Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 699
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374115

RESUMO

Illegal waste disposal represents a risk health factor for vector-borne diseases by providing shelter for rodents and their ectoparasites. The presence of the Phlebotomus papatasi vector of Leishmania major, an etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), was assessed at illegal waste sites located at the vicinity of villages in endemic areas of Central Tunisia. The study was performed over a two-year period over three nights from July to September 2017, and over three nights in September 2018. Household waste is deposited illegally forming dumpsites at the vicinity of each village and contains several rodent burrows of Psammomys obesus, the main reservoir host of L. major. Sandflies were collected from rodent burrows in the natural environment and in dumpsites using sticky traps and were identified at species level. Female sandflies were tested for the presence of L. major by PCR. Our entomological survey showed that Phlebotomus papatasi is the most abundant sandfly species associated with rodent burrows in these waste sites. The densities of P. papatasi in dumpsites are significantly higher compared to the natural environment. The minimum infection rate of P. papatasi with L. major in these illegal waste sites is not significantly different compared to the natural environment. Considering the short flight range of P. papatasi, increases in its densities, associated with burrows of P. obesus in illegal waste sites located at the edge of villages, expands the overlap of infected ZCL vectors with communities. Thus, illegal waste sites pose a high risk of spreading ZCL to neighboring home ranges. Waste management is an environmentally friendly method of controlling sandfly populations and should be included in an integrated management program for controlling ZCL in endemic countries.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Feminino , Gerbillinae , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tunísia/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008967, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370303

RESUMO

Phlebotomine sand flies employ an elaborate system of pheromone communication wherein males produce pheromones that attract other males to leks (thus acting as an aggregation pheromone) and females to the lekking males (sex pheromone). In addition, the type of pheromone produced varies among populations. Despite the numerous studies on sand fly chemical communication, little is known of their chemosensory genome. Chemoreceptors interact with chemicals in an organism's environment to elicit essential behaviors such as the identification of suitable mates and food sources. Thus, they play important roles during adaptation and speciation. Major chemoreceptor gene families, odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) together detect and discriminate the chemical landscape. Here, we annotated the chemoreceptor repertoire in the genomes of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi, major phlebotomine vectors in the New World and Old World, respectively. Comparison with other sequenced Diptera revealed a large and unique expansion where over 80% of the ~140 ORs belong to a single, taxonomically restricted clade. We next conducted a comprehensive analysis of the chemoreceptors in 63 L. longipalpis individuals from four different locations in Brazil representing allopatric and sympatric populations and three sex-aggregation pheromone types (chemotypes). Population structure based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene copy number in the chemoreceptors corresponded with their putative chemotypes, and corroborate previous studies that identified multiple populations. Our work provides genomic insights into the underlying behavioral evolution of sexual communication in the L. longipalpis species complex in Brazil, and highlights the importance of accounting for the ongoing speciation in central and South American Lutzomyia that could have important implications for vectorial capacity.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania , Masculino , Phlebotomus/genética , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008363, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790716

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health issue worldwide causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The Indian subcontinent accounted for up to 90% of the global VL burden in the past but made significant progress during recent years and is now moving towards elimination. However, to achieve and sustain elimination of VL, knowledge gaps on infection reservoirs and transmission need to be addressed urgently. Xenodiagnosis is the most direct way for testing the infectiousness of hosts to the vectors and can be used to investigate the dynamics and epidemiology of Leishmania donovani transmission. There are, however, several logistic and ethical issues with xenodiagnosis that need to be addressed before its application on human subjects. In the current Review, we discuss the critical knowledge gaps in VL transmission and the role of xenodiagnosis in disease transmission dynamics along with its technical challenges. Establishment of state of the art xenodiagnosis facilities is essential for the generation of much needed evidence in the VL elimination initiative.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Xenodiagnóstico , Animais , Ásia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/fisiologia
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1490-1492, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720633

RESUMO

Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is a parasitic disease infecting children in the Mediterranean region. Here, we portray a case of a 2-year-old child with an epidemiological description of the situation surrounding the case. The patient was suffering from recurrent fever, weakness, and abdominal discomfort associated with loss of appetite. Routine blood investigations showed pancytopenia, whereas examination revealed hepatomegaly. A diagnosis of HVL was made by demonstrating amastigotes in a Giemsa-stained smear from a bone marrow aspirate followed by genotyping by PCR and sequencing. In conclusion, early detection of VL infection followed by appropriate treatment protocols is essential to saving the patient.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Reservatórios de Doenças , Cães/parasitologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1496-1501, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618254

RESUMO

In the United States, phlebotomine sand flies carrying Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana are endemic along the southern border. However, relatively little is known about the enzootic and zoonotic transmission of L. (L.) mexicana within the United States, and autochthonous cases of the consequent disease are rarely reported. We investigated an atypical case of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. (L.) mexicana in a patient from central Texas which did not respond to a typical antileishmanial chemotherapy. We also investigated sand fly vectors around the patient's residence. PCR followed by DNA sequencing was used for determination of Leishmania spp., sand fly species, and host blood meal source. The L. (L.) mexicana genotype from the patient was identical to one found in a positive sand fly. Moreover, this genotype presented the same single-nucleotide polymorphisms as other historical CL cases acquired in Texas over the last 10 years, but distinct from those originating in Mexico and Central America. Three sand fly species were identified among the samples analyzed (n = 194), the majority of which were Lutzomyia (Dampfomyia) anthophora (n = 190), of which four specimens tested positive for Leishmania and two blood-fed specimens showed the presence of a human blood meal. This study highlights the complexity of clinical management of CL in a setting where the disease is infrequently encountered. The detection of human blood in Lu. (D.) anthophora is the first documentation of anthropophagy in this species. This is the first report of wild-caught, naturally infected sand flies found in association with an autochthonous case of human leishmaniasis and the specific strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the United States.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania mexicana/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Humanos , Leishmania mexicana/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Texas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579586

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non-Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5116, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198397

RESUMO

Acoustic communication in the form of courtship and mating songs are often involved in reproductive isolation between species of Diptera, such as Drosophila, mosquitoes and sand flies. The patterns of courtship songs in New World sand fly species evolve quickly under sexual selection; and therefore, represent an important trait that can be used as a marker to study the evolution of species complexes and may aid identification of sibling species with a complex. The ability to identify vector species within species complexes is of critical importance for effective and efficient vector control programs. Species-specific song patterns seems to contribute to reproductive isolation in New World sand fly species, suggesting that auditory communication signals may be widespread among these important vectors of leishmaniasis. The main goal of the present study was to characterize the copulatory courtship song of Phlebotomus argentipes, an important vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Old World. Ph. argentipes males produce acoustic signals during copulation and two types of songs were observed. The one we called primary song is a 'pulse song' with similar length and amplitude to the previously observed 'P1' pattern recorded in Brazilian populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. The secondary song has 'sine song' characteristics and is quite different from any song produced by New World species. The discovery of this copulation courtship songs in Ph. argentipes supports the possibility that acoustic communication in sandflies might be more widespread than previously thought, including Old World species. Our results highlight the importance of further research on acoustic communication in the Ph. argentipes species complex and other Old World vectors of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Corte , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Masculino , Phlebotomus/parasitologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008077, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus and Canis familiaris are respectively the only confirmed vector and reservoir for the transmission of Leishmania (L.) infantum MON-1 in Tunisia. However, the vector and reservoir hosts of the two other zymodemes, MON-24 and MON-80, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the L. infantum life cycle in a Tunisian leishmaniasis focus. For this purpose, we have focused on: i) the detection, quantification and identification of Leishmania among this sand fly population, and ii) the analysis of the blood meal preferences of Larroussius (Lar.) subgenus sand flies to identify the potential reservoirs. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 3,831 sand flies were collected in seven locations from the center of Tunisia affected by human visceral leishmaniasis. The collected sand flies belonged to two genus Phlebotomus (Ph.) (five species) and Sergentomyia (four species). From the collected 1,029 Lar. subgenus female sand flies, 8.26% was positive to Leishmania by ITS1 nested PCR. Three Leishmania spp. were identified: L. infantum 28% (24/85), L. killicki 13% (11/85), and L. major 22% (19/85). To identify the blood meal sources in Ph. Lar. subgenus sand flies, engorged females were analyzed by PCR-sequencing targeting the vertebrate cytochrome b gene. Among the 177 analyzed blood-fed females, 169 samples were positive. Sequencing results showed seven blood sources: cattle, human, sheep, chicken, goat, donkey, and turkey. In addition, mixed blood meals were detected in twelve cases. Leishmania DNA was found in 21 engorged females, with a wide range of blood meal sources: cattle, chicken, goat, chicken/cattle, chicken/sheep, chicken/turkey and human/cattle. The parasite load was quantified in fed and unfed infected sand flies using a real time PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA. The average parasite load was 1,174 parasites/reaction and 90 parasites/reaction in unfed and fed flies, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the role of Ph. longicuspis, Ph. perfiliewi, and Ph. perniciosus in L. infantum transmission. Furthermore, these species could be involved in L. major and L. killicki life cycles. The combination of the parasite detection and the blood meal analysis in this study highlights the incrimination of the identified vertebrate in Leishmania transmission. In addition, we quantify for the first time the parasite load in naturally infected sand flies caught in Tunisia. These findings are relevant for a better understanding of L. infantum transmission cycle in the country. Further investigations and control measures are needed to manage L. infantum transmission and its spreading.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , DNA/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Masculino , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tunísia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007947, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health concern in Ethiopia. However, knowledge about the complex zoonotic transmission cycle is limited, hampering implementation of control strategies. We explored the feeding behavior and activity of the vector (Phlebotomus pedifer) and studied the role of livestock in CL transmission in southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: Blood meal origins of engorged sand flies were determined by sequencing host DNA. A host choice experiment was performed to assess the feeding preference of P. pedifer when humans and hyraxes are equally accessible. Ear and nose biopsies from livestock were screened for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Sand flies were captured indoor and outdoor with human landing catches and CDC light traps to determine at which time and where P. pedifer is mostly active. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 180 P. pedifer sand flies were found to bite hosts of 12 genera. Humans were the predominant blood meal source indoors (65.9%, p < 0.001), while no significant differences were determined outdoors and in caves. In caves, hyraxes were represented in blood meals equally as humans (45.5% and 42.4%, respectively), but the host choice experiment revealed that sand flies have a significant preference for feeding on hyraxes (p = 0.009). Only a single goat nose biopsy from 412 animal samples was found with Leishmania RNA. We found that P. pedifer is predominantly endophagic (p = 0.003), but occurs both indoors and outdoors. A substantial number of sand flies was active in the early evening, which increased over time reaching its maximum around midnight. CONCLUSION: In contrast to earlier suggestions of exclusive zoonotic Leishmania transmission, we propose that there is also human-to-human transmission of CL in southwestern Ethiopia. Livestock does not play a role in CL transmission and combined indoor and outdoor vector control measures at night are required for efficient vector control.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Gado/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008024, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069279

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by various Leishmania spp., which are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. Algeria is one of the most affected countries, with thousands of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases registered every year. From March to November of 2016 and 2017, sand flies were collected in 12 municipalities in Setif province, North-Eastern Algeria. Sand flies were identified and females were tested by PCR for detecting Leishmania DNA. Additionally, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases notified during the study period were analysed. Out of 1804 sand flies collected, 1737 were identified as belonging to seven species, with Phlebotomus perniciosus (76.2%), Ph. papatasi (16.7%) and Ph. sergenti (5.0%) being the most common species, representing together 97.9% of the collected specimens. The remaining specimens were identified as Sergentomyia minuta, Se. fallax, Ph. longicuspis and Ph. perfiliewi. The number of sand flies collected monthly was positively correlated with temperature. Out of 804 females tested, nine Ph. perniciosus (1.1%) scored positive for Leishmania infantum (n = 5), L. major (n = 3) and L. tropica (n = 1), respectively. During the study period, 34 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases were notified in Setif, of which 58.8% were patients residing in two urban and peri-urban municipalities and 41.2% in rural areas. The finding of Ph. perniciosus as the most abundant species in Setif suggests that this sand fly may be adapted to different biotopes in the North-East region of Algeria. The detection of different Leishmania spp. in Ph. perniciosus suggests a complex epidemiological picture of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Setif, with the involvement of different etiological agents and possibly with different reservoir hosts and vectors.


Assuntos
Leishmania/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Umidade , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/classificação , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
11.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105342, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954137

RESUMO

In the Mediterranean basin, sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites and phleboviruses affecting humans and animals. In this study, we aimed to investigate phlebovirus and Leishmania parasites circulating in a focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) located in a highly irrigated area within the arid Central Tunisia, known mainly to be endemic for zoonotic cutaenous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused Leishmania major and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps in the village of Saddaguia, an emergent focus of ZVL located in Central Tunisia during September-October 2014, 2015, and 2016. Pools of live female sand flies were screened for phleboviruses and Leishmania by nested PCR in the polymerase gene and kinetoplast minicircle DNA, respectively. Dead sand flies were identified morphologically to species level. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius mainly Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis were predominant in this ZVL focus compared to P. papatasi. A total of 1932, 1740, and 444 sand flies were tested in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. Pathogen screening performed on 4116 sand flies distributed in 148 pools revealed the presence of Leishmania infantum and Toscana virus. The minimum infection rates of sand flies with TOSV in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were 0.05%, 011%, and 0.22%, respectively. The minimum infection rates of sand flies with L. infantum in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were 0.25%, 012%, and 0.79%, respectively. No L. major was detected during the 3-years investigation in this ZVL focus. Our results showed clearly the endemic co-circulation of TOSV and L. infantum in this emergent ZVL focus. However, no co-infection of TOSV and L. infantum was detected in any of the sand fly pools investigated during the three years period. TOSV was isolated from positive pools in 2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Tunisian strains of TOSV belonged to the sublineage A. Based on the present findings, our results provided strong evidence that TOSV and L. infantum are transmitted by the same predominant sand fly species of the subgenus Larroussius, and subsequently, humans and dogs could be co-infected through co-infected or successive infected bites. Our results showed clearly that the development of irrigation in arid areas contributed significantly to the establishment of stable transmission cycles of L. infantum and TOSV and subsequently to the emergence of a ZVL focus within this arid bio-geographical area characterized by the presence of multiple foci of ZCL located outside the study site. Thus, more studies are needed to better understand the impact of RNA viruses shared by vectors and reservoir hosts of L. infantum on the development of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/virologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/virologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 795-803, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982928

RESUMO

A new species of Biskratrombium (Trombidiformes: Microtrombidiidae), B. persicumn. sp. is described and illustrated, from Fars province, southern Iran. Biskratrombium persicum larvae are ectoparasites of the adults of Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) alexandri (Sinton, 1928), P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) and Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) mervynae (Pringle, 1953) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Fars province is considered as a significant focus of leishmaniasis, a disease which is mostly associated with rural areas; these areas offer favorable habitats to the phlebotomine sandflies due to limited sanitation. This study was performed to identify the natural enemies of sandflies (as leishmania disease vectors) in this region. In this research, B. persicum larvae were removed from their sandfly hosts collected from foci of leishmaniasis (e.g., sheep and goat keeping locations) using sticky traps. Also, the abundance of sandflies infested with the parasitic mite was calculated. Some morphological abnormalities in the species are noted and world parasitengone mites parasitizing phlebotomine sandflies are reviewed.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Larva/fisiologia , Leishmania , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1113-1118, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765072

RESUMO

Vertical transmission of Leishmania infantum was demonstrated in domestic mice captured close to the home of a patient with leishmaniasis. Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in 88.9% of synanthropic Mus musculus adult rodents and 29.2% of their unborn foetuses. Mother-to-infant transmission was observed in all females whose gestational stage was sufficiently advanced to allow foetal analysis (foetal length 2-2.5 cm). The infection rate in foetal samples ranged from 11.1% to 50.0%, with parasite loads of up to 6,481 parasites/5 mg tissue. A low density of Phlebotomus perniciosus was also found (0.2 specimen/CDC trap). Six infected mice captured in March were only 1.5 months old and could thus not have had contact with the vector. Vertical transmission thus appears to play a greater role in the spread of leishmaniasis than previously thought, particularly since rodents are natural hosts for the parasite and are prolific in nature.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Masculino , Camundongos , Roedores
14.
Acta Trop ; 203: 105287, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790649

RESUMO

By employing protected human bait landing and modified Shannon light trap, a total of 1924 phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia spp. were captured in an area from which L. (V.) guyanensis was reported as the causative parasite of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The sand flies captured alive were dissected and identified at species level, based mainly on their spermathecae. At the same time, the sand flies dissected were searched for the Leishmania parasites by microscopic-test, and later on by PCR-test. No positive sand flies were detected by both tests, while considerable numbers of anthropophilic sand fly species of the genus Lutzomyia were observed as probable vectors of the Leishmania parasite in the areas. Those were eight species, Lu. robusta, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. shannoni, Lu. migonei, Lu. punctigeniculata and Lu. spathotrichia. Among them, the first two species Lu. robusta and Lu. trapidoi were most dominant, suggesting probable vectors of the Leishmania parasite prevailing in the area. Lu. punctigeniculata and Lu. spathotrichia were for the first time recorded for the Manabí province, Ecuador. These findings provide basic information useful for future planning of the control and management of the disease in the areas, though further study to incriminate the vector sand fly remains.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 63-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813012

RESUMO

This study provides updated information on the distribution of the phlebotomine sand fly species and their genetic characterization in Sardinia, a Mediterranean island where leishmaniasis is endemic. From April to November 2017, sand flies were trapped in five different capture sites using sticky traps and light traps as collection methods, operated nearby sheep, poultry, cat, and dog shelters. Phlebotomine specimens (n = 513) collected were morphologically and molecularly identified as Phlebotomus perniciosus (249/513, 48.5%), Phlebotomus perfiliewi (236/513; 46%), and Sergentomyia minuta (28/513, 5.5%). Sand flies were collected from the second half of May to October confirming the well-defined seasonal activity, which peaks in August in Sardinia. Overall, correlation analyses indicated a significant positive association between the monthly number of sand flies collected and the mean temperature (r = 0.88, rho = 0.87, and tau = 0.69, P < 0.05), while there was non-significant, moderately negative correlation between the monthly number of sand flies collected and the monthly mean relative humidity and wind (r = - 0.22, rho = 0.02, and tau = 0.04, P > 0.05). This study provides the first data on the molecular characterization of phlebotomine sand flies in this region and confirms the presence of three sand fly species. Molecular results suggest that the morphological features used for analysis represent synapomorphic-derived characters which are shared among descendant taxa and the common ancestor.


Assuntos
Phlebotomus/classificação , Phlebotomus/genética , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Insetos Vetores , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Ovinos , Temperatura
16.
Immunol Lett ; 216: 79-88, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678358

RESUMO

Microbiota consists of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in all multicellular organisms. These micro-organisms are found in or on many parts of the body, including the intestinal tract, skin, mouth, and the reproductive tract. This review focuses on interplay of site specific microbiota, vector microbiota along with immune response and severity of Leishmaniasis. Herein, we have reviewed and summarized the counter effect of microbiome post infection with the Leishmania parasite. We have studied skin microbiome along with the gut microbiome of sand-fly which is the vector for transmission of this disease. Our major focus was to understand the skin and gut microbiome during Leishmania infection,their interaction and effect on immunological responses generated during the infection.Moreover, systems biology approach is envisioned to enumerate bacterial species in skin microbiota and Phlebotmus gut microbiota during Leishmania infection.


Assuntos
Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Phlebotomus/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Leishmania/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/microbiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Camundongos , Phlebotomus/imunologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007832, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a severe chronic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and transmitted by sand flies of which the main vector in the Western part of the Mediterranean basin is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Previously, an immunochromatographic test (ICT) was proposed to allow rapid evaluation of dog exposure to P. perniciosus. In the present study, we optimized the prototype and evaluated the detection accuracy of the ICT in field conditions. Possible cross-reactions with other hematophagous arthropods were also assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ICT was optimized by expressing the rSP03B protein in a HEK293 cell line, which delivered an increased specificity (94.92%). The ICT showed an excellent reproducibility and inter-person reliability, and was optimized for use with whole canine blood which rendered an excellent degree of agreement with the use of serum. Field detectability of the ICT was assessed by screening 186 dogs from different CanL endemic areas with both the SGH-ELISA and the ICT, and 154 longitudinally sampled dogs only with the ICT. The ICT results corresponded to the SGH-ELISA for most areas, depending on the statistical measure used. Furthermore, the ICT was able to show a clear seasonal fluctuation in the proportion of bitten dogs. Finally, we excluded cross-reactions between non-vector species and confirmed favorable cross-reactions with other L. infantum vectors belonging to the subgenus Larroussius. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have successfully optimized the ICT, now also suitable to be used with whole canine blood. The test is able to reflect the seasonal fluctuation in dog exposure and showed a good detectability in a field population of naturally exposed dogs, particularly in areas with a high seroprevalence of bitten dogs. Furthermore, our study showed the existence of favorable cross-reactions with other sand fly vectors thereby expanding its use in the field.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose/sangue , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Phlebotomus/parasitologia
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 76: 104073, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629887

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of the disease, is caused by Leishmania donovani in the Indian sub-continent (ISC). Whole genome sequencing studies revealed that two parasite populations exist in the ISC: a main population named the Core Group (CG) found mostly in the lowlands, and a new, genetically different subpopulation called ISC1. Parasites belonging to the CG were shown to be responsible for the recent epidemics, while the ISC1 variant was originally identified in hilly districts of Nepal and was later on increasingly found in the lowlands. Importantly, the ISC1 and CG isolates differ in their drug susceptibility and virulence signatures, suggesting that ISC1 constitutes an emerging and functionally different variant of L. donovani. In present study we aimed to address the potential of ISC1 transmission by the natural vector of L. donovani in the lowlands, Phlebotomus argentipes. By experimental infection of sand flies with parasites of the different genotypes, we demonstrate that ISC1 and CG strains are developing similarly in P. argentipes, suggesting that P. argentipes is a fully competent vector for ISC1 parasites. Integration of previous and current findings shows thus that ISC1 is a new and different variant of L. donovani, fully adapted to spread in the ISC through the main vector. This information is directly useful for managers of the elimination program. Furthermore, integration of our successive studies (genotyping, phenotyping and vector competence) demonstrates the relevance of molecular surveillance and should be of interest for scientists working on vector borne diseases and control managers.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani/classificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007712, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus (Larroussius) guggisbergi is among the confirmed vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission in Kenya. This scarring and stigmatizing form of leishmaniasis accounts for over one million annual cases worldwide. Most recent CL epidemics in Kenya have been reported in Gilgil, Nakuru County, where the disease has become a public health issue. However, little is known about the factors that drive its transmission. Here, we sought to determine the occurrence, distribution and host blood feeding preference of the vectors, and to identify Leishmania species and infection rates in sandflies using molecular techniques. This information could lead to a better understanding of the disease transmission and improvement of control strategies in the area. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An entomological survey of sandflies using CDC light traps was conducted for one week per month in April 2016, and in June and July 2017 from five villages of Gilgil, Nakuru county; Jaica, Sogonoi, Utut, Gitare and Njeru. Sandflies were identified to species level using morphological keys and further verified by PCR analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Midguts of female sandflies found to harbour Leishmania were ruptured and the isolated parasites cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) media overlaid with Schneider's insect media to identify the species. Leishmania parasite screening and identification in 198 randomly selected Phlebotomus females and parasite cultures was done by PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS1 gene, nested kDNA-PCR and real-time PCR-HRM followed by sequencing. Bloodmeal source identification was done by real-time PCR-HRM of the vertebrate cytochrome-b gene. A total of 729 sandflies (males: n = 310; females: n = 419) were collected from Utut (36.6%), Jaica (24.3%), Sogonoi (34.4%), Njeru (4.5%), and Gitare (0.1%). These were found to consist of nine species: three Phlebotomus spp. and six Sergentomyia spp. Ph. guggisbergi was the most abundant species (75.4%, n = 550) followed by Ph. saevus sensu lato (11.3%, n = 82). Sandfly species distribution across the villages was found to be significantly different (p<0.001) with Jaica recording the highest diversity. The overall Leishmania infection rate in sandflies was estimated at 7.07% (14/198). Infection rates in Ph. guggisbergi and Ph. saevus s.l. were 9.09% (12/132) and 3.57% (2/56) respectively. L. tropica was found to be the predominant parasite in Gilgil with an overall infection rate of 6.91% (13/188) in Ph. guggisbergi (n = 11) and Ph. saevus s.l. (n = 2) sandflies. However, PCR analysis also revealed L. major infection in one Ph. guggisbergi specimen. Bloodmeal analysis in the 74 blood-fed sandflies disclosed a diverse range of vertebrate hosts in Ph. guggisbergi bloodmeals, while Ph. saevus s.l. fed mainly on humans. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: The high infection rates of L. tropica and abundance of Ph. guggisbergi in this study confirms this sandfly as a vector of L. tropica in Kenya. Furthermore, isolation of live L. tropica parasites from Ph. saevus s.l. suggest that there are at least three potential vectors of this parasite species in Gilgil; Ph. guggisbergi, Ph. aculeatus and Ph. saevus s.l. Molecular identification of L. major infections in Ph. guggisbergi suggested this sandfly species as a potential permissive vector of L. major, which needs to be investigated further. Sandfly host preference analysis revealed the possibility of zoonotic transmissions of L. tropica in Gilgil since the main vector (Ph. guggisbergi) does not feed exclusively on humans but also other vertebrate species. Further investigations are needed to determine the potential role of these vertebrate species in L. tropica and L. major transmission in the area.


Assuntos
Leishmania major/fisiologia , Leishmania tropica/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Entomologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into the propagation of miltefosine (MIL) resistance in visceral leishmaniasis, this laboratory study explored development of resistant parasites with a defective miltefosine transporter (MT) in sand flies. METHODS: Infectivity, colonization of stomodeal valve and metacyclogenesis of a MIL-resistant (MIL-R) Leishmania infantum LEM3323 line with a defective MT were assessed in the natural sand fly vectors Phlebotomus perniciosus and Lutzomyia longipalpis. Given our recent description of partial drug dependency of the MT-deficient line, the impact of MIL pre-exposure on sand fly infectivity was explored as well. RESULTS: A significant reduction in sand fly infection, stomodeal valve colonization and differentiation into metacyclics (determined by a lower flagellum/cell body length ratio) was observed in both vectors for MIL-R as compared to the isogenic parent MIL-susceptible line. Re-introduction of the wildtype MT gene into MIL-R tended to partially rescue the capacity to infect sand flies. Pre-exposure to MIL did not alter infectivity of the MIL-R line. CONCLUSION: The MIL resistant L. infantum LEM3323 line is significantly hampered in its development and transmissibility potential in two sand fly vector species. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate whether this applies to other visceral Leishmania parasites with acquired MIL-resistance.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosforilcolina/farmacologia , Coelhos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA