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1.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1682-1696, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893814

RESUMO

Increasing sea levels associated with climate change threaten the survival of coastal forests, yet the mechanisms by which seawater exposure causes tree death remain poorly understood. Despite the potentially crucial role of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves in tree survival, their dynamics in the process of death under seawater exposure are unknown. Here we monitored progressive tree mortality and associated NSC storage in Sitka-spruce (Picea sitchensis) trees dying under ecosystem-scale increases in seawater exposure in western Washington, USA. All trees exposed to seawater, because of monthly tidal intrusion, experienced declining crown foliage during the sampling period, and individuals with a lower percentage of live foliated crown (PLFC) died faster. Tree PLFC was strongly correlated with subsurface salinity and needle ion contents. Total NSC concentrations in trees declined remarkably with crown decline, and reached extremely low levels at tree death (2.4% and 1.6% in leaves and branches, respectively, and 0.4% in stems and roots). Starch in all tissues was almost completely consumed, while sugars remained at a homeostatic level in foliage. The decreasing NSC with closer proximity to death and near zero starch at death are evidences that carbon starvation occurred during Sitka-spruce mortality during seawater exposure. Our results highlight the importance of carbon storage as an indicator of tree mortality risks under seawater exposure.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/análise , Picea/química , Picea/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Água do Mar/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Salinidade , Washington
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630965

RESUMO

Plant detritus represents the major source of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and changes in its quantity can influence below-ground biogeochemical processes in forests. However, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how above- and belowground detrital inputs affect soil C and N in mountain forests in an arid land. Here, we explored the effects of litter and root manipulations (control (CK), doubled litter input (DL), removal of litter (NL), root exclusion (NR), and a combination of litter removal and root exclusion (NI)) on soil C and N concentrations, enzyme activity and microbial biomass during a 2-year field experiment. We found that DL had no significant effect on soil total organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) but significantly increased soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass C, N and inorganic N as well as soil cellulase, phosphatase and peroxidase activities. Conversely, NL and NR reduced soil C and N concentrations and enzyme activities. We also found an increase in the biomass of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the DL treatment, while NL reduced the biomass of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi by 5.15%, 17.50% and 14.17%, respectively. The NR decreased the biomass of these three taxonomic groups by 8.97%, 22.11% and 21.36%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that soil biotic factors (enzyme activity and microbial biomass) and abiotic factors (soil moisture content) significantly controlled the change in soil C and N concentrations (P < 0.01). In brief, we found that the short-term input of plant detritus could markedly affect the concentrations and biological characteristics of the C and N fractions in soil. The removal experiment indicated that the contribution of roots to soil nutrients is greater than that of the litter.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nitrogênio , Picea/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , China , Florestas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1169, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608515

RESUMO

Assisted gene flow between populations has been proposed as an adaptive forest management strategy that could contribute to the sequestration of carbon. Here we provide an assessment of the mitigation potential of assisted gene flow in 46 populations of the widespread boreal conifer Picea mariana, grown in two 42-year-old common garden experiments and established in contrasting Canadian boreal regions. We use a dendroecological approach taking into account phylogeographic structure to retrospectively analyse population phenotypic variability in annual aboveground net primary productivity (NPP). We compare population NPP phenotypes to detect signals of adaptive variation and/or the presence of phenotypic clines across tree lifespans, and assess genotype-by-environment interactions by evaluating climate and NPP relationships. Our results show a positive effect of assisted gene flow for a period of approximately 15 years following planting, after which there was little to no effect. Although not long lasting, well-informed assisted gene flow could accelerate the transition from carbon source to carbon sink after disturbance.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Fluxo Gênico , Picea/genética , Picea/metabolismo , Taiga , Canadá , Sequestro de Carbono , Clima , Mudança Climática , Geografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temperatura , Traqueófitas , Árvores/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16524, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020511

RESUMO

During the Last Glacial Maximum in the Northern Hemisphere, expanding ice sheets forced a large number of plants, including trees, to retreat from their primary distribution areas. Many host-associated herbivores migrated along with their host plants. Long-lasting geographic isolation between glacial refugia could have been led to the allopatric speciation in separated populations. Here, we have studied whether the migration history of the Norway spruce Picea abies in Quaternary has affected its host-associated herbivorous beetle-Monochamus sartor. By using microsatellite markers accompanied by the geometric morphometrics analysis of wing venation, we have revealed the clear geographic structure of M. sartor in Eurasia, encompassing two main clusters: southern (Alpine-Carpathian) and eastern (including northeastern Europe and Asia), which reflects the northern and southern ecotypes of its host. The two beetles' lineages probably diverged during the Pleniglacial (57,000-15,000 BC) when their host tree species was undergoing significant range fragmentation and experienced secondary contact during post-glacial recolonization of spruce in the Holocene. A secondary contact of divergent lineages of M. sartor has resulted in the formation of the hybrid zone in northeastern Europe. Our findings suggest that the climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have driven an insect-plant co-evolutionary process, and have contributed to the formation of the unique biodiversity of Europe.


Assuntos
Coevolução Biológica/genética , Besouros/genética , Picea/genética , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Herbivoria/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Picea/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
5.
J Exp Bot ; 71(20): 6366-6378, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894759

RESUMO

Epigenetic reprogramming during germ cell formation is essential to gain pluripotency and thus embryogenic potential. The histone modification H3K27me3, which is catalysed by the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), regulates important developmental processes in both plants and animals, and defects in PRC2 components cause pleiotropic developmental abnormalities. Nevertheless, the role of H3K27me3 in determining embryogenic potential in gymnosperms is still elusive. To address this, we generated H3K27me3 profiles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryonic callus and non-embryogenic callus using CUT&RUN, which is a powerful method for chromatin profiling. Here, we show that H3K27me3 mainly accumulated in genic regions in the Norway spruce genome, similarly to what is observed in other plant species. Interestingly, H3K27me3 levels in embryonic callus were much lower than those in the other examined tissues, but markedly increased upon embryo induction. These results show that H3K27me3 levels are associated with the embryogenic potential of a given tissue, and that the early phase of somatic embryogenesis is accompanied by changes in H3K27me3 levels. Thus, our study provides novel insights into the role of this epigenetic mark in spruce embryogenesis and reinforces the importance of PRC2 as a key regulator of cell fate determination across different plant species.


Assuntos
Picea , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Código das Histonas , Histonas/metabolismo , Noruega , Picea/genética , Picea/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2
6.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942658

RESUMO

Softwood bark is an important by-product of forest industry. Currently, bark is under-utilized and mainly directed for energy production, although it can be extracted with hot water to obtain compounds for value-added use. In Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) bark, condensed tannins and stilbene glycosides are among the compounds that comprise majority of the antioxidative extractives. For developing feasible production chain for softwood bark extractives, knowledge on raw material quality is critical. This study examined the fate of spruce bark tannins and stilbenes during storage treatment with two seasonal replications (i.e., during winter and summer). In the experiment, mature logs were harvested and stored outside. During six-month-storage periods, samples were periodically collected for chemical analysis from both inner and outer bark layers. Additionally, bark extractives were analyzed for antioxidative activities by FRAP, ORAC, and H2O2 scavenging assays. According to the results, stilbenes rapidly degraded during storage, whereas tannins were more stable: only 5-7% of the original stilbene amount and ca. 30-50% of the original amount of condensed tannins were found after 24-week-storage. Summer conditions led to the faster modification of bark chemistry than winter conditions. Changes in antioxidative activity were less pronounced than those of analyzed chemical compounds, indicating that the derivatives of the compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. The results of the assays showed that, on average, ca. 27% of the original antioxidative capacity remained 24 weeks after the onset of the storage treatment, while a large variation (2-95% of the original capacity remaining) was found between assays, seasons, and bark layers. Inner bark preserved its activities longer than outer bark, and intact bark attached to timber is expected to maintain its activities longer than a debarked one. Thus, to ensure prolonged quality, no debarking before storage is suggested: outer bark protects the inner bark, and debarking enhances the degradation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Picea/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Picea/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Estações do Ano , Estilbenos/química , Fatores de Tempo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845898

RESUMO

Lodgepole pine, a prominent Pinaceae tree species native to western North America, is well-known for its ability to thrive in highly disturbed and degraded areas. One such area is the Sub-Boreal Pine-Spruce xeric-cold (SBPSxc) region in British Columbia, Canada, which is characterized by weakly-developed, parched soils that lack an organic forest floor and essential plant-available nutrients. We hypothesized that plant growth-promoting bacteria could play a significant role in sustaining the growth of lodgepole pine trees in the SBPSxc region. Testing this hypothesis, we evaluated plant growth-promoting abilities of six endophytic bacterial strains previously isolated from lodgepole pine trees growing in this region. These bacterial strains significantly enhanced the length and biomass of their natural host (lodgepole pine) as well as a foreign host (hybrid white spruce) in a 540-day long greenhouse trial. This growth stimulation could be linked to the diverse plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities detected in these strains using in vitro assays for inorganic/organic phosphate-solubilization, siderophore production IAA production, ACC deaminase activity, lytic enzymes (chitinase, ß-1,3-glucanase, protease, and cellulase) activity, ammonia production and catalase activity. ACC deaminase activity was also detected in vivo for all strains using ethylene-sensitive plants-canola and tomato. Notably, strains belonging to the Burkholderiaceae family (HP-S1r, LP-R1r and LP-R2r) showed the greatest potential in all PGP assays and enhanced pine and spruce seedling length and biomass by up to 1.5-fold and 4-fold, respectively. Therefore, such bacterial strains with multifarious PGP abilities could be crucial for survival and growth of lodgepole pine trees in the SBPSxc region and could potentially be utilized as bioinoculant for Pinaceae trees in highly disturbed and nutrient-poor ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Pinaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Carbono-Carbono Liases/genética , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Etilenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Picea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Picea/metabolismo , Picea/microbiologia , Pinaceae/metabolismo , Pinaceae/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/microbiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Sideróforos/metabolismo
8.
Plant J ; 104(1): 215-225, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654240

RESUMO

Photosystem II (PSII) complexes are organized into large supercomplexes with variable amounts of light-harvesting proteins (Lhcb). A typical PSII supercomplex in plants is formed by four trimers of Lhcb proteins (LHCII trimers), which are bound to the PSII core dimer via monomeric antenna proteins. However, the architecture of PSII supercomplexes in Norway spruce[Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is different, most likely due to a lack of two Lhcb proteins, Lhcb6 and Lhcb3. Interestingly, the spruce PSII supercomplex shares similar structural features with its counterpart in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Kouril et al. (2016) New Phytol. 210, 808-814]. Here we present a single-particle electron microscopy study of isolated PSII supercomplexes from Norway spruce that revealed binding of a variable amount of LHCII trimers to the PSII core dimer at positions that have never been observed in any other plant species so far. The largest spruce PSII supercomplex, which was found to bind eight LHCII trimers, is even larger than the current largest known PSII supercomplex from C. reinhardtii. We have also shown that the spruce PSII supercomplexes can form various types of PSII megacomplexes, which were also identified in intact grana membranes. Some of these large PSII supercomplexes and megacomplexes were identified also in Pinus sylvestris, another representative of the Pinaceae family. The structural variability and complexity of LHCII organization in Pinaceae seems to be related to the absence of Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 in this family, and may be beneficial for the optimization of light-harvesting under varying environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Picea/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
9.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 336, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norway spruce trees in subalpine forests frequently face infections by the needle rust fungus Chrysomyxa rhododendri, which causes significant growth decline and increased mortality of young trees. Yet, it is unknown whether trees actively respond to fungal attack by activating molecular defence responses and/or respective gene expression. RESULTS: Here, we report results from an infection experiment, in which the transcriptomes (via RNA-Seq analysis) and phenolic profiles (via UHPLC-MS) of control and infected trees were compared over a period of 39 days. Gene expression between infected and uninfected ramets significantly differed after 21 days of infection and revealed already known, but also novel candidate genes involved in spruce molecular defence against pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Combined RNA-Seq and biochemical data suggest that Norway spruce response to infection by C. rhododendri is restricted locally and primarily activated between 9 and 21 days after infestation, involving a potential isolation of the fungus by a hypersensitive response (HR) associated with an activation of phenolic pathways. Identified key regulatory genes represent a solid basis for further specific analyses in spruce varieties with varying susceptibility, to better characterise resistant clones and to elucidate the resistance mechanism.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Picea/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Picea/genética , Picea/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Metabolismo Secundário , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437374

RESUMO

In the conifer tree rings, each tracheid goes through three phases of differentiation before becoming an element of the stem water-conducting structure: division, extension, and cell wall thickening. These phases are long-lasting and separated temporally, especially cell wall thickening. Despite the numerous lines of evidence that external conditions affect the rate of growth processes and the final anatomical dimensions during the respective phases of tracheid differentiation, the influence of the environment on anatomical dimensions during the cell division phase (cambial activity) has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this communication, we provide indirect evidence of such an effect through observations of the small fluctuations in the latewood cell wall thickness of rapidly growing tree rings, which exhibit a high cell production rate (more than 0.4 cells per day on average). Such small fluctuations in the cell wall thickness cannot be driven by variations in external factors during the secondary wall deposition phase, since this phase overlaps for several tens of latewood cells in the rings of fast-growing trees due to its long duration.


Assuntos
Câmbio/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Picea/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo , Câmbio/citologia , Picea/citologia , Xilema/citologia
11.
Plant Cell Environ ; 43(7): 1766-1778, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266975

RESUMO

Norway spruce is a conifer storing large amounts of terpenoids in resin ducts of various tissues. Parts of the terpenoids stored in needles can be emitted together with de novo synthesized terpenoids. Since previous studies provided hints on xylem transported terpenoids as a third emission source, we tested if terpenoids are transported in xylem sap of Norway spruce. We further aimed at understanding if they might contribute to terpenoid emission from needles. We determined terpenoid content and composition in xylem sap, needles, bark, wood and roots of field grown trees, as well as terpenoid emissions from needles. We found considerable amounts of terpenoids-mainly oxygenated compounds-in xylem sap. The terpenoid concentration in xylem sap was relatively low compared with the content in other tissues, where terpenoids are stored in resin ducts. Importantly, the terpenoid composition in the xylem sap greatly differed from the composition in wood, bark or roots, suggesting that an internal transport of terpenoids takes place at the sites of xylem loading. Four terpenoids were identified in xylem sap and emissions, but not within needle tissue, suggesting that these compounds are likely derived from xylem sap. Our work gives hints that plant internal transport of terpenoids exists within conifers; studies on their functions should be a focus of future research.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico , Picea/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5884, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246017

RESUMO

Heterobasidion irregulare and H. occidentale are two closely related conifer root rot pathogens in the H. annosum sensu lato (s.l.) species complex. The two species H. irregulare and H. occidentale have different host preference with pine and non-pine tree species favored, respectively. The comparison of transcriptomes of H. irregulare and H. occidentale growing in Norway spruce bark, a susceptible host non-native to North America, showed large differences in gene expression. Heterobasidion irregulare induced more genes involved in detoxification of host compounds and in production of secondary metabolites, while the transcriptome induced in H. occidentale was more oriented towards carbohydrate degradation. Along with their separated evolutionary history, the difference might be driven by their host preferences as indicated by the differentially expressed genes enriched in particular Gene Ontology terms.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Picea/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Picea/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Virulência
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 19, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A possible future shortage of feed protein will force mankind to explore alternative protein sources that can replace conventional soymeal or fishmeal. Several large industrial organic side-streams could potentially be upgraded to feed protein using a fermentation process to generate single cell protein. Yeast is the most widely accepted microorganism for production of single cell protein, because of its superior nutritional quality and acceptability among consumers. Here, we have assessed the growth of four different yeasts, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Blastobotrys adeninivorans and Thermosacc® Dry (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), on media composed of enzymatically saccharified sulfite-pulped spruce wood and hydrolysates of by-products from chicken, and we have characterized the resulting yeast biomass. RESULTS: Generally, the yeast grew very well on the spruce- and chicken-based medium, with typical yields amounting to 0.4-0.5 g of cell dry weight and 0.2-0.3 g of protein per g of sugar. B. adeninivorans stood out as the most versatile yeast in terms of nutrient consumption and in this case yields were as high as 0.9 g cells and 0.5 g protein per g of sugar. The next best performing yeast in terms of yield was W. anomalus with up to 0.6 g cells and 0.3 g protein per g sugar. Comparative compositional analyses of the yeasts revealed favorable amino acid profiles that were similar to the profiles of soymeal, and even more so, fish meal, especially for essential amino acids. CONCLUSIONS: The efficient conversion of industrial biomass streams to yeast biomass demonstrated in this study opens new avenues towards better valorization of these streams and development of sustainable feed ingredients. Furthermore, we conclude that production of W. anomalus or B. adeninivorans on this promising renewable medium may be potentially more efficient than production of the well-known feed ingredient C. jadinii. Further research should focus on medium optimization, development of semi-continuous and continues fermentation protocols and exploration of downstream processing methods that are beneficial for the nutritional values of the yeast for animal feed.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Saccharomycetales , Animais , Carboidratos/química , Galinhas/metabolismo , Picea/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 128, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913273

RESUMO

Boreal forests are dominated by evergreen conifers that show strongly regulated seasonal photosynthetic activity. Understanding the mechanisms behind seasonal modulation of photosynthesis is crucial for predicting how these forests will respond to changes in seasonal patterns and how this will affect their role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. We demonstrate that the two co-occurring dominant boreal conifers, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), use contrasting mechanisms to reactivate photosynthesis in the spring. Scots pine downregulates its capacity for CO2 assimilation during winter and activates alternative electron sinks through accumulation of PGR5 and PGRL1 during early spring until the capacity for CO2 assimilation is recovered. In contrast, Norway spruce lacks this ability to actively switch between different electron sinks over the year and as a consequence suffers severe photooxidative damage during the critical spring period.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Picea/metabolismo , Pinus sylvestris/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Picea/genética , Pinus sylvestris/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978201

RESUMO

Several hemipteran species feed on the phloem sap of plants and produce large amounts of honeydew that is collected by bees to produce honeydew honey. Therefore, it is important to know whether it is predominantly the hemipteran species or the host plant to influence the honeydew composition. This is particularly relevant for those botanical and zoological species from which the majority of honeydew honey originates. To investigate this issue, honeydew from two Cinara species located on Abies alba as well as from two Cinara and two Physokermes species located on Picea abies were collected. Phloem exudates of the host plants were also analyzed. Honeydew of all species contained different proportions of hexoses, sucrose, melezitose, erlose, and further di- and trisaccharides, whereas the phloem exudates of the host trees contained no trisaccharides. Moreover, the proportions of sugars differed significantly between hemipteran species feeding on the same tree species. Sucrose hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation was shown in whole-body homogenates of aphids. The type of the produced oligosaccharides in the aphid-extracts correlated with the oligosaccharide composition in the honeydew of the different aphid species. The total contents of amino acids and inorganic ions in the honeydew were much lower than the sugar content. Glutamine and glutamate were predominant amino acids in the honeydew of all six hemipteran species and also in the phloem exudates of both tree species. Potassium was the dominant inorganic ion in all honeydew samples and also in the phloem exudate. Statistical analyses reveal that the sugar composition of honeydew is determined more by the hemipteran species than by the host plant. Consequently, it can be assumed that the sugar composition of honeydew honey is also more influenced by the hemipteran species than by the host tree.


Assuntos
Abies/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Compostos Inorgânicos/análise , Picea/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Abies/química , Animais , Afídeos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Íons/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Floema/química , Floema/metabolismo , Picea/química , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo
16.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(2): 171-179, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625022

RESUMO

Three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) has attracted considerable attention because of its ability to provide detailed information with respect to developmental analysis. However, large-scale high-resolution 3D reconstruction of biological samples remains challenging. Herein, we present a 3D view of a Picea wilsonii Mast. pollen grain with 100 nm axial and 38.57 nm lateral resolution using AutoCUTS-SEM (automatic collector of ultrathin sections-scanning electron microscopy). We established a library of 3,127 100 nm thick serial sections of pollen grains for preservation and observation, demonstrating that the protocol can be used to analyze large-volume samples. After obtaining the SEM images, we reconstructed an entire pollen grain comprising 734 serial sections. The images produced by 3D reconstruction clearly revealed the main components of the P. wilsonii pollen grain, i.e., two sacci and pollen corpus, tube cell, generative cell, and two degenerated prothallial cells, and their internal organization. In addition, we performed a quantitative analysis of the different pollen grain cells, including sacci, and found that there were 202 connections within a saccus SEM image. Thus, for the first time, this study provided a global 3D view of the entire pollen grain, which will be useful for analyzing pollen development and growth.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Picea/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Secções Congeladas , Tamanho da Partícula
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19314, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848418

RESUMO

5-Methylcytosine (5mC) is an epigenetic modification involved in regulation of gene expression in metazoans and plants. Iron-(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases can oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Although these oxidized forms of 5mC may serve as demethylation intermediates or contribute to transcriptional regulation in animals and fungi, experimental evidence for their presence in plant genomes is ambiguous. Here, employing reversed-phase HPLC coupled with sensitive mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that, unlike 5caC, both 5hmC and 5fC are detectable in non-negligible quantities in the DNA of a conifer, Norway spruce. Remarkably, whereas 5hmC content of spruce DNA is approximately 100-fold lower relative to human colorectal carcinoma cells, the levels of both - 5fC and a thymine base modification, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, are comparable in these systems. We confirmed the presence of modified DNA bases by immunohistochemistry in Norway spruce buds based on peroxidase-conjugated antibodies and tyramide signal amplification. Our results reveal the presence of specific range of noncanonical DNA bases in conifer genomes implying potential roles for these modifications in plant development and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Epigênese Genética/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Picea/genética , 5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Citosina/análogos & derivados , Citosina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Noruega , Picea/metabolismo
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 997, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small RNAs (sRNAs) are regulatory molecules impacting on gene expression and transposon activity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for tissue-specific and environmentally-induced gene repression. Short interfering RNAs (siRNA) are constitutively involved in transposon silencing across different type of tissues. The male gametophyte in angiosperms has a unique set of sRNAs compared to vegetative tissues, including phased siRNAs from intergenic or genic regions, or epigenetically activated siRNAs. This is contrasted by a lack of knowledge about the sRNA profile of the male gametophyte of gymnosperms. RESULTS: Here, we isolated mature pollen from male cones of Norway spruce and investigated its sRNA profiles. While 21-nt sRNAs is the major size class of sRNAs in needles, in pollen 21-nt and 24-nt sRNAs are the most abundant size classes. Although the 24-nt sRNAs were exclusively derived from TEs in pollen, both 21-nt and 24-nt sRNAs were associated with TEs. We also investigated sRNAs from somatic embryonic callus, which has been reported to contain 24-nt sRNAs. Our data show that the 24-nt sRNA profiles are tissue-specific and differ between pollen and cell culture. CONCLUSION: Our data reveal that gymnosperm pollen, like angiosperm pollen, has a unique sRNA profile, differing from vegetative leaf tissue. Thus, our results reveal that angiosperm and gymnosperm pollen produce new size classes not present in vegetative tissues; while in angiosperm pollen 21-nt sRNAs are generated, in the gymnosperm Norway spruce 24-nt sRNAs are generated. The tissue-specific production of distinct TE-derived sRNAs in angiosperms and gymnosperms provides insights into the diversification process of sRNAs in TE silencing pathways between the two groups of seed plants.


Assuntos
Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Picea/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Picea/embriologia , Picea/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/fisiologia , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/fisiologia
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111659, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698219

RESUMO

Stressors of different natures, including drought stress, substantially compromise the ability of plants to effectively and safely utilize light energy. We investigated the influence of water stress on the photosynthetic processes in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, two species with contrasting drought sensitivities. Spruce and pine seedlings were exposed to polyethylene glycol 6000-induced water deficits of different intensities and durations. The maintenance of photosystem I (PSI) oxidation in spruce required increased photosynthetic control and led to the increased reduction of the plastoquinone pool, which was not the case in pine seedlings. As a result of increased excitation pressure, photosystem II (PSII) inactivation was observed in spruce plants, whereas in pine, the decreased PSII photochemistry was likely due to sustained non-photochemical quenching. Downregulation of PSII photochemistry and maintenance of PSI in an oxidized state were linked with the prevention of oxidative stress, even under severe water deficit. The decreased photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic gene expression suggested the coordinated downregulation of photosynthetic apparatus components under water stress to reduce light energy absorption. In summary, the observed adaptative mechanisms of pine and spruce to water stress may be similar to the well-studied adaptative mechanisms to winter stress, which may indicate the universality of protective mechanisms under various stresses in conifers.


Assuntos
Secas , Fotossíntese , Picea/metabolismo , Pinus sylvestris/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fotossíntese/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo
20.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(9)2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494677

RESUMO

Effect of three wood-decaying fungi on decomposition of spruce wood was studied in solid-state cultivation conditions for a period of three months. Two white rot species (Trichaptum abietinum and Phlebia radiata) were challenged by a brown rot species (Fomitopsis pinicola) in varying combinations. Wood decomposition patterns as determined by mass loss, carbon to nitrogen ratio, accumulation of dissolved sugars and release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were observed to depend on both fungal combinations and growth time. Similar dependence of fungal species combination, either white or brown rot dominated, was observed for secreted enzyme activities on spruce wood. Fenton chemistry suggesting reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ was detected in the presence of F. pinicola, even in co-cultures, together with substantial degradation of wood carbohydrates and accumulation of oxalic acid. Significant correlation was perceived with two enzyme activity patterns (oxidoreductases produced by white rot fungi; hydrolytic enzymes produced by the brown rot fungus) and wood degradation efficiency. Moreover, emission of four signature VOCs clearly grouped the fungal combinations. Our results indicate that fungal decay type, either brown or white rot, determines the loss of wood mass and decomposition of polysaccharides as well as the pattern of VOCs released upon fungal growth on spruce wood.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Picea/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/genética , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Oxálico/análise , Ácido Oxálico/metabolismo , Picea/química , Picea/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Madeira/química , Madeira/metabolismo , Madeira/microbiologia
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