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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956595

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic bacterium, designated type strain SSI9T, was isolated from sand fly (Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli; Diptera: Psychodidae) rearing substrate and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Strain SSI9T contained phosphatidylethanolamine as a major polar lipid, MK-7 as the predominant quinone, and C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that SSI9T represents a member of the genus Sphingobacterium, of the family Sphingobacteriaceae sharing 96.5-88.0 % sequence similarity with other species of the genus Sphingobacterium. The results of multilocus sequence analysis using the concatenated sequences of the housekeeping genes recA, rplC and groL indicated that SSI9T formed a separate branch in the genus Sphingobacterium. The genome of SSI9T is 5 197 142 bp with a DNA G+C content of 41.8 mol% and encodes 4395 predicted coding sequences, 49 tRNAs, and three complete rRNAs and two partial rRNAs. SSI9T could be distinguished from other species of the genus Sphingobacterium with validly published names by several phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic characteristics. On the basis of the results of this polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial isolate represents a novel species within the genus Sphingobacterium, for which the name Sphingobacterium phlebotomi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SSI9T (=ATCC TSD-210T=LMG 31664T=NRRL B-65603T).


Assuntos
Phlebotomus/microbiologia , Sphingobacterium/classificação , Sphingobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sphingobacterium/genética , Sphingobacterium/metabolismo
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1571-1582, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852067

RESUMO

Genus and species of phlebotomine sand flies have been recorded and described in caves in Brazil, but no study has provided the food source used by sand flies in these environments. Herein, we identified the blood source used by sand fly species in caves located at "Quadrilátero Ferrífero" (QF), Minas Gerais state. Specimens were manually collected near or on anurans inside ferruginous caves in Serra do Gandarela National Park and Serra do Rola Moça State Park. Males and females were placed in vials with 70% alcohol and stored at -10°C. Females engorged, after specific identification, had DNA extracted and followed for PCR amplification using specific primers. Sequencing was analyzed in the GenBank and Barcode of Life. A total of 198 specimens were collected (107 females and 91 males), all of them belonging to species Sciopemyia aff. microps (88.89%), Sciopemyia sordellii (10.61%), or Martinsmyia oliveirai (0.50%). When it comes to the females, 89 were S. aff. microps and 18 S. sordellii. Nineteen engorged females of S. aff. microps were analyzed and most of them (n=18) presented blood from Bokermannohyla martinsi and one contained blood from Scinax fuscovarius. The blood present in engorged females of S. sordellii (n=4) was from B. martinsi. Sciopemyia genus specimens are commonly found in collections carried out inside natural caves, but this was the first study to prove that females of this genus feed on cold-blooded animals in nature. HIGHLIGHTS: • Here we proved that sand flies feed in cold-blooded animals in in Brazilian caves. • Females of the Sciopemyia genus were for the first time found feeding in natural habitats. • Anurans of the family Hylidae were identified as source by molecular analyzes. • Insect bloodmeal identification can help assessing the fauna in several biomes. • This is the first record of S. aff. microps in caves of Brazil.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/classificação , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alimentos , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
3.
J Med Entomol ; 58(2): 634-645, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710316

RESUMO

We investigated by scanning electron microscopy the morphology, distribution, and abundance of antennal sensilla of females Phlebotomus duboscqi sand fly, an important vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis at Afrotropical region. Thirteen well-differentiated sensilla were identified, among six types of cuticular sensilla. The probable function of these sensillary types is discussed in relation to their external structure and distribution. Five sensillary types were classified as olfactory sensilla, as they have specific morphological characters of sensilla with this function. Number and distribution of sensilla significantly differed between antennal segments. The results of the present work, besides corroborating in the expansion of the morphological and ultrastructural knowledge of P. duboscqi, can foment future electrophysiological studies for the development of volatile semiochemicals, to be used as attractants in traps for monitoring and selective vector control of this sand fly.


Assuntos
Phlebotomus/ultraestrutura , Sensilas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Sensilas/fisiologia
4.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105807, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385365

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is transmitted by Phlebotomine sand fly vectors, among which Phlebotomus papatasi is prevalent in Western Asia, Northern Africa and Southern Europe, and it is known as a vector for Leishmania major parasite in the world. However, in Iraq, morphological studies showed that P. papatasi is a predominant sand fly species and hypothesised to transmit CL causing Leishmania species including L. major and L. tropica. Few studies have found Leishmania species in sand flies in mixed pools of samples in this country. Accurate identification of sand flies as vectors of Leishmania species is required in Iraq. The current study aims to identify sand fly species, using both morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses, in a region where CL tends to be endemic. Furthermore, molecular phylogenetic analysis has also used to confirm Leishmania species in the sand fly samples collected in 11 villages between Diyala and Sulaymaniyah Provinces. For the first time, we have found L. major in three individual sand flies, one engorged (with fresh blood meal) and two non-engorged (without visible fresh blood meal) P. papatasi females in an area of CL outbreaks since 2014-till now due to civil wars and internal conflicts happen in the region. Further study should be performed on sand fly population and Leishmania reservoirs in this region.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania major/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Iraque/epidemiologia , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Filogenia
5.
Acta Trop ; 216: 105831, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465351

RESUMO

Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit several species of the genus Leishmania, that cause leishmaniasis, a serious neglected tropical disease worldwide. Although Mexico is an endemic country for the disease, studies on the biology, ecology, and the identification of blood meal sources of phlebotomine sand flies in some states remain unexplored. For this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the species diversity of sand flies, and identify their blood meal sources in the Biosphere Reserve Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, an area with a high prevalence of Leishmania infantum. The cumulative sampling effort of sand flies covered 300 trap-nights between March 2011 and May 2013. For estimating species diversity, we calculated the species richness (q = 0), the diversity of the species (q = 1) and the dominant species (q = 2). To identify the blood meal sources, we amplified and sequenced a fragment of ≈400 bp of the vertebrate Cytb gene. A total of 951 specimens belonging to 15 species were collected. Psathyromyia aclydifera and Psychodopygus panamensis were the most abundant species. We were able to identify seven terrestrial vertebrate species, among which human beings were the most common source of the blood meal. In this study, relevant information on the structure of sand fly populations and their blood meal sources was obtained, providing basic and important information about the interactions between sand flies, hosts and Leishmania species.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Phlebotomus/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/genética , México
6.
Acta Trop ; 216: 105827, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428877

RESUMO

Due to its geographical location, Mugla province is one of the most frequently used places by refugees. Although leishmaniasis have been previously reported in this region, there is a lack of information on the etiological agent and possible vectors. The main objectives of this study were; i) to investigate the sand fly fauna, ii) to reveal the natural Leishmania spp. infection in wild caught sand flies using molecular tools, and iii) to determine the annual seasonal dynamics of the sand flies in Mugla region. Totally, 2093 specimens belonging to 15 species [12 Phlebotomus, three Sergentomyia; 51 unidentified] were collected during the one-year (June 2016- June 2017) period. Of the collected sand flies, 1928 (92.12%) were caught by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, while 165 (7.88%) of them were caught by sticky traps. Phlebotomus major sensu lato (s.l.), the potential vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in the Mediterranean and Aegean region, was detected in all sampling locations and found as the dominant taxon (n=1035; 49.45%) of the study area and followed by Phlebotomus tobbi (n=371; 17.72%). During the sampling period, sand fly activity was started in March and peaked in August. Sand fly population size reduced dramatically between mid-September and early October. The number of collected specimens was peaked in August, while there is only one sample collected both in November and March. The majority of the sand flies (78.66%) were collected at an altitude range of 200-400 m. Seventy-two monospecific pools were screened for the presence of Leishmania DNA by real time ITS1 PCR and 24 (nine P. major s.l., eight P. tobbi, two P. papatasi, two S. minuta, one P. alexandri, one P. similis, and one Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus spp.) of them (33.8%) were found positive (L. infantum, L. tropica, and L. major). To the best of our knowledge, the presence of fifteen sand fly species and their distribution, seasonal dynamics, molecular detection of Leishmania parasites in Mugla province was reported for the first time. The presence of vector species in the study area, appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, long sand fly activity season, and presence of Leishmania parasite suggests that there is a serious risk in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Mugla.


Assuntos
Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Altitude , Animais , DNA de Protozoário , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Genoma de Inseto , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Phlebotomus/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 20, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are the principal vectors of Leishmania spp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Information on sand flies in Central Europe is scarce and, to date, in Austria, only Phlebotomus mascittii has been recorded. In 2018 and 2019, entomological surveys were conducted in Austria with the aim to further clarify sand fly distribution and species composition. RESULTS: In 2019, a Ph. simici specimen was trapped in Austria for the first time. Analyses of two commonly used marker genes, cytochrome c oxidase I (coxI) and cytochrome b (cytb), revealed high sequence identity with Ph. simici specimens from North Macedonia and Greece. Phylogenetic analyses showed high intraspecific distances within Ph. simici, thereby dividing this species into three lineages: one each from Europe, Turkey and Israel. Low interspecific distances between Ph. simici, Ph. brevis and an as yet unidentified Adlerius sp. from Turkey and Armenia highlight how challenging molecular identification within the Adlerius complex can be, even when standard marker genes are applied. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study reports the first finding of Ph. simici in Austria, representing the northernmost recording of this species to date. Moreover, it reveals valuable insights into the phylogenetic relationships among species within the subgenus Adlerius. Phlebotomus simici is a suspected vector of L. infantum and therefore of medical and veterinary importance. Potential sand fly expansion in Central Europe due to climatic change and the increasing import of Leishmania-infected dogs from endemic areas support the need for further studies on sand fly distribution in Austria and Central Europe in general.


Assuntos
Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Austrália , Classificação , Citocromos b/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes de Insetos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Phlebotomus/classificação , Phlebotomus/genética , Filogenia , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/genética
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 15, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, is a disease that affects up to 8 million people worldwide. Parasites are transmitted to human and animal hosts through the bite of an infected sand fly. Novel strategies for disease control require a better understanding of the key step for transmission, namely the establishment of infection inside the fly. METHODS: The aim of this work was to identify sand fly systemic transcriptomic signatures associated with Leishmania infection. We used next generation sequencing to describe the transcriptome of whole Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies when fed with blood alone (control) or with blood containing one of three trypanosomatids: Leishmania major, L. donovani and Herpetomonas muscarum, the latter being a parasite not transmitted to humans. RESULTS: Of the trypanosomatids studied, only L. major was able to successfully establish an infection in the host P. papatasi. However, the transcriptional signatures observed after each parasite-contaminated blood meal were not specific to success or failure of a specific infection and they did not differ from each other. The transcriptional signatures were also indistinguishable after a non-contaminated blood meal. CONCLUSIONS: The results imply that sand flies perceive Leishmania as just one feature of their microbiome landscape and that any strategy to tackle transmission should focus on the response towards the blood meal rather than parasite establishment. Alternatively, Leishmania could suppress host responses. These results will generate new thinking around the concept of stopping transmission by controlling the parasite inside the insect.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Trypanosomatina , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/metabolismo , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Phlebotomus/metabolismo
9.
Protein Expr Purif ; 177: 105750, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920041

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic and neglected tropical disease transmitted by the bites of sandflies. The emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas of war, conflict, political instability, and climate change has prompted efforts to develop a preventive vaccine. One vaccine candidate antigen is PpSP15, a 15 kDa salivary antigen from the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi that facilitates the infection of the Leishmania parasite and has been shown to induce parasite-specific cell-mediated immunity. Previously, we developed a fermentation process for producing recombinant PpSP15 in Pichia pastoris and a two-chromatographic-step purification process at 100 mL scale. Here we expand the process design to the 10 L scale and examine its reproducibility by performing three identical process runs, an essential transition step towards technology transfer for pilot manufacture. The process was able to reproducibly recover 81% of PpSP15 recombinant protein with a yield of 0.75 g/L of fermentation supernatant, a purity level of 97% and with low variance among runs. Additionally, a freeze-thaw stability study indicated that the PpSP15 recombinant protein remains stable after undergoing three freeze-thaw cycles, and an accelerated stability study confirmed its stability at 37 °C for at least one month. A research cell bank for the expression of PpSP15 was generated and fully characterized. Collectively, the cell bank and the production process are ready for technology transfer for future cGMP pilot manufacturing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Leishmania/imunologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/imunologia , Phlebotomus/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Leishmania/química , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/genética , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Peso Molecular , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/genética , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008967, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370303

RESUMO

Phlebotomine sand flies employ an elaborate system of pheromone communication wherein males produce pheromones that attract other males to leks (thus acting as an aggregation pheromone) and females to the lekking males (sex pheromone). In addition, the type of pheromone produced varies among populations. Despite the numerous studies on sand fly chemical communication, little is known of their chemosensory genome. Chemoreceptors interact with chemicals in an organism's environment to elicit essential behaviors such as the identification of suitable mates and food sources. Thus, they play important roles during adaptation and speciation. Major chemoreceptor gene families, odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) together detect and discriminate the chemical landscape. Here, we annotated the chemoreceptor repertoire in the genomes of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi, major phlebotomine vectors in the New World and Old World, respectively. Comparison with other sequenced Diptera revealed a large and unique expansion where over 80% of the ~140 ORs belong to a single, taxonomically restricted clade. We next conducted a comprehensive analysis of the chemoreceptors in 63 L. longipalpis individuals from four different locations in Brazil representing allopatric and sympatric populations and three sex-aggregation pheromone types (chemotypes). Population structure based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene copy number in the chemoreceptors corresponded with their putative chemotypes, and corroborate previous studies that identified multiple populations. Our work provides genomic insights into the underlying behavioral evolution of sexual communication in the L. longipalpis species complex in Brazil, and highlights the importance of accounting for the ongoing speciation in central and South American Lutzomyia that could have important implications for vectorial capacity.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania , Masculino , Phlebotomus/genética , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374115

RESUMO

Illegal waste disposal represents a risk health factor for vector-borne diseases by providing shelter for rodents and their ectoparasites. The presence of the Phlebotomus papatasi vector of Leishmania major, an etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), was assessed at illegal waste sites located at the vicinity of villages in endemic areas of Central Tunisia. The study was performed over a two-year period over three nights from July to September 2017, and over three nights in September 2018. Household waste is deposited illegally forming dumpsites at the vicinity of each village and contains several rodent burrows of Psammomys obesus, the main reservoir host of L. major. Sandflies were collected from rodent burrows in the natural environment and in dumpsites using sticky traps and were identified at species level. Female sandflies were tested for the presence of L. major by PCR. Our entomological survey showed that Phlebotomus papatasi is the most abundant sandfly species associated with rodent burrows in these waste sites. The densities of P. papatasi in dumpsites are significantly higher compared to the natural environment. The minimum infection rate of P. papatasi with L. major in these illegal waste sites is not significantly different compared to the natural environment. Considering the short flight range of P. papatasi, increases in its densities, associated with burrows of P. obesus in illegal waste sites located at the edge of villages, expands the overlap of infected ZCL vectors with communities. Thus, illegal waste sites pose a high risk of spreading ZCL to neighboring home ranges. Waste management is an environmentally friendly method of controlling sandfly populations and should be included in an integrated management program for controlling ZCL in endemic countries.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Feminino , Gerbillinae , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tunísia/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008363, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790716

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health issue worldwide causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The Indian subcontinent accounted for up to 90% of the global VL burden in the past but made significant progress during recent years and is now moving towards elimination. However, to achieve and sustain elimination of VL, knowledge gaps on infection reservoirs and transmission need to be addressed urgently. Xenodiagnosis is the most direct way for testing the infectiousness of hosts to the vectors and can be used to investigate the dynamics and epidemiology of Leishmania donovani transmission. There are, however, several logistic and ethical issues with xenodiagnosis that need to be addressed before its application on human subjects. In the current Review, we discuss the critical knowledge gaps in VL transmission and the role of xenodiagnosis in disease transmission dynamics along with its technical challenges. Establishment of state of the art xenodiagnosis facilities is essential for the generation of much needed evidence in the VL elimination initiative.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Xenodiagnóstico , Animais , Ásia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/fisiologia
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110121, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759006

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 incidence and mortality in Europe have shown wide variation. Northern Italy in particular the Lombardy region, north-eastern French regions, Switzerland and Belgium were amongst the hardest hit, while the central and southern Italian regions, all the Balkan countries from Slovenia to Greece and the Islands of Malta and Cyprus had much fewer cases and deaths per capita, and deaths per number of cases. Differences in public health measures, and health care delivery, in the author's opinion, can only partly explain the difference. The geographical distribution of Phlebotomus sand-flies and the relative distribution of arthropod borne diseases Leishmaniasis and Phlebovirus infections especially the Sicilian Sandfly fever group corresponds to most areas of low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2. A hypothesis is proposed whereby repeated arthropod or sandfly vector infection of humans by novel viruses of zoonotic origins carrying bat or mammalian RNA/DNA, such as phleboviruses may have resulted in the development of an effective evolutionary immune response to most novel zoonotic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 by means of survival of the fittest possibly over many generations. This process probably ran in parallel and concurrent with the progressive evolution of novel coronaviruses which spread from one mammalian species to another. Other possible, but less likely mechanisms for the role of sandfly meals within a much shorter time frame may have led to, (i) previous exposure and infection of humans with the SARS-Cov-2 virus itself, or a closely related corona virus in the previous decades, or (ii) exposure of human populations to parts coronavirus protein namely either S or more likely N protein carried mechanically by arthropods, but without clinical disease causing direct immunity or (iii) by causing infection with other arthropod borne viruses which could carry bat DNA/RNA and have similar functional proteins resulting in an immediate cross-reactive immune response rather than by natural selection. The Evidence possibly supporting or disputing this hypothesis is reviewed, however the major problem with the hypothesis is that to date no coronavirus has ever been isolated from arthropods. Such a hypothesis can only be supported by research investigating the possible biological relationship of arthropods and coronaviruses where paradoxically they may be promoting immunity rather than disease.


Assuntos
Arbovírus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Coletiva , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Pandemias , Phlebotomus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Conflitos Armados , Artrópodes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Mamíferos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano/imunologia , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Zoonoses
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1197-1205, July-Aug. 2020. tab, mapas
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131503

RESUMO

A leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA) é uma zoonose de transmissão vetorial na qual o cão tem papel importante na epidemiologia da doença. No Brasil, a elevada prevalência da infecção em cães está diretamente correlacionada com o aumento no risco de ocorrência de casos de LVA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a fauna flebotomínica e verificar a soroprevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) na localidade Pedra 90, no município de Cuiabá. Para o levantamento entomológico, armadilhas CDC foram utilizadas de agosto de 2014 a julho de 2015. Na avaliação sorológica dos cães, o teste imunocromatográfico DPP LVC foi utilizado para a triagem das amostras, enquanto o ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE) para o diagnóstico da LVC (Bio-Manguinhos) foi empregado como teste confirmatório. O trabalho vem acrescentar à fauna flebotomínica do município de Cuiabá as espécies Lu. andersoni, Lu. braziliensis, Lu. bourrouli e Lu. scaffi, não registradas em publicações anteriores. Além disso, entre as espécies de flebotomíneos com importância médica, Lu. cruzi, Lu. flaviscutellata e Lu. whitmani foram capturadas. No inquérito canino, a prevalência de LVC observada na localidade Pedra 90 foi de 1,14%, indicando que a região pode ser considerada como área de transmissão.(AU)


American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is a vector-borne zoonosis in which the dog has an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, a high prevalence of canine infection is directly correlated with an increased risk of occurrence of AVL. The aim of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine fauna and seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Pedra 90 region of Cuiabá municipality. For the entomological survey, CDC traps were used from August 2014 to July 2015. In the serological evaluation of dogs, the immunochromatographic test DPP LVC was employed for screening the samples while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Bio-Manguinhos) was used as a confirmatory assay. The previously unreported phlebotomine species Lu. andersoni, Lu. braziliensis, Lu. bourrouli, and Lu. scaffi were added to the phlebotomine fauna of Cuiabá. In addition, the medically important phlebotomine species Lu. cruzi, Lu. flaviscutellata, and Lu. whitmani were identified. The canine survey revealed the prevalence of 1.14% for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Pedra 90 region, the region being considered a transmission area.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Phlebotomus , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Brasil , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Área Urbana , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária
15.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 229-236, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615736

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis.CL caused by L. major and L. tropica is endemic in 17 provinces of Iran. This study was carried out to elucidate situation of CL in Ardabil province and to predict distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of CL in the region. In this cross-sectional study, data on CL patients were collected from local health centers of Ardabil province, Iran during 2006-2018 to establish a geodatabase using ArcGIS10.3. A total of 20 CL cases were selected randomly and skin samples were collected and analyzed by PCR method. MaxEnt 3.3.3 model was used to determine ecologically suitable niches for the main vectors. A total, 309 CL human cases were reported and the highest incidence rate of disease was occurred in Bilasavar (37/100,000) and Germi (35/100,000). A total of 2,794 sand flies were collected during May to October 2018. The environmentally suitable habitats for P. papatasi and P. sergenti were predicted to be present in northern and central areas of Ardabil province. The most variable that contributed ratio in the modeling were Isothermality and slope factors. Ardabil province is possibly an endemic are for CL. The presence of P. papatasi and P. sergenti justifies local transmission while the vectors of CL are existing in the northern and central areas of the province.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1490-1492, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720633

RESUMO

Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is a parasitic disease infecting children in the Mediterranean region. Here, we portray a case of a 2-year-old child with an epidemiological description of the situation surrounding the case. The patient was suffering from recurrent fever, weakness, and abdominal discomfort associated with loss of appetite. Routine blood investigations showed pancytopenia, whereas examination revealed hepatomegaly. A diagnosis of HVL was made by demonstrating amastigotes in a Giemsa-stained smear from a bone marrow aspirate followed by genotyping by PCR and sequencing. In conclusion, early detection of VL infection followed by appropriate treatment protocols is essential to saving the patient.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Reservatórios de Doenças , Cães/parasitologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007489, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658913

RESUMO

Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies inject their hosts with a myriad of pharmacologically active salivary proteins to assist with blood feeding and to modulate host defenses. In addition, salivary proteins can influence cutaneous leishmaniasis disease outcome, highlighting the potential of the salivary components to be used as a vaccine. Variability of vaccine targets in natural populations influences antigen choice for vaccine development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the variability in the predicted protein sequences of nine of the most abundantly expressed salivary proteins from field populations, testing the hypothesis that salivary proteins appropriate to target for vaccination strategies will be possible. PpSP12, PpSP14, PpSP28, PpSP29, PpSP30, PpSP32, PpSP36, PpSP42, and PpSP44 mature cDNAs from field collected P. papatasi from three distinct ecotopes in the Middle East and North Africa were amplified, sequenced, and in silico translated to assess the predicted amino acid variability. Two of the predicted sequences, PpSP12 and PpSP14, demonstrated low genetic variability across the three geographic isolated sand fly populations, with conserved multiple predicted MHCII epitope binding sites suggestive of their potential application in vaccination approaches. The other seven predicted salivary proteins revealed greater allelic variation across the same sand fly populations, possibly precluding their use as vaccine targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Phlebotomus/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Egito , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Jordânia , Phlebotomus/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1496-1501, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618254

RESUMO

In the United States, phlebotomine sand flies carrying Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana are endemic along the southern border. However, relatively little is known about the enzootic and zoonotic transmission of L. (L.) mexicana within the United States, and autochthonous cases of the consequent disease are rarely reported. We investigated an atypical case of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. (L.) mexicana in a patient from central Texas which did not respond to a typical antileishmanial chemotherapy. We also investigated sand fly vectors around the patient's residence. PCR followed by DNA sequencing was used for determination of Leishmania spp., sand fly species, and host blood meal source. The L. (L.) mexicana genotype from the patient was identical to one found in a positive sand fly. Moreover, this genotype presented the same single-nucleotide polymorphisms as other historical CL cases acquired in Texas over the last 10 years, but distinct from those originating in Mexico and Central America. Three sand fly species were identified among the samples analyzed (n = 194), the majority of which were Lutzomyia (Dampfomyia) anthophora (n = 190), of which four specimens tested positive for Leishmania and two blood-fed specimens showed the presence of a human blood meal. This study highlights the complexity of clinical management of CL in a setting where the disease is infrequently encountered. The detection of human blood in Lu. (D.) anthophora is the first documentation of anthropophagy in this species. This is the first report of wild-caught, naturally infected sand flies found in association with an autochthonous case of human leishmaniasis and the specific strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the United States.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania mexicana/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Humanos , Leishmania mexicana/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Texas
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the feeding behavior and host choice of sand flies provides valuable information on vector-host relationships and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of leishmaniasis transmission. Blood meal analysis studies are essential for estimating the efficiency of pathogen transmission, assessing the relative human disease risk, and assist in identifying the other potential hosts of leishmaniasis. In Sudan and most of East Africa, there are large remaining gaps in knowledge regarding the feeding habits of phlebotomine vectors. The study aimed to identify the blood meal sources and, therefore, the host preferences of the principal vectors Phlebotomus orientalis and Ph. papatasi in leishmaniasis endemic areas of eastern and central Sudan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sand flies were collected from two endemic villages in eastern and central Sudan using CDC light traps and sticky traps. The phlebotomine sand flies were morphologically and then molecularly identified. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using a multiplex PCR methodology and specific primers of cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA for human, goat, cow, and dog. The detection of the Leishmania parasite was done using PCR. RESULTS: The total number of collected female phlebotomine sand flies was 180. Morphological identification revealed the abundance of Ph. orientalis 103 (57.2%), Ph. papatasi 42 (23.3%), Ph. bergeroti 31 (17.2%), Ph. rodhaini 2 (1.1%) and Ph. duboscqi 2 (1.1%) in the study sites. Out of the 180 collected, 31 (17%) were blood-fed flies. Three species were blood-fed and molecularly identified: Ph. papatasi (N = 7, 22.6%), Ph. bergeroti (N = 9, 26%), and Ph. orientalis (N = 15, 48.4%). Blood meal analysis revealed human DNA in two Ph. orientalis (6.4%), hence, the anthropophilic index was 13.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR protocol described here allowed the identification of blood meal sources of many vertebrate species simultaneously. The results indicate that wild-caught Ph. orientalis are anthropophilic in the study areas. Further studies on larger blood-fed sample size are required to validate the potential applications of this technique in designing, monitoring and evaluating control programs, particularly in investigating the potential non-human hosts of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , DNA/genética , Feminino , Geografia , Sudão
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579586

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non-Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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