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Rhizobium/fisiologia , Simbiose/genética
19.
Physiol Plant ; 165(3): 632-643, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766514

RESUMO

Legume seed development represents a high demand for energy and metabolic resources to support the massive synthesis of starch and proteins. However, embryo growth occurs in an environment with reduced O2 that forces the plant to adapt its metabolic activities to maximize efficient energy use. SNF1-related protein kinase1 (SnRK1) is a master metabolic regulator needed for cells adaptation to conditions that reduce energy availability, and its activity is needed for the successful development of seeds. In bean embryo extracts, SnRK1 can be separated by anion exchange chromatography into two pools: one where the catalytic subunit is phosphorylated (SnRK1-p) and another with reduced phosphorylation (SnRK1-np). The phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit produces a large increase in SnRK1 activity but has a minor effect in determining its sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors such as trehalose 6-P (T6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), glucose 1-P (G1P) and glucose 6-P (G6P). In Arabidopsis thaliana, upstream activating kinases (SnAK) phosphorylate the SnRK1 catalytic subunit at T175/176, promoting and enhancing its activity. Recombinant Phaseolus vulgaris homologous to SnAK proteins (PvSnAK), can phosphorylate and activate the catalytic domains of the α-subunits of Arabidopsis, as well as the SnRK1-np pool purified from bean embryos. While the phosphorylation process is extremely efficient for catalytic domains, the phosphorylation of the SnRK1-np complex was less effective but produced a significant increase in activity. The presence of SnRK1-np could contribute to a quick response to unexpected adverse conditions. However, in addition to PvSnAK kinases, other factors might contribute to regulating the activation of SnRK1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Fosforilação/fisiologia
20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 17(4): 724-735, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191675

RESUMO

Cis-regulatory elements in promoters are major determinants of binding specificity of transcription factors (TFs) for transcriptional regulation. To improve our understanding of how these short DNA sequences regulate gene expression, synthetic promoters consisting of both classical (CACGTG) and variant G-box core sequences along with different flanking sequences derived from the promoters of three different highly expressing soybean genes, were constructed and used to regulate a green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene. Use of the classical 6-bp G-box provided information on the base level of GFP expression while modifications to the 2-4 flanking bases on either side of the G-box influenced the intensity of gene expression in both transiently transformed lima bean cotyledons and stably transformed soybean hairy roots. The proximal 2-bp sequences on either flank of the G-box significantly affected G-box activity, while the distal 2-bp flanking nucleotides also influenced gene expression albeit with a decreasing effect. Manipulation of the upstream 2- to 4-bp flanking sequence of a G-box variant (GACGTG), found in the proximal region of a relatively weak soybean glycinin promoter, significantly enhanced promoter activity using both transient and stable expression assays, if the G-box variant was first converted into a classical G-box (CACGTG). In addition to increasing our understanding of regulatory element composition and structure, this study shows that minimal targeted changes in native promoter sequences can lead to enhanced gene expression, and suggests that genome editing of the promoter region can result in useful and predictable changes in native gene expression.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Globulinas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Cotilédone/genética , Genes Reporter , Phaseolus/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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