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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008363, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790716

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health issue worldwide causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The Indian subcontinent accounted for up to 90% of the global VL burden in the past but made significant progress during recent years and is now moving towards elimination. However, to achieve and sustain elimination of VL, knowledge gaps on infection reservoirs and transmission need to be addressed urgently. Xenodiagnosis is the most direct way for testing the infectiousness of hosts to the vectors and can be used to investigate the dynamics and epidemiology of Leishmania donovani transmission. There are, however, several logistic and ethical issues with xenodiagnosis that need to be addressed before its application on human subjects. In the current Review, we discuss the critical knowledge gaps in VL transmission and the role of xenodiagnosis in disease transmission dynamics along with its technical challenges. Establishment of state of the art xenodiagnosis facilities is essential for the generation of much needed evidence in the VL elimination initiative.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Xenodiagnóstico , Animais , Ásia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/fisiologia
2.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 229-236, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615736

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis.CL caused by L. major and L. tropica is endemic in 17 provinces of Iran. This study was carried out to elucidate situation of CL in Ardabil province and to predict distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of CL in the region. In this cross-sectional study, data on CL patients were collected from local health centers of Ardabil province, Iran during 2006-2018 to establish a geodatabase using ArcGIS10.3. A total of 20 CL cases were selected randomly and skin samples were collected and analyzed by PCR method. MaxEnt 3.3.3 model was used to determine ecologically suitable niches for the main vectors. A total, 309 CL human cases were reported and the highest incidence rate of disease was occurred in Bilasavar (37/100,000) and Germi (35/100,000). A total of 2,794 sand flies were collected during May to October 2018. The environmentally suitable habitats for P. papatasi and P. sergenti were predicted to be present in northern and central areas of Ardabil province. The most variable that contributed ratio in the modeling were Isothermality and slope factors. Ardabil province is possibly an endemic are for CL. The presence of P. papatasi and P. sergenti justifies local transmission while the vectors of CL are existing in the northern and central areas of the province.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007489, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658913

RESUMO

Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies inject their hosts with a myriad of pharmacologically active salivary proteins to assist with blood feeding and to modulate host defenses. In addition, salivary proteins can influence cutaneous leishmaniasis disease outcome, highlighting the potential of the salivary components to be used as a vaccine. Variability of vaccine targets in natural populations influences antigen choice for vaccine development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the variability in the predicted protein sequences of nine of the most abundantly expressed salivary proteins from field populations, testing the hypothesis that salivary proteins appropriate to target for vaccination strategies will be possible. PpSP12, PpSP14, PpSP28, PpSP29, PpSP30, PpSP32, PpSP36, PpSP42, and PpSP44 mature cDNAs from field collected P. papatasi from three distinct ecotopes in the Middle East and North Africa were amplified, sequenced, and in silico translated to assess the predicted amino acid variability. Two of the predicted sequences, PpSP12 and PpSP14, demonstrated low genetic variability across the three geographic isolated sand fly populations, with conserved multiple predicted MHCII epitope binding sites suggestive of their potential application in vaccination approaches. The other seven predicted salivary proteins revealed greater allelic variation across the same sand fly populations, possibly precluding their use as vaccine targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Phlebotomus/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Egito , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Jordânia , Phlebotomus/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579586

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non-Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1177-1199, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246259

RESUMO

A few data are related to the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. Prior studies focussed mainly to inventories and description of new species. Our goal was to emphasize the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. We worked in the Makira region, using two simultaneous methods: human landing catches (HLC) and CDC light traps. We collected sandflies in three rural communities adjacent to the Makira Natural Park. In each community, three different biotopes were sampled: within community settlements; at the edge of forest, typically in agricultural land; and within the forest. We collected 61 sandflies belonging to two new species presently described: Phlebotomus artemievi sp. nov. and Sergentomyia maroantsetraensis sp. nov. These sandflies were caught exclusively in the forest edge biotope. None were captured within communities or within forests. HLC provided 97% of the collected sandflies, corresponding to a human-biting rate of 15 females per human per night. CDC provided only two females. Ph. artemievi sp. nov. was predominantly captured by HLC and appears to be highly anthropophilic. Here, we update the behavioural ecology of sandflies and describe two new species. Further research is required to understand their vector competence and their ability to transmit arboviruses and other pathogens such as Leishmania.


Assuntos
Florestas , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Ecossistema , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino , Phlebotomus/classificação , Psychodidae/classificação
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 30, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of 2015 thousands of refugees are being hosted in temporary refugee camps in Greece. Displaced populations, travelling and living under poor conditions with limited access to healthcare are at a high risk of exposure to vector borne disease (VBD). This study sought to evaluate the risk for VBD transmission within refugee camps in Greece by analyzing the mosquito and sand fly populations present, in light of designing effective and efficient context specific vector and disease control programs. METHODS: A vector/pathogen surveillance network targeting mosquitoes and sand flies was deployed in four temporary refugee camps in Greece. Sample collections were conducted bi-weekly during June-September 2017 with the use of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and oviposition traps. Using conventional and molecular diagnostic tools we investigated the mosquito/sand fly species composition, population dynamics, pathogen infection rates, and insecticide resistance status in the major vector species. RESULTS: Important disease vectors including Anopheles sacharovi, Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus and the Leishmania vectors Phlebotomus neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi were recorded in the study refugee camps. No mosquito pathogens (Plasmodium parasites, flaviviruses) were detected in the analysed samples yet high sand fly Leishmania infection rates are reported. Culex pipiens mosquitoes displayed relatively high knock down resistance (kdr) mutation allelic frequencies (ranging from 41.0 to 63.3%) while kdr mutations were also detected in Ae. albopictus populations, but not in Anopheles and sand fly specimens. No diflubenzuron (DFB) mutations were detected in any of the mosquito species analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Important disease vectors and pathogens in vectors (Leishmania spp.) were recorded in the refugee camps indicating a situational risk factor for disease transmission. The Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus kdr mutation frequencies recorded pose a potential threat against the effectiveness of pyrethroid insecticides in these settings. In contrast, pyrethroids appear suitable for the control of Anopheles mosquitoes and sand flies and DFB for Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus larvicide applications. Targeted actions ensuring adequate living conditions and the establishment of integrated vector-borne disease surveillance programs in refugee settlements are essential for protecting refugee populations against VBDs.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Leishmania , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Campos de Refugiados , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/genética , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/genética , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/genética , Feminino , Grécia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phlebotomus/genética , Psychodidae
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0220268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155153

RESUMO

Caves are extreme and inhospitable environments that can harbor several species of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Among these animals are phlebotomine sand flies, vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania that cause leishmaniasis. This study aimed to evaluate the species composition of sand flies of four caves, a cave located at Moeda Sul (MS) and three at Parque Estadual Serra do Rola Moça (PESRM), in the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Sand flies were collected with automatic light traps. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling, using a dissimilarity matrix calculated with the Jaccard index, and Multivariate Permutation Analysis were used to evaluate sand fly species composition among entrance, interior, and the surrounding environments of each sampled cave and to infer biological mechanisms from patterns of distribution among these different cave environments. A total of 375 phlebotomine sand flies representing 14 species and six genera were collected. The most abundant species were Evandromyia tupynambai (54.7%), Brumptomyia troglodytes (25.6%), Evandromyia edwardsi (6.1%), Psathyromyia brasiliensis (4.8%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (4.3%). Thirty individuals were collected at MS, 16 inside the cave and 14 from its surroundings. At PESRM, five individuals were collected from the surroundings of cave RM38, 190 individuals from cave RM39 (48 in the cave and 142 from its surroundings) and 150 individuals from cave RM40 (42 in the cave and 108 from its surroundings). The results revealed a rich sand fly fauna with similar species compositions among the entrance, interior, and surrounding environments of each sampled cave, suggesting that both caves and their surroundings are important for maintaining sand fly communities.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Geografia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007947, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health concern in Ethiopia. However, knowledge about the complex zoonotic transmission cycle is limited, hampering implementation of control strategies. We explored the feeding behavior and activity of the vector (Phlebotomus pedifer) and studied the role of livestock in CL transmission in southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: Blood meal origins of engorged sand flies were determined by sequencing host DNA. A host choice experiment was performed to assess the feeding preference of P. pedifer when humans and hyraxes are equally accessible. Ear and nose biopsies from livestock were screened for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Sand flies were captured indoor and outdoor with human landing catches and CDC light traps to determine at which time and where P. pedifer is mostly active. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 180 P. pedifer sand flies were found to bite hosts of 12 genera. Humans were the predominant blood meal source indoors (65.9%, p < 0.001), while no significant differences were determined outdoors and in caves. In caves, hyraxes were represented in blood meals equally as humans (45.5% and 42.4%, respectively), but the host choice experiment revealed that sand flies have a significant preference for feeding on hyraxes (p = 0.009). Only a single goat nose biopsy from 412 animal samples was found with Leishmania RNA. We found that P. pedifer is predominantly endophagic (p = 0.003), but occurs both indoors and outdoors. A substantial number of sand flies was active in the early evening, which increased over time reaching its maximum around midnight. CONCLUSION: In contrast to earlier suggestions of exclusive zoonotic Leishmania transmission, we propose that there is also human-to-human transmission of CL in southwestern Ethiopia. Livestock does not play a role in CL transmission and combined indoor and outdoor vector control measures at night are required for efficient vector control.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Gado/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008077, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus and Canis familiaris are respectively the only confirmed vector and reservoir for the transmission of Leishmania (L.) infantum MON-1 in Tunisia. However, the vector and reservoir hosts of the two other zymodemes, MON-24 and MON-80, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the L. infantum life cycle in a Tunisian leishmaniasis focus. For this purpose, we have focused on: i) the detection, quantification and identification of Leishmania among this sand fly population, and ii) the analysis of the blood meal preferences of Larroussius (Lar.) subgenus sand flies to identify the potential reservoirs. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 3,831 sand flies were collected in seven locations from the center of Tunisia affected by human visceral leishmaniasis. The collected sand flies belonged to two genus Phlebotomus (Ph.) (five species) and Sergentomyia (four species). From the collected 1,029 Lar. subgenus female sand flies, 8.26% was positive to Leishmania by ITS1 nested PCR. Three Leishmania spp. were identified: L. infantum 28% (24/85), L. killicki 13% (11/85), and L. major 22% (19/85). To identify the blood meal sources in Ph. Lar. subgenus sand flies, engorged females were analyzed by PCR-sequencing targeting the vertebrate cytochrome b gene. Among the 177 analyzed blood-fed females, 169 samples were positive. Sequencing results showed seven blood sources: cattle, human, sheep, chicken, goat, donkey, and turkey. In addition, mixed blood meals were detected in twelve cases. Leishmania DNA was found in 21 engorged females, with a wide range of blood meal sources: cattle, chicken, goat, chicken/cattle, chicken/sheep, chicken/turkey and human/cattle. The parasite load was quantified in fed and unfed infected sand flies using a real time PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA. The average parasite load was 1,174 parasites/reaction and 90 parasites/reaction in unfed and fed flies, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the role of Ph. longicuspis, Ph. perfiliewi, and Ph. perniciosus in L. infantum transmission. Furthermore, these species could be involved in L. major and L. killicki life cycles. The combination of the parasite detection and the blood meal analysis in this study highlights the incrimination of the identified vertebrate in Leishmania transmission. In addition, we quantify for the first time the parasite load in naturally infected sand flies caught in Tunisia. These findings are relevant for a better understanding of L. infantum transmission cycle in the country. Further investigations and control measures are needed to manage L. infantum transmission and its spreading.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , DNA/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Masculino , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tunísia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008024, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069279

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by various Leishmania spp., which are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. Algeria is one of the most affected countries, with thousands of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases registered every year. From March to November of 2016 and 2017, sand flies were collected in 12 municipalities in Setif province, North-Eastern Algeria. Sand flies were identified and females were tested by PCR for detecting Leishmania DNA. Additionally, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases notified during the study period were analysed. Out of 1804 sand flies collected, 1737 were identified as belonging to seven species, with Phlebotomus perniciosus (76.2%), Ph. papatasi (16.7%) and Ph. sergenti (5.0%) being the most common species, representing together 97.9% of the collected specimens. The remaining specimens were identified as Sergentomyia minuta, Se. fallax, Ph. longicuspis and Ph. perfiliewi. The number of sand flies collected monthly was positively correlated with temperature. Out of 804 females tested, nine Ph. perniciosus (1.1%) scored positive for Leishmania infantum (n = 5), L. major (n = 3) and L. tropica (n = 1), respectively. During the study period, 34 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases were notified in Setif, of which 58.8% were patients residing in two urban and peri-urban municipalities and 41.2% in rural areas. The finding of Ph. perniciosus as the most abundant species in Setif suggests that this sand fly may be adapted to different biotopes in the North-East region of Algeria. The detection of different Leishmania spp. in Ph. perniciosus suggests a complex epidemiological picture of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Setif, with the involvement of different etiological agents and possibly with different reservoir hosts and vectors.


Assuntos
Leishmania/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Umidade , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/classificação , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007939, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899767

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasisis a vector-borne disease transmitted by Leishmania infected sand flies. PpSP15 is an immunogenic salivary protein from the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Immunization with PpSP15 was shown to protect against Leishmania major infection. Lactococcus lactis is a safe non-pathogenic delivery system that can be used to express antigens in situ. Here, the codon-optimized Ppsp15-egfp gene was cloned in pNZ8121 vector downstream of the PrtP signal peptide that is responsible for expression and secretion of the protein on the cell wall. Expression of PpSP15-EGFP recombinant protein was monitored by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Western blot. Also, expression of protein in cell wall compartment was verified using whole cell ELISA, Western blot and TEM microscopy. BALB/c mice were immunized three times with recombinant L. lactis-PpSP15-EGFPcwa, and the immune responses were followed up, at short-term (ST, 2 weeks) and long-term (LT, 6 months) periods. BALB/c mice were challenged with L. major plus P. papatasi Salivary Gland Homogenate. Evaluation of footpad thickness and parasite burden showed a delay in the development of the disease and significantly decreased parasite numbers in PpSP15 vaccinated animals as compared to control group. In addition, immunized mice showed Th1 type immune responses. Importantly, immunization with L. lactis-PpSP15-EGFPcwa stimulated the long-term memory in mice which lasted for at least 6 months.


Assuntos
Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Leishmania major , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Phlebotomus/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética
12.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105332, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926144

RESUMO

Urbanization may influence the transmission of leishmaniasis, which is as a serious public health issue in Palestine. Semi urban environments can provide suitable habitats for the reservoir host species and the vector sand flies to create favorable condition for disease transmission. This study was aimed to evaluating the effect of distance from hyrax (reservoir host) colonies on sand fly (vector) abundance and its relationship to Leishmania infection within a semi urban landscape. In the Aleskan neighborhood the town of Tubas, sand flies were collected in July and September of 2016. Five trapping transects were set running from a rocky area containing hyrax dwelling habitats into an area of inhabited houses. 1051 Phlebotomus sand flies from 9 species were captured. The numbers of Phlebotomus sergenti, the vector species, correlated negatively with the distance from hyrax. Infected, blood engorged female sand flies were captured closer to hyrax colonies than infected, non-fed females. The risk of disease transmission to humans increased with a high density of reservoirs, closer proximity of reservoir hosts, and high densities of sand flies near houses. These results must be taken into account when implementing future interventions to reduce CL in urban environments.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Phlebotomus , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Urbanização
13.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105342, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954137

RESUMO

In the Mediterranean basin, sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites and phleboviruses affecting humans and animals. In this study, we aimed to investigate phlebovirus and Leishmania parasites circulating in a focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) located in a highly irrigated area within the arid Central Tunisia, known mainly to be endemic for zoonotic cutaenous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused Leishmania major and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps in the village of Saddaguia, an emergent focus of ZVL located in Central Tunisia during September-October 2014, 2015, and 2016. Pools of live female sand flies were screened for phleboviruses and Leishmania by nested PCR in the polymerase gene and kinetoplast minicircle DNA, respectively. Dead sand flies were identified morphologically to species level. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius mainly Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis were predominant in this ZVL focus compared to P. papatasi. A total of 1932, 1740, and 444 sand flies were tested in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. Pathogen screening performed on 4116 sand flies distributed in 148 pools revealed the presence of Leishmania infantum and Toscana virus. The minimum infection rates of sand flies with TOSV in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were 0.05%, 011%, and 0.22%, respectively. The minimum infection rates of sand flies with L. infantum in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were 0.25%, 012%, and 0.79%, respectively. No L. major was detected during the 3-years investigation in this ZVL focus. Our results showed clearly the endemic co-circulation of TOSV and L. infantum in this emergent ZVL focus. However, no co-infection of TOSV and L. infantum was detected in any of the sand fly pools investigated during the three years period. TOSV was isolated from positive pools in 2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Tunisian strains of TOSV belonged to the sublineage A. Based on the present findings, our results provided strong evidence that TOSV and L. infantum are transmitted by the same predominant sand fly species of the subgenus Larroussius, and subsequently, humans and dogs could be co-infected through co-infected or successive infected bites. Our results showed clearly that the development of irrigation in arid areas contributed significantly to the establishment of stable transmission cycles of L. infantum and TOSV and subsequently to the emergence of a ZVL focus within this arid bio-geographical area characterized by the presence of multiple foci of ZCL located outside the study site. Thus, more studies are needed to better understand the impact of RNA viruses shared by vectors and reservoir hosts of L. infantum on the development of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/virologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 795-803, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982928

RESUMO

A new species of Biskratrombium (Trombidiformes: Microtrombidiidae), B. persicumn. sp. is described and illustrated, from Fars province, southern Iran. Biskratrombium persicum larvae are ectoparasites of the adults of Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) alexandri (Sinton, 1928), P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) and Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) mervynae (Pringle, 1953) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Fars province is considered as a significant focus of leishmaniasis, a disease which is mostly associated with rural areas; these areas offer favorable habitats to the phlebotomine sandflies due to limited sanitation. This study was performed to identify the natural enemies of sandflies (as leishmania disease vectors) in this region. In this research, B. persicum larvae were removed from their sandfly hosts collected from foci of leishmaniasis (e.g., sheep and goat keeping locations) using sticky traps. Also, the abundance of sandflies infested with the parasitic mite was calculated. Some morphological abnormalities in the species are noted and world parasitengone mites parasitizing phlebotomine sandflies are reviewed.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Larva/fisiologia , Leishmania , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão
15.
Acta Trop ; 203: 105327, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899169

RESUMO

In the Palestinian West Bank, leishmaniasis is emerging as a serious public health issue with incidence increasing over time, especially in the western and the northern parts. This study was aimed to evaluating the effect of altitude on sand fly density, temporal and spatial distribution, species composition, and host preference within and between three villages in the Bethlehem District. The three villages occur along an elevation cline, ranging from the disease-free area of Kisan (KIS; 732-782 m ASL), down to the endemic areas of Arab Ar-Rashaiyda (AAR; 522-568 m ASL), and Al'Azazma (AZA; 473-510 m ASL) in the Bethlehem District (southeastern West Bank). Sand flies were trapped monthly from May through October in 2013 in traps located north, south, east, and west of each village. The abundance of sand flies differed among the three villages, with Arab Ar-Rashaiyda (AAR) > Al 'Azazma (AZA) >Kisan (KIS). The sex ratio was even in AAR and AZA, and female biased in KIS. Both male and female Phlebotomus sand fly densities varied with elevation, with greatest densities found at intermediate elevations (AAR). Elevation correlated negatively with the proportion of blood-fed Phlebotomus females. Male Phlebotomus species composition differed among sites, with all the species found in this study present in AZA, while some species were absent from AAR and KIS. The host blood species engorged by P. sergenti were grouped in four categories: human (45.5%), livestock (25%), avian (19.9%), and dog (9.6%). This study provided information about the spatial and temporal distribution, age and species composition, and host preference of sand fly vectors that influence disease transmission. This information will allow us to better target sand flies, to control the disease, and to monitor risk prone areas.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Phlebotomus , Altitude , Animais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , Phlebotomus/classificação , Densidade Demográfica
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(3): 961-966, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) is best known for its role as the vector of the leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a global disease, currently known to be affecting 88 countries and 12 million people worldwide. RESULTS: This study explored the impacts of climate factors and landscape on the local abundance of Phlebotomine sandfly in mainland China. A presence-only modelling method was used to evaluate this species' habitat preferences from environmental factors. Jackknife analysis revealed that several biologically meteorological variables, including the maximum temperature of the warmest quarter, the precipitation in the driest month, the daily average temperature and daily precipitation, would significantly affect the existence of this species. Moreover, the existence of Phlebotomine sandfly was significantly associated with grassland and forest. CONCLUSION: The results will improve scientific understanding of the risks of the spread of leishmaniasis over current infected areas and can be used to design more detailed surveillance programmes and more evidence-based control planning for Phlebotomine sandfly and leishmaniasis. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Phlebotomus , Animais , China , Insetos Vetores
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 63-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813012

RESUMO

This study provides updated information on the distribution of the phlebotomine sand fly species and their genetic characterization in Sardinia, a Mediterranean island where leishmaniasis is endemic. From April to November 2017, sand flies were trapped in five different capture sites using sticky traps and light traps as collection methods, operated nearby sheep, poultry, cat, and dog shelters. Phlebotomine specimens (n = 513) collected were morphologically and molecularly identified as Phlebotomus perniciosus (249/513, 48.5%), Phlebotomus perfiliewi (236/513; 46%), and Sergentomyia minuta (28/513, 5.5%). Sand flies were collected from the second half of May to October confirming the well-defined seasonal activity, which peaks in August in Sardinia. Overall, correlation analyses indicated a significant positive association between the monthly number of sand flies collected and the mean temperature (r = 0.88, rho = 0.87, and tau = 0.69, P < 0.05), while there was non-significant, moderately negative correlation between the monthly number of sand flies collected and the monthly mean relative humidity and wind (r = - 0.22, rho = 0.02, and tau = 0.04, P > 0.05). This study provides the first data on the molecular characterization of phlebotomine sand flies in this region and confirms the presence of three sand fly species. Molecular results suggest that the morphological features used for analysis represent synapomorphic-derived characters which are shared among descendant taxa and the common ancestor.


Assuntos
Phlebotomus/classificação , Phlebotomus/genética , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Insetos Vetores , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Ovinos , Temperatura
18.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105220, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618609

RESUMO

Mexico has great diversity of phlebotomine sand flies related to cases of leishmaniasis, yet few studies have dressed the molecular taxonomy of these sand fly species. The use of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, as a DNA Barcode has facilitated the molecular identification of sand flies species worldwide. We use the DNA barcode as a useful tool for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies of the natural reserve Los Tuxtlas from Veracruz, México. A fragment of 536 bp of the COI gene was obtained from 36 individuals belonging to eight species of five genera (Dampfomyia, Lutzomyia, Psathyromyia, Psychodopygus and Brumptomyia) with coverage between 92-100%, and found similarities ranging from 93-98% with other New World phlebotomine sand flies. The NJ dendogram grouped sand flies into eight clusters according to identified species, supported by bootstrap of 97%-100%. In conclusion, all phlebotomine sand flies were correctly identified and agree with the morphological identification, also could separate genetics the isomorphic females of the genus Brumptomyia.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Vetores de Doenças/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Leishmaniose/genética , Phlebotomus/classificação , Phlebotomus/genética , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , México
19.
Acta Trop ; 203: 105315, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866337

RESUMO

American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a public health concern in Colombia, its incidence being sustained or focally increased principally by the emergence of domestic transmission concomitantly with the adaptation of the phlebotomine vectors to habitat transformation around households. The objective of the study is to scale up a rapid characterization methodology for evaluating the relationship of land use around the house to the composition and abundance of phlebotomines. Five sites with a history of domestic leishmaniasis transmission in the Andean area of Colombia were selected. The peri-domestic habitat was evaluated at 10 m intervals along eight radial transects, centered on each house, at 45° intervals using a web pattern. Phlebotomines were captured by placing three CDC light traps over two nights both indoors and outdoors (10 m from the house). Blood source and infection were determined by PCR. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and negative binomial regression were used to quantify associations between the phlebotomine abundance and habitat categories. The study demonstrated that the vectors were largely anthropophagic (62% of 79 were human blood) and that a single species in each site was favored by the pertaining agriculture monoculture. Specifically, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) quasitownsendi was associated with sugar cane in Novillero and La Esmeralda; while Pi. (Pif.) longiflocosa was associated with coffee plantations in Agua Bonita and El Cucal. Honda Alta had a more diverse array of land use and forest coverage with a lower number of specimens but higher species diversity. In terms of distance from the house to an area of a given land use, the abundance of Pi. (Pif.) quasitownsendi was inversely related to the distance to sugar cane plantation (Spearman correlation coefficient, ρ = -0.56, p < 0.001 for outdoor catches, and ρ = -0.50, p < 0.001 indoors). A similar inverse relationship was observed for Pi. (Pif.) longiflocosa with regard to technified coffee (ρ = -0.51, p < 0.001 outdoors, and ρ = -0.48, p < 0.001 indoors). This rapid characterization methodology could guide public heath decision makers in identifying those houses at higher risk of domestic transmission, and also educate farmers to increase the distance between their crops and any neighboring houses.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Agricultura , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Características da Família , Humanos
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1805-1814, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055137

RESUMO

Diante da escassez de dados sobre a topografia e a sintopia das vísceras abdominopélvicas do tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophage tridactyla - Linnaeus, 1758), o presente estudo teve como objetivo elucidar essas características e compará-las com as demais espécies animais, mormente as domésticas. Utilizaram-se três espécimes, dois machos e uma fêmea, provenientes de doação da Polícia Militar Ambiental de Franca ao Laboratório de Anatomia Veterinária da Universidade de Franca, após óbitos por atropelamentos. Os animais foram fixados e mantidos em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%, seguidos de dissecação convencional das cavidades abdominopélvicas para posterior inspeção direta e descrição topográfica das vísceras, visando a análises comparativas com outras espécies, cujo posicionamento e cujas particularidades já são bem estabelecidos na literatura. Observou-se que a maioria das vísceras dessas cavidades possuem localização e sintopia similares aos animais domésticos, exceto os rins e os testículos. Diante da metodologia estabelecida e dos resultados obtidos, admite-se que mais espécimes de tamanduás-bandeiras, de ambos os gêneros, devam ser avaliados e registrados cientificamente, visando à confirmação dos dados da atual pesquisa e à preconização anatômica da cavidade abdominopélvica, visto que variações anatômicas individuais são passíveis entre animais da mesma espécie.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a fauna vetorial e os aspectos ambientais e climáticos relacionados à transmissão das leishmanioses. Foi realizado um estudo eco-epidemiológico prospectivo de coleta sistemática de flebotomíneos e inquérito censitário sorológico canino em áreas de um município do Brasil. Para determinar a taxa de prevalência de LVC, foram examinadas amostras de sangue de 1752 cães. Na avaliação entomológica, foram instaladas 24 armadilhas luminosas em 12 residências distribuídas, instaladas no ambiente de peridomicílio e intradomicílio durante 12 meses. Para análise dos aspectos climáticos, utilizou-se a correlação simples de Spearman e para análise espacial foram utilizadas a Lógica Fuzzy e a Função K. A taxa de prevalência em cães foi de 4,1% e 7,1%. No estudo entomológico, foram capturados 431 flebotomíneos. A maior parte (74%) dos espécimes foi capturada no peridomicílio. Em relação à infecção natural, 5,6 % das amostras analisadas por biologia molecular apresentaram positividade à infecção por Leishmania spp.. Em 100% das amostras positivas, encontrou-se infecção por Leishmania infantum. Na análise espacial uma Área apresentou maior concentração de pontos de sobreposição de alta densidade de Lutzomyia longipalpis e cães sororreagentes, indicando maior risco na ocorrência concomitante dos dois eventos. Os resultados mostram que a interface parasito-reservatório-vetor está ativa nas áreas estudadas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Phlebotomus , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Brasil
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