Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.792
Filtrar
1.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 115, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unexpected pressure on medical supplies, interrupting supply chains and increasing prices. The supply of antiviral filters which form an essential part of the ventilator circuit have been affected by these issues. Three-dimensional (3D) printing may provide a solution to some of these issues. METHODS: We designed and tested 3D printed heat and moisture exchange (HME) and antiviral casing. For each casing we tested two different filter materials derived from a sediment water filter cartridge or 1.5-µm glass fiber filter paper. A polyurethane sponge was used for the HME. Each design was tested for circuit leak, circuit compliance, peak inspiratory pressure and casing integrity using methylene blue dye. RESULTS: We designed, produced, and tested two different types of antiviral filters with six different internal configurations. Overall, we tested 10 modified filter designs and compared them with the original commercial filter. Except for the combination of 1.5-µm filter paper and 5 mm sponge peak inspiratory pressure and circuit compliance of the filters produced were within the operating limits of the ventilator. All In addition, all filters passed the dye test. CONCLUSIONS: Our filter may be of particular importance to those working in low middle-income countries unable to compete with stronger economies. Our design relies on products available outside the healthcare supply chain, much of which can be purchased in grocery stores, hardware stores, or industrial and academic institutions. We hope that these HMEs and viral filters may be beneficial to clinicians who face critical supply chain issues during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Impressão Tridimensional , Ultrafiltração/instrumentação , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Vírus , /terapia , Corantes , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Papel , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Poliuretanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tampões de Gaze Cirúrgicos
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 351-354, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830113

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem which causes high health care utilizations, poor health-related quality of life, and substantial cost burden and deaths in worldwide. This study was done to evaluate the changes of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in COPD patients in comparison to healthy person. This analytical type of cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2018 to June 2019. A total number of 160 male subjects, age ranged from 30-70 years was included in this study. Among them, eighty (80) male COPD subjects were taken as study group (Group II) and eighty (80) age matched male healthy subjects were taken as control group (Group I). PEFR was assessed by peak flow meter. Data were expressed as mean ±SD and statistical significance of difference among the group was calculated by unpaired students' 't' test. The mean ±SD of PEFR of Group I and Group II were 432.75±30.23 L/min & 203.5±20.81 L/min respectively. The mean ±SD of PEFR significantly lower in study group in comparison with control group. Patients with COPD with greater changes in PEFR causes more frequent hospitalization and increased mortality and morbidity due to COPD related complications. So, assessment of this parameter is important for early detection and prevention of complications related to COPD for leading a healthy life.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 73, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scarring central airway stenosis (SCAS) is a potentially life-threatening condition with debilitating symptoms. Interventional bronchoscopy is increasingly used to relieve symptoms in patients with SCAS, but recurrent stenosis is frequently observed. Little data exist on the long-term prognosis of interventional bronchoscopy for SCAS. We aimed to assess the prognostic factors of bronchoscopic interventions in patients with SCAS to optimize treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that enrolled 119 consecutive patients with SCAS from January 2010 to April 2019 at our institution. Long-term clinical success was defined as airway stenosis < 50%, no limitation of physical activity, and a stable condition for > 12 months after the last interventional procedure. We compared patients' demographics, airway stenosis characteristics, and interventional procedures between the successful and unsuccessful groups, and identified significant predictors of long-term outcome with univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 119 patients with 577 therapeutic bronchoscopies were included. Seventy-five (63%) patients were considered to have long-term clinical success. Older age, male gender, smoking, elevated C-reactive protein level, subglottic stenosis, stent or T-tube implantation, previous interventional treatment, and multiple procedures per year were potentially associated with unsuccessful long-term outcomes in the univariate analysis. Current smoker status (odds ratio [OR] 5.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-24.17, P = 0.018), subglottic stenosis (OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.31-14.46, P = 0.017), and stent implantation (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.33-18.48, P = 0.017) were associated with decreased odds of long-term success in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of note, there was no significant difference in odds of success between former smokers and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoker status, subglottic stenosis, and stent implantation are independent factors associated with reduced long-term efficacy of interventional bronchoscopy for SCAS. Smoking cessation should be encouraged to improve the outcome of therapeutic bronchoscopy.


Assuntos
Broncopatias/cirurgia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Stents , Estenose Traqueal/cirurgia , Adulto , Betametasona/análogos & derivados , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Broncopatias/patologia , Broncopatias/fisiopatologia , Cicatriz/fisiopatologia , Constrição Patológica , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Criocirurgia/métodos , Dilatação/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Laringoestenose/fisiopatologia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar , Estenose Traqueal/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is characterized by a rapid change in the patient's condition, with major changes occurring over a few days. We aimed to develop and evaluate an emergency system for monitoring patients with COVID-19, which may be useful in hospitals where more severe patients stay in their homes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The system consists of the home-based patient unit, which is set up around the patient and the hospital unit, which enables the medical staff to telemonitor the patient's condition and help to send medical recommendations. The home unit allows the data transmission from the patient to the hospital, which is performed using a cell phone application. The hospital unit includes a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW® environment that can provide a real-time monitoring of the oxygen saturation (SpO2), beats per minute (BPM), body temperature (BT), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Abnormal events may be fast and automatically identified. After the design details are described, the system is validated by a 30-day home monitoring study in 12 controls and 12 patients with COVID-19 presenting asymptomatic to mild disease. Patients presented reduced SpO2 (p<0.0001) and increased BPM values (p<0.0001). Three patients (25%) presented PEF values between 50 and 80% of the predicted. Three of the 12 monitored patients presented events of desaturation (SpO2<92%). The experimental results were in close agreement with the involved pathophysiology, providing clear evidence that the proposed system can be a useful tool for the remote monitoring of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: An emergency system for home monitoring of patients with COVID-19 was developed in the current study. The proposed system allowed us to quickly respond to early abnormalities in these patients. This system may contribute to conserving hospital resources for those most in need while simultaneously enabling early recognition of patients under acute deterioration, requiring urgent assessment.


Assuntos
/patologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas/enfermagem , Temperatura Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Oximetria , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , /isolamento & purificação
5.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 6692409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628349

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate changes in pulmonary function and computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the recovery period. COVID-19 patients underwent symptom assessment, pulmonary function tests, and high-resolution chest CT 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Of the 54 patients enrolled, 31 and 23 were in the moderate and severe group, respectively. The main symptoms 6 months after discharge were fatigue and exertional dyspnea, experienced by 24.1% and 18.5% of patients, respectively, followed by smell and taste dysfunction (9.3%) and cough (5.6%). One patient dropped out of the pulmonary function tests. Of the remaining 54 patients, 41.5% had pulmonary dysfunction. Specifically, 7.5% presented with restrictive ventilatory dysfunction (forced vital capacity <80% of the predicted value), 18.9% presented with small airway dysfunction, and 32.1% presented with pulmonary diffusion impairment (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide <80% of the predicted value). Of the 54 patients enrolled, six patients dropped out of the chest CT tests. Eleven of the remaining 48 patients presented with abnormal lung CT findings 6 months after discharge. Patients with residual lung lesions were more common in the severe group (52.6%) than in the moderate group (3.4%); a higher proportion of patients had involvement of both lungs (42.1% vs. 3.4%) in the severe group. The residual lung lesions were mainly ground-glass opacities (20.8%) and linear opacities (14.6%). Semiquantitative visual scoring of the CT findings revealed significantly higher scores in the left, right, and both lungs in the severe group than in the moderate group. COVID-19 patients 6 months after discharge mostly presented with fatigue and exertional dyspnea, and their pulmonary dysfunction was mostly characterized by pulmonary diffusion impairment. As revealed by chest CT, the severe group had a higher prevalence of residual lesions than the moderate group, and the residual lesions mostly manifested as ground-glass opacities and linear opacities.


Assuntos
/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Vital
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411771

RESUMO

Large-scale data sources, remote sensing technologies, and superior computing power have tremendously benefitted to environmental health study. Recently, various machine-learning algorithms were introduced to provide mechanistic insights about the heterogeneity of clustered data pertaining to the symptoms of each asthma patient and potential environmental risk factors. However, there is limited information on the performance of these machine learning tools. In this study, we compared the performance of ten machine-learning techniques. Using an advanced method of imbalanced sampling (IS), we improved the performance of nine conventional machine learning techniques predicting the association between exposure level to indoor air quality and change in patients' peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). We then proposed a deep learning method of transfer learning (TL) for further improvement in prediction accuracy. Our selected final prediction techniques (TL1_IS or TL2-IS) achieved a balanced accuracy median (interquartile range) of 66(56~76) % for TL1_IS and 68(63~78) % for TL2_IS. Precision levels for TL1_IS and TL2_IS were 68(62~72) % and 66(62~69) % while sensitivity levels were 58(50~67) % and 59(51~80) % from 25 patients which were approximately 1.08 (accuracy, precision) to 1.28 (sensitivity) times increased in terms of performance outcomes, compared to NN_IS. Our results indicate that the transfer machine learning technique with imbalanced sampling is a powerful tool to predict the change in PEFR due to exposure to indoor air including the concentration of particulate matter of 2.5 µm and carbon dioxide. This modeling technique is even applicable with small-sized or imbalanced dataset, which represents a personalized, real-world setting.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141585, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890882

RESUMO

There has been little study on the effect of Asian dust exposure on respiratory symptoms among children who are vulnerable to environmental factors. In this panel study, we investigated the effect of Asian dust on respiratory symptoms among children with and without asthma, and their sensitivity. Children attending two elementary schools (137 total), and 23 children with asthma from cooperating medical institutions in Fukuoka prefecture were recruited. Subjects measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and recorded asthma-like symptoms, cough, nasal symptoms and use of medication in a diary from April 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013. To assess exposure to Asian dust, we used Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data. For the analysis of the association between Asian dust and respiratory symptoms, the case-crossover design and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. Taking individual sensitivity to respiratory aggravation into consideration, the subjects were classified into three groups: children without asthma, children with asthma who do not use long-term preventive medication (CA) and children with asthma who use long-term preventive medication (CA-LTM). For CA, Asian dust exposure was significantly associated with asthma-like symptoms, with a hazard ratio of 5.17 (95%CI: 1.02=26.12) at Lag0, and the change in %maxPEF, -1.65% (95%CI:-2.82, -0.48) at Lag0. For children without asthma, a statistically significant association was found between Asian dust exposure and the change in %maxPEF, -0.56% (95%CI: -1.31, -0.08) at Lag1. However, no adverse effects were observed in CA-LTM. Temperature had significant effects on %maxPEF for three groups. Asian dust, photochemical oxidant and pollen caused simultaneously additive adverse effects on nasal symptoms for children without asthma. This study suggests the possibility that long-term preventive medication to manage asthma may suppress aggravation of respiratory symptoms due to Asian dust and may be an effective prevention.


Assuntos
Asma , Poeira , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Pólen
8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(5): 3447-3452, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary function of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-induced pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 137 patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia who were discharged from the Enze Hospital, Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) from January 31 2020 to March 11 2020 was conducted. Follow-up occurred 2 weeks after hospital discharge, during which patients underwent a pulmonary function test. RESULTS: Of the 137 patients who underwent a pulmonary function test 2 weeks after discharge, 51.8% were male, and the mean age was 47 years. Only 19.7% of the patients were identified as having severe COVID-19-induced pneumonia. The pulmonary function tests showed that for a small number of patients the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC)/% values were <70%, and the mean forced inspiratory volume (IVC) and FVC values were 2.4±0.7 and 3.2±0.8 L, respectively. In severe cases, 88.9% of patients had an IVC <80% of the predicted value, and 55.6% of patients had an FVC <80% of the predicted value. The proportion of patients with maximum expiratory flow rate at 25%, 50% and 75% of the vital capacity (MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75) values <70% were 55.6%, 40.7%, and 25.9%, respectively. In the non-severe group, 79.1% of patients had an IVC <80% of the predicted value, and 16.4% of patients had an FVC <80% of the predicted value. The mean MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75 <70% values were 57.3%, 30%, and 13.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the pulmonary function of patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia predominantly manifested as restrictive ventilation disorder and small airway obstruction, which was increased in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória , Masculino , Fluxo Expiratório Máximo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Vital
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21858, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871910

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: These years, due to dissatisfaction with western medicine treatments, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) becomes a main treatment for bronchial asthma patients. Lung and kidney yang deficiency syndrome is a common type of asthma and the Chinese herbal medicine formula modified Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin (MFX) decoction is prescribed for mild bronchial asthma patients with acute exacerbation syndrome. However, there is not obvious evidence to support the efficacy and safety of modified MFX decoction the efficacy and safety to treat mild bronchial asthma and the mechanism of this disease is still unclear. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was proposed by us. After a 10-day run-in period, 180 eligible objects will be recruited in this study. These subjects will be allocated to the experimental group or control group in a 1:1 ratio. Patients in the experimental group will take modified MFX decoction. At the same time, patients in the control group will receive a matched placebo. The budesonide inhalation powder will be used as a western medicine treatment for both groups. All subjects will receive 14 days of treatment and another 6 months of follow-up. The primary outcome is the mean change in peak expiratory flow rate from the baseline to 14 days in this research. The secondary outcome includes forced expiratory volume in one second, asthma control test score, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score, curative effect of TCM syndrome, and salbutamol dosage. This trial will also explore the association between the change of immunoglobulin E and modified MFX decoction treatment. Any side effects of the treatment will be recorded. DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will provide the evidence for the effect of modified MFX decoction in patients with mild bronchial asthma during acute exacerbation. It also will explore the mechanism of this formula in the treatment of bronchial asthma, which will provide another treatment option for patients with mild bronchial asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(11): 801-805, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the changes in serial 2-hourly forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) measurements required to identify occupational asthma (OA) using the Oasys Area Between Curves (ABC) score. METHODS: The ABC score from 2-hourly measurements of FEV1 was compared between workers with confirmed OA and asthmatics without occupational exposure to identify the optimum separation using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Separate analyses were made for plots using clock time and time from waking to allow for use in shift workers. Minimum record criteria were ≥6 readings per day, >4 day shifts and >4 rest days (or >9 days for controls). RESULTS: A retrospective analysis identified 22 workers with OA and 30 control asthmatics whose records reached the quality standards. Median FEV1 diurnal variation was 20.3% (IQR 16.1-32.6) for OA and 19.5% (IQR 14.5-26.1) for asthmatic controls. ROC curve analysis identified that a difference of 0.056 L/hour gave a ROC score of 0.821 for clock time and 0.768 for time from waking with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% for the diagnosis of OA. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of OA requires objective confirmation. Unsupervised serial FEV1 measurements are more difficult to obtain reliably than measurements of peak expiratory flow, which are likely to remain the standard for general use. A FEV1 ABC score >0.056 L/hour provides a valid cut-off for those who wish to use FEV1 rather than peak expiratory flow.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory system diseases are some of the most common pathologies worldwide. Although osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) is used predominantly to treat other pathologies, certain OMT techniques have been shown to improve patients' respiratory function. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of osteopathic techniques on breathing. METHODS: Tests were performed with the use of a spirometer and the results were expressed as Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Thirty healthy males and females between the age of 18 and 50 took part in the research. Fifteen individuals were randomly assigned to the experimental group and fifteen persons were assigned to the placebo group. The participants from the experimental group were treated with such osteopathic techniques aimed at the pulmonary system as the thoracic thrust (manipulations of vertebral joints and ribs), the sternal pump technique and stretching of the diaphragm. The placebo group was treated with soft tissue therapy (STT) techniques for the masseter muscle. RESULTS: The described set of osteopathic techniques exerts an influence on PEF in healthy individuals; however, it does not affect FVC and FEV1. CONCLUSION: Osteopathic techniques do not seem to improve lung health, as reflected in FEV1 and FVC, but they improve the respiratory function aspects reflected by PEF in the participants without any history of lung disease.


Assuntos
Manipulação Osteopática/métodos , Respiração , Adulto , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina Osteopática , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013268, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease. People with asthma have inflammation of their airways that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness and chest tightness, with or without a cough. Statins possess multiple therapeutic effects, including lowering lipid levels in the blood. Statins are reported to have a potential role as an adjunct treatment in asthma. However, comprehensive evidence of the benefits and harms of using statins is required to facilitate decision making. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of statins as an adjunct therapy for asthma in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for studies in the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid SP and Embase Ovid SP, from their inception dates We handsearched the proceedings of major respiratory conferences. We also searched clinical trials registries for completed, ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews to identify additional studies. The search is current to 7 February 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a parallel-group design that assessed statins for at least 12 weeks' duration. We considered all participants with a clinical diagnosis of asthma to be eligible, regardless of age, sex, disease severity and previous or current treatment. We planned to include studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only, and unpublished data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened and selected the studies, extracted outcome data and intervention characteristics from included studies, and assessed risk of bias according to standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We resolved any disagreement through discussion. MAIN RESULTS: We found only one trial involving a total of 60 people living with asthma. The trial compared the effect of atorvastatin with a placebo (dummy treatment containing lactose) in treating people with chronic asthma. The trial did not report data for the primary outcomes or adverse events. There was uncertainty about the relative effect on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the atorvastatin group compared with the placebo group. The study did not report serious adverse effects for the interventions. The included study had internal discrepancies in its reported data. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence was of very low certainty, so we are unable to draw conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of statins to treat asthma. High-quality RCTs are needed to assess the effect of statins on people with asthma. Well-designed multicentre trials with larger samples and longer duration of treatment are required, which assess outcomes such as adverse events, hospital utilisation and costs, to provide better quality evidence. Future studies that include subgroups of obese people with asthma are also required.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD002309, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea, and a reduction in lung function, quality of life, and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, no other treatments that slow lung function decline are available. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This Cochrane Review was first published in 2011, and was updated in 2017 and 2020. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral PDE4 inhibitors for management of stable COPD. SEARCH METHODS: We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register (date of last search 9 March 2020). We found other trials at web-based clinical trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs if they compared oral PDE4 inhibitors with placebo in people with COPD. We allowed co-administration of standard COPD therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. Two independent review authors selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies by involving a third review author. We assessed our confidence in the evidence by using GRADE recommendations. Primary outcomes were change in lung function (minimally important difference (MID) = 100 mL) and quality of life (scale 0 to 100; higher score indicates more limitations). MAIN RESULTS: We found 42 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analyses for roflumilast (28 trials with 18,046 participants) or cilomilast (14 trials with 6457 participants) or tetomilast (1 trial with 84 participants), with a duration between six weeks and one year or longer. These trials included people across international study centres with moderate to very severe COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades II to IV), with mean age of 64 years. We judged risks of selection bias, performance bias, and attrition bias as low overall amongst the 39 published and unpublished trials. Lung function Treatment with a PDE4 inhibitor was associated with a small, clinically insignificant improvement in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over a mean of 40 weeks compared with placebo (mean difference (MD) 49.33 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 44.17 to 54.49; participants = 20,815; studies = 29; moderate-certainty evidence). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were also improved over 40 weeks (FVC: MD 86.98 mL, 95% CI 74.65 to 99.31; participants = 22,108; studies = 17; high-certainty evidence; PEF: MD 6.54 L/min, 95% CI 3.95 to 9.13; participants = 4245; studies = 6; low-certainty evidence). Quality of life Trials reported improvements in quality of life over a mean of 33 weeks (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) MD -1.06 units, 95% CI -1.68 to -0.43; participants = 7645 ; moderate-certainty evidence). Incidence of exacerbations Treatment with a PDE4 inhibitor was associated with a reduced likelihood of COPD exacerbation over a mean of 40 weeks (odds ratio (OR) 0.78, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.84; participants = 20,382; studies = 27; high-certainty evidence), that is, for every 100 people treated with PDE4 inhibitors, five more remained exacerbation-free during the study period compared with those given placebo (number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 20, 95% CI 16 to 27). No change in COPD-related symptoms nor in exercise tolerance was found. Adverse events More participants in the treatment groups experienced an adverse effect compared with control participants over a mean of 39 weeks (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.38; participants = 21,310; studies = 30; low-certainty evidence). Participants experienced a range of gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, or dyspepsia. Diarrhoea was more commonly reported with PDE4 inhibitor treatment (OR 3.20, 95% CI 2.74 to 3.50; participants = 20,623; studies = 29; high-certainty evidence), that is, for every 100 people treated with PDE4 inhibitors, seven more suffered from diarrhoea during the study period compared with those given placebo (number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 15, 95% CI 13 to 17). The likelihood of psychiatric adverse events was higher with roflumilast 500 µg than with placebo (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.54; participants = 11,168; studies = 15 (COPD pool data); moderate-certainty evidence). Roflumilast in particular was associated with weight loss during the trial period and with an increase in insomnia and depressive mood symptoms. Participants treated with PDE4 inhibitors were more likely to withdraw from trial participation; on average, 14% in the treatment groups withdrew compared with 8% in the control groups. Mortality No effect on mortality was found (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.24; participants = 19,786; studies = 27; moderate-certainty evidence), although mortality was a rare event during these trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For this current update, five new studies from the 2020 search contributed to existing findings but made little impact on outcomes described in earlier versions of this review. PDE4 inhibitors offered a small benefit over placebo in improving lung function and reducing the likelihood of exacerbations in people with COPD; however, they had little impact on quality of life or on symptoms. Gastrointestinal adverse effects and weight loss were common, and the likelihood of psychiatric symptoms was higher, with roflumilast 500 µg. The findings of this review provide cautious support for the use of PDE4 inhibitors in COPD. In accordance with GOLD 2020 guidelines, they may have a place as add-on therapy for a subgroup of people with persistent symptoms or exacerbations despite optimal COPD management (e.g. people whose condition is not controlled by fixed-dose long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) combinations). More longer-term trials are needed to determine whether or not PDE4 inhibitors modify FEV1 decline, hospitalisation, or mortality in COPD.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/administração & dosagem , Nitrilas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Aminopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Progressão da Doença , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(5): 512-517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Swallowing function is critical for continuing oral feeding to prevent frailty in older adults. In this study, we investigated the impact of tongue pressure and pulmonary function on the nutritional status of older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kitakyushu, Japan from August 2017 to November 2018. Fifty-two residents aged >65 years of age from three nursing care insurance facilities in Kitakyushu City, Japan were recruited. MEASUREMENTS: Oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status using a mini nutritional assessment short form (MNA-SF), cognitive function, activities of daily living, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) for pulmonary function, and tongue pressure were assessed. The associations between nutritional status and the above factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Participants were divided into two groups: well-nourished group (MNA-SF ≤12) and undernutrition group (MNA-SF <12). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the correlations of PEFR [odds ratio (OR) = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23-0.89 p=0.033) and tongue pressure (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.88-0.99, p=0.029) remained significant even after adjustment with possible confounders. CONCLUSION: Maximum tongue pressure and PEFR in older adults were significantly associated with their nutritional status. These findings suggest that maintaining oral and pulmonary function may be a preventive factor against a decrease in the nutritional status of older frail adults.


Assuntos
Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Casas de Saúde
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332649

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between educational attainment and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as a predictor of metabolic syndrome in a Korean population.In this single-center, retrospective cross-sectional study, 988 healthy adults (601 men and 387 women) who underwent regular health check-up in Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were analyzed. Educational attainment was categorized into 3 groups according to their final grade of educational course: middle or high school (≤12 years of education), college or university (12-16 years of education), and postgraduate (≥16 years of education). CRF was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, biceps strength, hand grip strength, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and echocardiography. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the 3rd report of the National Cholesterol Education Program.Among the subjects, 357 (36.1%) had metabolic syndrome. The postgraduate group had significantly higher peak oxygen consumption (VO2), biceps strength, hand grip strength, and peak expiratory flow than other groups (all P < .001). This group showed better left ventricular diastolic function, in terms of deceleration time of mitral inflow, maximal tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index than other groups. Peak VO2 (%) was significantly correlated with all the parameters of metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance (r = -0.106, P = .002), waist circumference (r = -0.387, P < .001), triglyceride (r = -0.109, P = .001), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = 0.219, P < .001), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.143, P < .001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.177, P < .001). And Peak VO2 (%) was found to be a predictor of metabolic syndrome (adjusted ß = .988, P < .001). However, the level of education was not able to predict metabolic syndrome (postgraduate group; ß = .955, P = .801).Although the postgraduate group had better CRF than other groups, the educational attainment could not exclusively predict metabolic syndrome in this study. Further research is needed to reveal the socioeconomic mechanism of developing metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Escolaridade , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Estudos Transversais , Status Econômico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(11): 1710-1717, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291090

RESUMO

To better understand the evolvement of the pulmonary dysfunction in the aging ventricular septal defect (VSD) patient, we invited adult patients with a congenital VSD and healthy age- and gender-matched controls for static and dynamic spirometry, impulse oscillometry, multiple breath washout, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide testing. Primary outcome was forced expiratory volume in 1 second. In total, 30 patients with a surgically corrected VSD (mean age 51 ± 8 years), 30 patients with a small, unrepaired VSD (mean age 55 ± 1 years), and 2 groups of 30 age- and gender-matched, healthy controls (mean age 52 ± 9 years and 55 ± 10 years, respectively) were included. Median age of radical surgery was 6.3 (total range: 1.4 to 54) years and median follow-up after surgery was 40 years (total range: 3.4 to 54). Compared with healthy matched controls, surgically corrected VSD patients had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 87 ± 19% versus 105 ± 14% of predicted, p <0.01, lower forced vital capacity, 92 ± 16% versus 107 ± 13% of predicted, p <0.01, and lower peak expiratory flow, 100 ± 21% versus 122 ± 16% of predicted, p <0.01. Furthermore, corrected VSD patients revealed increased airway resistance in the small airways, 30 ± 22% versus 15 ± 14% of total resistance, p <0.01, and reduced diffusion capacity, 84 ± 12% versus 101 ± 11%, p <0.01. Patients with a small, unrepaired VSD had comparable pulmonary function to their matched controls. In conclusion, VSD patients 40 years of age or older demonstrated significant impaired pulmonary function in terms of reduced dynamic pulmonary function, increased airway resistance in the small airways, and reduced diffusion capacity up to 54 years after defect closure compared with healthy age- and gender-matched controls.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interventricular/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Testes Respiratórios , Monóxido de Carbono , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oscilometria , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
18.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(2): 187-193, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191824

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease in childhood. Nasal obstruction is a typical symptom of AR, however, its quantification by clinical examination is difficult. To provide an objective assessment of nasal patency, the peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is used. Symptoms of AR have a noticeable impact on the quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess which factors may have an impact on PNIF values and to evaluate the possible relationships between PNIF and QoL in children with AR. Patients and METHODS: We recruited patients aged 6-17 years (n = 208, 89 girls and 119 boys) with AR. All children underwent PNIF measurements. Parents and children completed KINDL-R generic questionnaires, to assess the quality of life of the children. RESULTS: The average PNIF value was 98.9 ± 37.4 L/min. A very strong (p < 0.001) relationship between the PNIF value and height, age and weight of the child was observed. The sex of the patient has no influence on the PNIF value. We showed that PNIF values significantly increased with each attempt. The children assessed their QoL at 45.6 ± 8.5 points in the KINDL-R questionnaire and the parents rated their children's QoL at 73.7 ± 10.7 points. We observed a weak negative correlation between PNIF and the QoL based on the parents' assessment and the child's self-assessment. CONCLUSIONS: PNIF values depend mostly on height, but also on the child's age and weight. A learning effect (significant increase in PNIF upon each attempt) was shown. Higher PNIF does not improve the QoL


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Modelos Lineares
19.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 8, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the adverse effects of Asian dust (AD) on respiratory function in children are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the association between AD and respiratory function by measuring peak expiratory flow rates (PEFRs) in asthmatic children. METHODS: The study was carried out from March to May from 2014 through 2016. One hundred ten children with bronchial asthma were recruited from four hospitals in the Goto Islands and south Nagasaki area in Nagasaki prefecture. The parents were asked to record their children's PEFRs every morning/evening and clinical symptoms in an asthma diary. AD was assessed from light detection and ranging data, and a linear mixed-effects model was used to estimate the effects of AD on daily PEFR. Time-stratified case-crossover analyses were performed to examine the association between AD and asthma attacks defined by reduction levels in PEFR. RESULTS: AD was detected on 11 days in the Goto Islands, and on 23 days in the south Nagasaki area. After adjusting for age, sex, temperature, and daily oxidants, we found a consistent association between AD and a 1.1% to 1.7% decrease in PEFR in the mornings and a 0.7% to 1.3% decrease in the evenings at a lag of 0 to 5 days. AD was not associated with the number of asthma attacks, respiratory symptoms, or other symptoms at any lag days examined. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to AD was associated with reduced PEFR, although the effects were not large enough to induce clinically apparent symptoms, in clinically well-controlled asthmatic children.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino
20.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(6): 1394-1399, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) ambulatory care, handheld spirometry in individual clinic rooms would improve patient flow and potentially reduce patient-to-patient contact. A validation study was conducted to examine the accuracy of an entirely handheld turbine spirometer vs a standard laboratory device in pediatric CF patients. METHODS: Spirometric data were obtained from 76 CF patients aged less than 18 years in the ambulatory setting using the Micro Loop Spirometer (CareFusion) and compared to same-day data from conventional laboratory spirometry. RESULTS: Linear relationships were obtained between devices, demonstrating good correlation: r = .99, .99, .97, and .82 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) , forced vital capacity (FVC), FEF25%-75% , and peak expiratory flow, respectively (P < .001 for all). Biases (mean differences between devices) were -65 mL for FEV1 (P < .001) and -115 mL for FVC (P < .001) on the handheld. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated scatter in bias across all volumes. Limits of agreement (defined as mean ± 2 standard deviations [SD]) were large: +189 to -319 mL for FEV1 , equating to large limits of agreement for FEV1 percent predicted of +9.0% to -13.9%. For repeated measurements on the same device on different days, a larger percent SD was obtained with the handheld compared to the conventional spirometer (6.7% vs 5.1%, respectively). Importantly, a relatively large number (15%) demonstrated a decrease in FEV1 percent predicted of ≥10% on the handheld compared to conventional. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that while both devices have passed the recommendations for spirometry testing per American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society, handheld turbine vs conventional spirometers may not be used interchangeably in the pediatric CF population.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Espirometria/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Capacidade Vital
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...