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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1091-1100, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896257

RESUMO

The physical structure of type 1 resistant starch (RS 1) could influence the metabolite production and stimulate the growth of specific bacteria in the human colon. In the present study, we isolated intact cotyledon cells from pinto bean seeds as whole pulse food and RS 1 model and obtained a series of cell wall integrities through controlled enzymolysis. In vitro human fecal fermentation performance and microbiota responses were tested, and we reported that the cell wall integrity controls the in vitro fecal fermentation rate of heat-treated pinto bean cells. The concentration of butyrate produced by pinto bean cell fermentation enhanced with weakened cell wall integrity, and certain beneficial bacterial groups such as Blautia and Roseburia genera were remarkably promoted by pinto bean cells with damaged cell wall integrity. However, the intact cell sample had a shape more similar to microbiota composition with the purified cell wall polysaccharides, rather than the damaged cells.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Parede Celular/química , Fermentação , Humanos , Phaseolus/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 431-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907707

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Iron deficiency conditions as well as iron supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex induced a number of strategy I and strategy II genes for iron uptake in leucaena. Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is a tree-legume that can grow in alkaline soils, where metal-cofactors like Fe(III) are sparingly available. Mimosine, a known chelator of Fe(III), may facilitate Fe(III) uptake in leucaena by serving as a phytosiderophore. To test if mimosine can serve as a phytosiderophore, three sets of experiments were carried out. First, the binding properties and solubility of metal-mimosine complexes were assessed through spectrophotometry. Second, to study mimosine uptake in plants, pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants were supplied with mimosine alone and metal-mimosine complexes. Third, the expression of strategy I (S1) and strategy II (S2) genes for iron uptake from the soil was studied in leucaena plants exposed to different Fe(III) complexes. The results of this study show that (i) mimosine has high binding affinity for metallic cations at alkaline pH, Fe(III)-mimosine complexes are water soluble at alkaline pH, and that mimosine can bind soil iron under alkaline pH; (ii) pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants can uptake mimosine and transport it throughout the plant; and (iii) a number of S1 and S2 genes were upregulated in leucaena under iron-deficiency condition or when Fe(III) was supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex. These findings suggest that leucaena may utilize both S1 and S2 strategies for iron uptake; and mimosine may play an important role in both strategies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Mimosina/farmacocinética , Transporte Biológico , Tampões (Química) , Cátions , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ferro/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Solo , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum/metabolismo , Solubilidade
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 67-76, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710472

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) are known to significantly alter plant metabolism in a dose-dependent manner, with effects ranging from stimulation to toxicity. The metabolic adjustment and ionomic balance of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots and leaves gained from plants grown in a solid medium added with relatively low dosages (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L) of CeO2 NPs were investigated. Ce accumulated in the roots (up to 287.91 mg/kg dry weight) and translocated to the aerial parts (up to 2.78% at the highest CeO2 dosage), and ionomic analysis showed that CeO2 NPs interfered with potassium, molybdenum, and zinc. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis from metabolomic profiles suggested a dose-dependent and tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming induced by NPs. The majority of differential metabolites belonged to flavonoids and other phenolics, nitrogen-containing low molecules (such as alkaloids and glucosinolates), lipids, and amino acids.


Assuntos
Cério/farmacologia , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cério/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/análise , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 310: 125699, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810727

RESUMO

The capacity of high-fiber foods to sequester BS during digestion is considered a mechanism to lower serum-cholesterol. We investigated the effect of hydrothermal (HT) and high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) on the bile salt (BS)-binding ability of dry beans, and how this relates to changes in bean microstructure, fiber content (insoluble-IDF/soluble-SDF), and viscosity. HT and HHP-600 MPa led to significant IDF reduction, including resistant starch (RS), whereas 150-450 MPa significantly increased RS, without modifying IDF/SDF content. Microscopy analysis showed that heating disrupted the bean cell wall integrity, protein matrix and starch granules more severely than 600 MPa; however, tightly-packed complexes of globular starch granules-protein-cell wall fiber formed at HHP ≤ 450 MPa. While HT significantly reduced BS-binding efficiency despite no viscosity change, HHP-treatments maintained or enhanced BS-retention. 600 MPa-treatment induced the maximum BS-binding ability and viscosity. These results demonstrate that BS-binding by beans is not solely based on their fiber content or viscosity, but is influenced by additional microstructural factors.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Pressão Hidrostática , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Solubilidade , Amido/química , Viscosidade
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 769-778, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826608

RESUMO

Previous work with Caco-2 cell cultures has shown that individual polyphenols can either promote or inhibit iron uptake. This investigation was designed to characterize the relationship between iron bioavailability and seed coat polyphenol composition in a panel of 14 yellow beans representing five market classes with the potential for fast cooking time and high iron content. The study included two white and two red mottled bean lines, which represent high and low iron bioavailability capacity in dry beans, respectively. Polyphenols were measured quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)/UV and iron bioavailability of seed coat extracts was measured in Caco-2 assays. Thirteen of the yellow bean seed types contained high concentrations (up to 35.3 ± 2.7 µmol/g) of kaempferol 3-glucoside (k 3-g), a known promoter of iron uptake. A general association between the ratio of promoting to inhibiting polyphenols (P/I) and iron uptake was observed. The presence of iron uptake inhibiting condensed tannins proportionately countered the promotional effects of kaempferol compounds. Unidentified factors present in seed coats other than polyphenols also appeared to affect iron uptake.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Ferro/química , Phaseolus/classificação , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3179-3185, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589337

RESUMO

The present work studied, for the first time, the effect of two technologies on the hydration and germination process of beans: ionizing irradiation and ultrasound. In addition, this work proposed a possible biological effect of ultrasound to describe its effect on grain hydration. Carioca beans were irradiated at doses of 2.3 and 3.8 kGy using γ-rays, establishing different metabolic activities for the beans. Then, they were hydrated with and without the ultrasound technology (91 W/L and 25 kHz) at 25 °C. Both the hydration and germination kinetics were evaluated considering the application of both technologies alone and in combination. As results, irradiation did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the hydration rate, the equilibrium moisture, or the lag phase time, but ultrasound affected them, reducing 50% of the processing time. On the other hand, only the equilibrium moisture was slightly reduced by the interactive effect of irradiation and ultrasound technology, which was discussed based on different metabolism levels. Furthermore, the germination process of carioca bean was hindered by both the studied variables, reducing its germination capacity to 0% in some cases. Therefore, by studying the effect of ultrasound on beans with different active metabolism (due to different irradiation doses), it was suggested that both physical and biological mechanisms are involved during hydration process and that both can be affected by ultrasound. Further, irradiation could be used on carioca beans with objectives such as avoid germination, insects, and microorganism's growth, without an important effect on the hydration kinetics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Ultrasound technology has demonstrated to accelerate the soaking process of several legume grains. However, sometimes, grains are irradiated for disinfestation purpose to improve their shelf life. Indeed, irradiation can change the grain properties as the cooking time, hydration time, and germination capacity. Therefore, this work verified if irradiation changes the desirable effect of ultrasound on grain processing: soaking and germination. Moreover, this work novelty is also based on describing the phenomena: by proposing a possible biological effect, further approaches to improve the grain processing can be achieved.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos da radiação , Phaseolus/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culinária , Raios gama , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Ultrassom , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 143: 364-374, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542638

RESUMO

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is essential for the assimilation of symbiotically fixed nitrogen in ureidic legumes. Uric acid, produced in the reaction catalyzed by XDH, is the precursor of the ureides, allantoin and allantoate, which are the main N-transporting molecules in these plants. XDH and uric acid have been reported to be involved in the response to stress, both in plants and animals. However, the physiological role of XDH under stressful conditions in ureidic legumes remains largely unexplored. In vitro assays showed that Phaseolus vulgaris XDH (PvXDH) can behave as a dehydrogenase or as an oxidase. Therefore, it could potentially protect against oxidative radicals or, in contrast, it could increase their production. In silico analysis of the upstream genomic region of XDH coding gene from P. vulgaris revealed the presence of several stress-related cis-regulatory elements. PvXDH mRNA and enzymatic activity in plants treated with stress-related phytohormones or subjected to dehydration and stressful temperatures showed several fold induction. However, PvXDH activity was in vivo and in vitro inhibited by nitric oxide in leaves but not in nodules. In extracts from RNAi PvXDH silenced nodules, with lower levels of uric acid, XDH activity was inhibited by SNP which indicates that uric acid produced by XDH in the nodules of this ureidic legume could help to protect XDH against the inhibitory effects of nitric oxide.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Xantina Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Phaseolus/genética , Xantina Desidrogenase/genética
8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374868

RESUMO

The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally produced pulse crop and an important source of micronutrients for millions of people across Latin America and Africa. Many of the preferred black and red seed types in these regions have seed coat polyphenols that inhibit the absorption of iron. Yellow beans are distinct from other market classes because they accumulate the antioxidant kaempferol 3-glucoside in their seed coats. Due to their fast cooking tendencies, yellow beans are often marketed at premium prices in the same geographical regions where dietary iron deficiency is a major health concern. Hence, this study compared the iron bioavailability of three faster cooking yellow beans with contrasting seed coat colors from Africa (Manteca, Amarillo, and Njano) to slower cooking white and red kidney commercial varieties. Iron status and iron bioavailability was assessed by the capacity of a bean based diet to generate and maintain total body hemoglobin iron (Hb-Fe) during a 6 week in vivo (Gallus gallus) feeding trial. Over the course of the experiment, animals fed yellow bean diets had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher Hb-Fe than animals fed the white or red kidney bean diet. This study shows that the Manteca yellow bean possess a rare combination of biochemical traits that result in faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability. The Manteca yellow bean is worthy of germplasm enhancement to address iron deficiency in regions where beans are consumed as a dietary staple.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas/sangue , Culinária , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Ferro na Dieta/sangue , Ferro na Dieta/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
9.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4802-4810, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317144

RESUMO

The present work evaluated the effect of different processes in relation to mineral content and its bioavailability, as well as the effect of phytate and oxalate contents in biofortified beans. The following treatments were evaluated: raw beans (RB), cooked and oven-dried soaked beans (BOS), cooked and freeze-dried soaked beans (BFS), cooked and oven-dried beans without soaking (BOWS) and cooked and freeze-dried beans without soaking (BFWS). The mineral contents (mg per 100 g) varied between 3.56 and 5.80 (iron), 20.26 and 89.32 (calcium) and 1.56 and 2.38 (zinc). The oxalate content varied from 3.74 to 10.54 mg per 100 g. The total phytate content ranged from 1803.23 to 2.301 mg per 100 g. Regarding mineral bioavailability in Caco-2 cells, iron retention ranged from 8.89 to 17.85% and uptake was from 12.07 to 13.74 µg. On the other hand, the zinc retention was from 92.27 to 98.6% and uptake ranged from 24.68 to 36.26 µg. The different forms of bean processing can contribute to the mineral profile of this legume, in addition to increasing the bioavailability of some minerals, such as iron and zinc.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ferro/metabolismo , Oxalatos/análise , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Culinária , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Zinco/análise
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8370-8381, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271280

RESUMO

Naturally occurring dietary peptides derived from gastrointestinal digestates of common bean milk and yogurt were studied for their bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and anti-inflammatory activity in both Caco-2 mono- and Caco-2/EA.hy926 co-culture cell models. Anti-inflammatory activities of these peptide extracts were found to be strongly associated with cellular uptake by the intestinal epithelial cells. Mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake were studied by examining the role of peptide transporter 1 and calcium sensing reporter. Three peptides, including γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine, γ-glutamyl-leucine, and leucine-leucine-valine, were found to be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A strong anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the basolateral EA.hy926 cells (co-culture model), as shown in their inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators of the nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal cascades. The results suggest that these peptides can be absorbed and possibly have systemic inhibition on inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, indicating potential preventive effects on vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Peptídeos/genética , Transportador 1 de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1929-1936, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218698

RESUMO

This study dealt with the effect of sourdough fermentation on antinutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of flours from three Phaseoulus vulgaris L. genotypes with differing composition of lectins. Specifically, cultivar Lady Joy (LJ) devoid of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and enriched in alfa-amylase inhibitor (αAI), breeding line P500 low in PHA and devoid of αAI, and Taylor's horticultivar, containing normal levels of both proteins. Sourdough fermentation positively affects the nutritional values of all bean flours by reducing some antinutrients, for example, phytic acid while preserving αAI activity. It significantly increased total polyphenols, flavonols, and ascorbic acid content, while reducing flavonoids. No significant differences in antioxidant activity, measured by in vitro and ex vivo assays on human erythrocytes, were found. The kinetic profiles of conjugated dienes analysis showed a strong inhibitory effect on low-density lipoproteins oxidation of all tested powders, with unfermented flours displaying the best antioxidant activity. Among bean powders, unfermented and fermented LJ showed the highest polyphenols level (4.21 ± 0.18 and 4.96 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g dw, respectively), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values (24.17 ± 0.14 and 24.02 ± 0.93 µmol TE/100g dw, respectively) and cellular antioxidant activity (71.6 ± 7.05 and 62.7 ± 3.3 units, respectively). Finally, since fermentation drastically reduces phytic acid content while preserving αAI activity, fermented LJ represents an important natural slimming supplement.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Phaseolus/química , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Phaseolus/classificação , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Polifenóis/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217099, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170187

RESUMO

Drought substantially limits seed yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the tropics. Understanding the interaction of drought on yield and the nutrient concentration of the seed is vital in order to supply nutrition to the millions of consumers who rely on common bean as a staple crop. Nevertheless, the impact of drought on common bean for both yield and nutrient concentration has not yet been concurrently investigated in a field environment. Using 10 bred lines developed by CIAT and its partners for their improved adaptation to drought and phosphorus deficiency, this study characterised the impact of drought on yield and nutrient concentration for leaf and seed tissue of common bean grown in the field. Drought significantly reduced leaf area (by ~50%), harvest index (by ~60%), yield (by ~70%), seed weight (by ~25%) and enriched carbon isotope abundance (δ13C) in the seed. Within the soluble leaf fraction, drought significantly decreased the concentration of mineral nutrients and amino acids, whereas no negative effect on the concentration of nutrients and amino acids was detected within the seed. Genotypic variation in nutrient concentration in both the leaf and seed tissue was identified and should be explored further to identify traits that may confer tolerance to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
13.
Microbiology ; 165(6): 651-661, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081746

RESUMO

Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is a facultative symbiotic diazotroph able to deal with stressful concentrations of metals. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms involved in metal tolerance have not been elucidated. Copper (Cu2+) is a metal component essential for the heme-copper respiratory oxidases and enzymes that catalyse redox reactions, however, it is highly toxic when intracellular trace concentrations are surpassed. In this study, we report that R. tropici CIAT 899 is more tolerant to Cu2+ than other Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium species. Through Tn5 random mutagenesis we identify a R. tropici mutant strain with a severe reduction in Cu2+ tolerance. The Tn5 insertion disrupted the gene RTCIAT899_CH17575, encoding a putative heavy metal efflux P1B-1-type ATPase designated as copA. Phaseolus vulgaris plants inoculated with the copA::Tn5 mutant in the presence of toxic Cu2+ concentrations showed a drastic reduction in plant and nodule dry weight, as well as nitrogenase activity. Nodules induced by the copA::Tn5 mutant present an increase in H2O2 concentration, lipoperoxidation and accumulate 40-fold more Cu2+ than nodules formed by the wild-type strain. The copA::Tn5 mutant complemented with the copA gene recovered the wild-type symbiotic phenotypes. Therefore, the copA gene is essential for R. tropici CIAT 899 to survive in copper-rich environments in both free life and symbiosis with P. vulgaris plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Rhizobium tropici/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cobre/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênese Insercional , Mutação , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Nodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rhizobium tropici/genética , Rhizobium tropici/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 171, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common bean is the most important staple grain legume for direct human consumption and nutrition. It complements major sources of carbohydrates, including cereals, root crop, or plantain, as a source of dietary proteins. It is also a significant source of vitamins and minerals like iron and zinc. To fully play its nutritional role, however, its robustness against stresses needs to be strengthened. Foremost among these is drought, which commonly affects its productivity and seed quality. Previous studies have shown that photosynthate remobilization and partitioning is one of the main mechanisms of drought tolerance and overall productivity in common bean. RESULTS: In this study, we sought to determine the inheritance of pod harvest index (PHI), a measure of the partitioning of pod biomass to seed biomass, relative to that of grain yield. We evaluated a recombinant inbred population of the cross of ICA Bunsi and SXB405, both from the Mesoamerican gene pool, to determine the effects of intermittent and terminal drought stresses on the genetic architecture of photosynthate allocation and remobilization in pods of common bean. The population was grown for two seasons, under well-watered conditions and terminal and intermittent drought stress in one year, and well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress in the second year. There was a significant effect of the water regime and year on all the traits, at both the phenotypic and QTL levels. We found nine QTLs for pod harvest index, including a major (17% of variation explained), stable QTL on linkage group Pv07. We also found eight QTLs for yield, three of which clustered with PHI QTLs, underscoring the importance of photosynthate remobilization in productivity. We also found evidence for substantial epistasis, explaining a considerable part of the variation for yield and PHI. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the genetic relationship between PHI and yield and confirm the role of PHI in selection of both additive and epistatic effects controlling drought tolerance. These results are a key component to strengthen the robustness of common bean against drought stresses.


Assuntos
Secas , Phaseolus/genética , Fotossíntese , Biomassa , Epistasia Genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pleiotropia Genética , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Food Chem ; 294: 368-377, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126476

RESUMO

Common bean is rich in phytochemicals like polyphenols, saponins, and steroidal glycosides, but its crop is greatly affected by drought. Thus, it is necessary to identify the irrigation regimes that improves its phytochemical profile without affecting seed yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential effect of severe drought (SD), restricted irrigation (RI), and full irrigation (FI) on the phytochemical fingerprint of bean seeds through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric approach. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that seeds from plants grown under RI where differentiated from those grown under FI and SD due to their high content of quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside. Regarding seed yield, no significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed between RI and FI, whereas SD decreased (p < 0.05) seed yield as compared to FI (47%). These results suggest that mild hydric stress (RI) can be used to induce phytochemicals without affecting seed yield.


Assuntos
Secas , Phaseolus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 558-568, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029029

RESUMO

The interplaying defensive roles of silicon (Si) and proline (Pro) in improving growth and yield attributes, physio-biochemical attributes, and antioxidant defense systems in common bean plant grown under saline (NaCl) and/or cadmium (Cd2+) stress were assessed. Seed were sown in plastic pots filled with sand-free ions as a growing medium that watered with a ½-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Twenty five days after planting, pots were split into 4 plots; control (no stress), 150 mM NaCl (salt stress), 1.5 mM Cd2+ in CdCl2 (Cd2+ stress), and 100 mM NaCl + 1.0 mM Cd2+ (salt + Cd2+ stress). Four treatments; foliar spray with distilled water, 6 mM Si (in K2SiO3.nH2O) solution, 6 mM Pro solution, and a combination of Si and Pro were allotted under each of the 4 plots. The experimental layout was a completely randomized design with 15 replicates. Compared to control, NaCl or Cd2+ stress significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced plant growth and yield attributes, leaf contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, N, P, and K+, K+/Na+ ratio, RWC, MSI, Pn and Tr, while elevated significantly leaf EL, leaf contents of proline, soluble sugar, glutathione, MDA, Na+, and root, leaf and pod contents of Cd2+. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were also raised. The combined stress (NaCl + Cd2+) was more influential. Addition of Si and/or Pro for common bean plants under NaCl and/or Cd2+ stress significantly enhanced all investigated attributes of physiology, morphology, and biochemistry, and further increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Supplementation of Si + Pro was the best treatment having more positive influential, especially reducing the Cd2+ content in Phaseolus vulgaris pods to the limits (0.27 mg kg-1) for legumes. Therefore, this combined treatment is recommended to use for alleviating environmental stress effects, especially salinity and Cd2+ for common bean production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
17.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 312, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict more frequent incidents of heat stress worldwide. This trend will contribute to food insecurity, particularly for some of the most vulnerable regions, by limiting the productivity of crops. Despite its great importance, there is a limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms of variation in heat tolerance within plant species. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is relatively susceptible to heat stress, which is of concern given its critical role in global food security. Here, we evaluated three genotypes of P. vulgaris belonging to kidney market class under heat and control conditions. The Sacramento and NY-105 genotypes were previously reported to be heat tolerant, while Redhawk is heat susceptible. RESULTS: We quantified several morpho-physiological traits for leaves and found that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf area all increased under elevated temperatures. Leaf area expansion under heat stress was greatest for the most susceptible genotype, Redhawk. To understand gene regulatory responses among the genotypes, total RNA was extracted from the fourth trifoliate leaves for RNA-sequencing. Several genes involved in the protection of PSII (HSP21, ABA4, and LHCB4.3) exhibited increased expression under heat stress, indicating the importance of photoprotection of PSII. Furthermore, expression of the gene SUT2 was reduced in heat. SUT2 is involved in the phloem loading of sucrose and its distal translocation to sinks. We also detected an almost four-fold reduction in the concentration of free hexoses in heat-treated beans. This reduction was more drastic in the susceptible genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data suggests that while moderate heat stress does not negatively affect photosynthesis, it likely interrupts intricate source-sink relationships. These results collectively suggest a physiological mechanism for why pollen fertility and seed set are negatively impacted by elevated temperatures. Identifying the physiological and transcriptome dynamics of bean genotypes in response to heat stress will likely facilitate the development of varieties that can better tolerate a future of elevated temperatures.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Mudança Climática , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genótipo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Phaseolus/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sacarose/metabolismo
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1767): 20180318, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967018

RESUMO

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) synergize with the sex pheromones of herbivorous insects to facilitate mate location. However, the synergism of HIPVs and acoustic signals for sexual communication remains unknown. Here, we investigated the synergy between HIPVs and vibrational duets for sexual communication and mating in the pea leafminer ( Liriomyza huidobrensis). Our results indicated that adult leafminers do not produce species-specific pheromone, and female-puncture-induced plant volatiles facilitate the attraction of both sexes to host plant leaves and sexual encounters. Insect-derived cues do not participate in mate locations. Both sexes do not produce qualitatively different cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), and CHCs from females cannot elicit the antennal and behavioural responses of males. By contrast, induced green leaf volatiles, terpenoids and oximes elicit dramatic antennal responses in both sexes. Electrophysiological and behavioural tests consistently showed that the volatiles (Z)-3-hexenol and (Z)-3-hexenyl-acetate elicited the most intense gas chromatographic-electroantennographic responses, and attracted males and females. Remarkably, these volatiles significantly promoted the occurrence of vibrational duets between the sexes, thereby increasing the mating success of leafminers. Therefore, the synergism of HIPVs and vibrational signals largely promoted the mating success of leafminers, suggesting an alternative control strategy through precision trapping for non-pheromone-producing insects. This article is part of the theme issue 'Biotic signalling sheds light on smart pest management'.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Dípteros/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Masculino , Vibração
19.
Food Chem ; 286: 557-566, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827647

RESUMO

Cotyledon cells in kidney beans naturally encapsulate starch and proteins limiting the access of digestive enzymes to their substrates. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell wall on bean protein digestibility and its relationship with starch digestion. Results showed that proteins contained in the cytoplasmic matrix influence the rate at which starch is digested in-vitro. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that storage proteins in the cytoplasm act as a second encapsulation system preventing starch digestion. This microstructural organization only affected starch since no changes in protein digestion rate or extent were observed due to the presence of starch granules. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cellular entrapment limited protein denaturation induced by thermal treatments. High concentrations of a fraction resistant to digestion were found in proteins that were heated when entrapped within intact cotyledon cells, compared to those thermally treated as bean flour.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/citologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Amido/farmacocinética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cotilédone/química , Cotilédone/citologia , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Digestão , Farinha , Humanos , Nutrientes/farmacocinética , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Proteólise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química
20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 2721-2732, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843175

RESUMO

The calmodulin-binding transcriptional activator (CAMTA) family was first observed in tobacco (NtER1) during a screening for the CaM-binding proteins, which are known to be one of the fast response stress proteins. Due to the increased importance of plant transcription factors in recent years; genome-wide identification of CAMTA genes has been performed in several plant species, except for Phaseolus vulgaris. Therefore, our aim was to identify and characterize CAMTA genes in P. vulgaris via in silico genome-wide analysis approach. Our results showed a total of eight CAMTA genes that were identified and observed on five out of 11 chromosomes of P. vulgaris. Four gene couples were found to be segmentally-duplicated and these segmental duplication events were shown to occur from 29.97 to 92.06 MYA. The phylogenetic tree of CAMTA homologs from P. vulgaris, A. thaliana, and G. max. revealed three groups based on their homology and the intron numbers of Pvul-CAMTA genes, ranged from 11 to 12. According to the syteny analysis; CAMTA genes of P. vulgaris and G. max revealed higher similarity, because they have highly similar genomes compared to A. thaliana. All Pvul-CAMTA genes were targeted by miRNAs, which play a role in response mechanism of salt stress. To detect expression levels in different plant tissues, mRNA analysis of Pvul-CAMTA genes were performed using publicly available expression data in Phytozome v12.1. In addition, responses of Pvul-CAMTA genes to salt stress, were also examined via both RNAseq and qRT-PCR analysis. To identify and to obtain insight into biological functions of CAMTA genes in the genome of P. vulgaris, several analyses were conducted using many online and offline bioinformatic tools, genome databases and qRT-PCR analyses. Due to this study being the first in the identification of CAMTA genes in P. vulgaris, this study could be considered as an useful source for future CAMTA genes studies in either P. vulgaris or comparative different plant species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transativadores/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
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