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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332649

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between educational attainment and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as a predictor of metabolic syndrome in a Korean population.In this single-center, retrospective cross-sectional study, 988 healthy adults (601 men and 387 women) who underwent regular health check-up in Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were analyzed. Educational attainment was categorized into 3 groups according to their final grade of educational course: middle or high school (≤12 years of education), college or university (12-16 years of education), and postgraduate (≥16 years of education). CRF was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, biceps strength, hand grip strength, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and echocardiography. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the 3rd report of the National Cholesterol Education Program.Among the subjects, 357 (36.1%) had metabolic syndrome. The postgraduate group had significantly higher peak oxygen consumption (VO2), biceps strength, hand grip strength, and peak expiratory flow than other groups (all P < .001). This group showed better left ventricular diastolic function, in terms of deceleration time of mitral inflow, maximal tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index than other groups. Peak VO2 (%) was significantly correlated with all the parameters of metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance (r = -0.106, P = .002), waist circumference (r = -0.387, P < .001), triglyceride (r = -0.109, P = .001), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = 0.219, P < .001), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.143, P < .001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.177, P < .001). And Peak VO2 (%) was found to be a predictor of metabolic syndrome (adjusted ß = .988, P < .001). However, the level of education was not able to predict metabolic syndrome (postgraduate group; ß = .955, P = .801).Although the postgraduate group had better CRF than other groups, the educational attainment could not exclusively predict metabolic syndrome in this study. Further research is needed to reveal the socioeconomic mechanism of developing metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Escolaridade , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Estudos Transversais , Status Econômico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(2): 136-139, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062884

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of a breathing trainer on relieving the peak airway pressure caused by forced exhalation at the end of deep inspiration, gentle coughing at the end of calm inspiration and forced coughing at the end of deep inspiration in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Methods: From July to September 2018, 15 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, including 5 patients with invasive ventilation (3 with tracheotomy and 2 with endotracheal intubation), and 10 patients with non-invasive ventilation through mask. The patients included 14 males and 1 female, aging 48-79 years, with an average age of (68±10) years. A Breathing Trainer developed by both Dongguan Yongsheng Medical Products Co., Ltd. and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health was used to relieve the peak airway pressure. A one-way expiratory valve connected with a spring at the expiratory end of the Breathing Trainer was not opened until the pressure inside the airway was higher than 20 cmH(2)O (1 cmH(2)O=0.098 kPa), and opened completely when the pressure was higher than 35 cmH(2)O. Both before and after the Breathing Trainer was connected to the respiratory circuit, the patients were asked to exhale hard at the end of deep inspiration, to cough gently at the end of calm inspiration and to cough forcefully at the end of deep inspiration and the airway pressure were measured respectively. Each action was tested 3 times, and the interval time of each test was 1 min, and the interval of each action was 10 min. Results: Among the patients with tracheotomy or endotracheal intubation for invasive mechanical ventilation, when the patients exhaled hard at the end of deep inspiration,coughed gently at the end of gentle inspiration and coughed forcefully at the end of deep inspiration, the peak airway pressure measured before the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer was (30.0±4.5), (31.4±5.0) and (34.9±5.0)cmH(2)O, respectively, which was significantly higher than that after the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer(26.3±2.9), (26.7±3.5) and (29.0±4.1) cmH(2)O (all P<0.01). Among the patients with non-invasive mechanical ventilation wearing face masks, when the patients exhaled hard at the end of deep inspiration, coughed gently at the end of gentle inspiration and coughed forcefully at the end of deep inspiration, the peak airway pressure was (17.7±1.9), (16.6±2.5) and (18.9±2.5) respectively, before the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer, and was (18.9±2.5), (16.3±1.9) and (18.8±2.0) cmH(2)O respectively, after the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer. There was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion: The application of Breathing Trainer in the mechanical ventilation circuit of tracheotomy or endotracheal intubation could significantly reduce the peak airway pressure caused by hard exhalation and cough. It could be used as an active cough assist device for mechanical ventilation patients to prevent high airway pressure.


Assuntos
Tosse/complicações , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092097

RESUMO

Variability during spirometry can persist despite control of technical and personal factors. We postulate spirometry induces gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR), which may cause variability and affect results of spirometry. Fifty-eight (58) subjects undergoing GOR investigation with oesophageal manometry and 24hr pH monitoring were recruited. Oesophageal dysmotility and GOR were assessed as part of clinical care. Subjects performed 2 sets of spirometry separated by a 10-minute rest period. The assessment of GOR during spirometry procedure (defined by a lower oesophageal pH<4) started from the first set of spirometry and concluded when the second set of spirometry was completed. We calculated variability (%) of FEV1, FVC and PEFR within each set as well as changes over 10-minutes. Twenty-six subjects (45%) recorded GOR during assessment. Of these, 23 subjects recorded GOR during the 10-minute rest period. Four subjects had GOR recorded only during spirometry tests. We did not find variability of spirometry parameters between the groups with and without GOR during spirometry procedure. However, in subjects with GOR, we found small but significant reductions of PEFR (0.5L/s, 8%, p<0.001) and FEV1 (84 mL, 3%, p = 0.048) in the second set of spirometry compared to the first spirometry set. This pilot study demonstrates that GOR can occur during and following spirometry. Presence of GOR during spirometry in this patient population caused small decreases in PEFR and FEV1 when it is repeated 10-minutes later however not increase variability in a single series of measurements.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Espirometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria/efeitos adversos
4.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 56(1): 28-34, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186463

RESUMO

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of three single-limb heated wired circuits (SLHWC) for NIV, on ventilatory parameters and humidification performance in a simulation lung model. Methods: Three SLHWC compatible with the MR-850 Heated Humidifier (HH) (Fisher & Paykel, Auckland, New Zealand) were tested: RT-319 (FP) (Fisher & Paykel, Auckland, New Zealand), Respironics 1045770 (RP) (DEAS, Castel Bolognese, Italy) and Intersurgical B/SYS 5809001 (IT) (Intersurgical, Wokingham, UK). A Bipap Vision ventilator (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA) in pressure control ventilation (PCV) connected to a test lung was used for simulation. Each SHWC performance was evaluated in four ventilatory conditions: IPAP of 15 cm H2O with FiO2 0.3 and 1, respectively; and, IPAP of 25 cm H2O with FiO2 0.3 and 1, respectively. EPAP was set at 5 cm H2O. Hygrometric and ventilatory measurements including: relative humidity (RH), temperature (T), Pplat, PIP, PEEP, peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and tidal volume (Vt) were measured. Results: In each FiO2 group absolute humidity (AH) was similar with FP regardless of the IPAP level employed compared to IT and RP (P<.001). Except for RP at FiO2 0.3, AH increased significantly in IT and RP groups as IPAP increased (P < .001). PIP, Pplat, PEEP, PIF, and Vt values were significantly higher with FP and RP in each FiO2 group compared to IT (P < .001). Conclusions: Humidification performance varied significantly among the three circuits, being FP the only one able to maintain stable AH values during the study with no influence on ventilatory parameters


Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de 3 circuitos de ramal único (SLHWC) para la ventilación mecánica no invasiva (VNI) en los parámetros de ventilación y la humidificación en un modelo de simulación pulmonar. Métodos: Se evaluaron 3 SLHWC compatibles con el humidificador calefactado MR-850 (HH) (Fisher & Paykel, Auckland, Nueva Zelanda): RT-319 (FP) (Fisher & Paykel, Auckland, Nueva Zelanda), Respironics 1045770 (RP) (DEAS, Castel Bolognese, Italia) y Intersurgical B/SYS 5809001 (IT) (Intersurgical, Wokingham, Reino Unido). Para la simulación se empleó un ventilador Bipap Vision (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, EE. UU.) con ventilación controlada por presión (PCV) conectado a un simulador pulmonar. El rendimiento de cada SHWC se evaluó en 4 condiciones ventilatorias: IPAP de 15 cm H2O con FiO2 igual a 0,3 o igual a 1; IPAP de 25 cm H2O con FiO2 igual a 0,3 o igual a 1. La EPAP se estableció en 5 cm H2O. Las medidas ventilatorias e higrométricas incluyeron: humedad relativa (HR) humedad absoluta (AH), temperature (T), Pplat, PIP, PEEP, pico de flujo inspiratorio (PIF) y volumen tidal (Vt). Resultados: Para cada grupo de FiO2 FP detectó valores similares de humedad absoluta (HA) en comparación con IT y RP (p<0,001), independientemente del nivel IPAP utilizado. Se registró un incremento significativo de la HA en todos los grupos medidos con IT y RP conforme aumentaron los valores de IPAP (p<0,001), excepto en el grupo de FiO2, igual a 0,3 medido con RP. Los valores de PIP, Pplat, PEEP, PIF y Vt resultaron significativamente más elevados con FP y RP en cada grupo FiO2 en comparación con IT (p < 0 ,001). Conclusiones: La evaluación de la humidificación varió significativamente entre los 3 circuitos, siendo FP el único capaz de mantener estables los valores de HA durante el estudio sin influencia alguna de los parámetros ventilatorios


Assuntos
Humanos , Umidificadores/normas , Mecânica Respiratória , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Análise de Variância , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/tendências
6.
F1000Res ; 8: 1429, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857894

RESUMO

Background: Cooking smoke is a major source of indoor air pollution affecting millions of people worldwide. To date, there has been no epidemiological study to show the variation in health effects resulting from work at different kinds of restaurants in Thailand. This study determines lung function and chronic respiratory symptoms of workers in four types of eateries commonly found in Thailand. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 321 people working in four common types of restaurants in Thailand: 'tamsang' restaurants (from the Thai word ร้านอาหารตามสั่ง, a restaurant that makes a variety of foods to order) (170 people), papaya salad restaurants (51 people), noodle restaurants (50 people), and barbecue stalls (50 people).  The restaurant workers' demographic data as well as information on their working conditions was collected using a questionnaire administered in a face to face interview. Each worker's peak expiratory flow rate was measured using a portable peak flow meter. Results: This study found that working in a 'tamsang' restaurant is associated with a higher risk of poor lung function (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.33-5.06) and a higher prevalence of moderate dyspnea symptoms (OR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.63-8.79) compared to working in a papaya salad restaurant. The study also found that each of the following were associated with poor lung function and/or chronic respiratory symptoms: cooking with palm oil, having irritated teary eyes while cooking, cooking without a ventilation hood, long past experience working at restaurants, and working in a small cooking area (1-6 m 2). Conclusions: Work in different kinds of restaurants with variations in cooking methods and work conditions produces diverse effects on airway and lung function. Regulatory organizations should pay careful attention to protecting the health of restaurant workers, especially those working in 'tamsang' restaurants.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Restaurantes/classificação , Adulto , Idoso , Culinária/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Physiol Sci ; 69(6): 969-979, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595463

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of activated ghrelin with dietary octanoic acids or medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) administration to underweight patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eleven severe and very severe COPD patients received a 5-day treatment with edible MCT. Sequentially, 10 patients received a 3-week combination treatment with MCT and intravenous acyl ghrelin. Five-day MCT treatment increased endogenous acyl ghrelin (p = 0.0049), but the total ghrelin level was unchanged. MCT-ghrelin combination treatment improved the peak oxygen uptake (p = 0.0120) during whole treatment course. This effect was attributed to the resultant improvements in cardiac function by O2 pulse, and to the difference between inspired and expired oxygen concentration rather than minute ventilation. Addition of dietary MCT to ghrelin treatment improved the aerobic capacity of underweight COPD patients, likely by mechanisms of increased O2 delivery through improvements in primary cardiocirculatory and muscular crosstalk.


Assuntos
Grelina/farmacologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Magreza/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Grelina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/química
8.
Br J Nurs ; 28(18): 1196-1200, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597050

RESUMO

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) following allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplant is considered the manifestation of chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD) in the lung, and affects about 14% of patients with cGvHD, mainly in the first 2 years after transplant. Despite advances in assessment, diagnosis and treatment, the clinical prognosis remains poor for patients with pulmonary manifestations of cGvHD. A pilot study of 50 patients was devised to establish whether a relationship exists between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) via pulmonary function test (PFT) and the equivalent peak expiratory flow (PEF) via peak flow handheld spirometry in cGvHD patients receiving extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP). Only PEF observed within 2 days of PFT could be compared with data at month 3, 6, 9 and 12. This pilot study illustrated that monitoring via handheld peak flow readings has the potential to become an acceptable method of monitoring lung function longitudinally in cGvHD patients.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Fluxo Expiratório Forçado , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Fotoferese , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espirometria/instrumentação , Espirometria/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The head-tilt/chin-lift (HT/CL) maneuver is simple and routinely used to open a closed upper airway. OBJECTIVES: It has yet to be determined whether increasing the HT/CL angle further would be beneficial. METHODS: We enrolled 60 (30 males) 20-year-old conscious participants. Pre-HT/CL, post-HT/CL #1, and post-HT/CL #2 positions were defined as positions in which the angle between the ear-eye line and the horizontal line was 80°, 65°, and 50°, respectively. Peak exploratory flow rates (PEFRs) pre-HT/CL, post-HT/CL #1, and post-HT/CL #2 positions were recorded continuously at 1-minute intervals (one set). Five sets of measurements were performed (total, 15 measurements for each participant). RESULTS: We analysed 900 measurements (180 sets). The mean PEFRs pre-HT/CL, post-HT/CL #1, and post-HT/CL #2 positions were 348.4 ± 96.9, 366.4 ± 104.9, and 378.8 ± 111.2 L/min (percentage change compared to pre-HT/CL, 5.2% and 8.7%), respectively. Significant differences were observed among pre-HT/CL, post-HT/CL #1, and post-HT/CL #2 positions in all participants, as well as in subgroup classified according to sex, and medians of height, body weight, and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a greater HT/CL angle would be beneficial, as the PEFR increased gradually. The decreasing manner in the PEFR increase with the HT/CL angle implies the existence of an angle threshold beyond which there were no further benefits in airflow, indicating a minimum in airway resistance. A HT/CL maneuver may be appropriate until locking the atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints in extension occurs and the chest (sternal notch) begins to rise.


Assuntos
Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Teste da Mesa Inclinada/métodos , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(3): 308-313, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of asthma is confirmed with a spirometry: FEV1 ratio (forced expiratory volume in one second)/FVC (forced vital capacity) <80% with reversibility (FEV1 >12% or 200 mL) after using salbutamol. The peak expiratory flow is cheap and easy to use; it measures the forced expiratory flow, of which reversibility > 20% suggests asthma. OBJECTIVE: To know the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the flowmeter. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational, comparative study. Individuals aged >18 years without contraindications for spirometry were included. They underwent spirometry and peak expiratory flow, and the ACT (Asthma Control Test) questionnaire was applied to them. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the flowmetry were calculated. ROC curve was carried out in order to know the cut-off point of greater sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Of 150 patients, 66% were male; the median age was 38 years. According to the guidelines of GINA 2018 (Global Initiative for Asthma); 58.7% were controlled. The sensitivity of the peak expiratory flow was 47%, and the specificity was 87%, with a positive predictive value of 54.8% and a negative predictive value of 84%. The peak expiratory flow showed higher specificity with FEV1 <59%. The cut-off point of greater sensitivity and specificity was a reversibility of 8%, with an area under the curve of 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The flowmeter has got greater sensitivity in airway obstructions; it is useful when a spirometer is not available.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Espirometria , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16637, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to explore the efficacy of tiotropium in treating patients with moderate-to-severe asthma on the basis of qualified randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: The following online electronic databases, such as Cochrane, PubMed, and Embase database were screened to identify qualified studies updated to January 2019 through the use of index words. Several literatures that were relevant to the present analysis were also included. To further analyze the main outcomes, we utilized the odds rations (OR), and mean difference (MD) along with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of 14 RCTs with 4998 patients in the tiotropium group and 5074 patients in the control group were included in the present study. On the basis of the pooled results, tiotropium was significantly associated with improved morning PEF (SMD: 3.29, 95%CI: 2.03-4.55), evening PEF (SMD: 3.36, 95%CI: 2.24-4.48), peak FEV (SMD: 2.67, 95%CI: 1.47-3.88), and trough FEV (SMD: 1.90, 95%CI: 0.87-2.92) vs the control group. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in peak FVC (SMD: 0.77, 95%CI: -0.21-1.76), trough FVC (SMD: 0.67, 95%CI: -0.18-1.53), AE (RR: 0.98, 95%CI: 0.94-1.02) and serious AE (RR: 1.08, 95%CI: 0.77-1.52) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we summarized the significant effect of tiotropium for the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma, mainly in increasing morning PEF, evening PEF, peak FEV and trough FEV based on high-quality RCTs. Nevertheless, no significant difference in peak FVC, trough FVC, AE and serious AE was found between the 2 groups. A close comparison of the 2 groups revealed that more high-quality larger-sample RCTs are needed to gather more strong evidence on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of tiotropium for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Asma/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(4): e20180232, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of spirometry in elderly people, by age group, at a pulmonary function clinic, to assess the quality of spirometry in the extremely elderly, and to determine whether chronological age influences the quality of spirometry. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study evaluating information (spirometry findings and respiratory questionnaire results) obtained from the database of a pulmonary function clinic in the city of Aracaju, Brazil, for the period from January of 2012 to April of 2017. In the sample as a whole, we determined the total number of spirometry tests performed, and the frequency of the tests in individuals ≥ 60 years of age, ≥ 65 years of age, and by decade of age, from age 60 onward. In the extremely elderly, we evaluated the quality of spirometry using criteria of acceptability and reproducibility, as well as examining the variables that can influence that quality, such a cognitive deficit. RESULTS: The sample comprised a total of 4,126 spirometry tests. Of those, 961 (23.30%), 864 (20.94%), 102 (2.47%), and 26 (0.63%) were performed in individuals ≥ 60, ≥ 65, ≥ 86, and ≥ 90 years of age (defined as extreme old age), respectively. In the extremely elderly, the criteria for acceptability and reproducibility were met in 88% and 60% of the spirometry tests (95% CI: 75.26-100.00 and 40.80-79.20), respectively. The cognitive deficit had a negative effect on acceptability and reproducibility (p ≤ 0.015 and p ≤ 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of elderly individuals undergo spirometry, especially at ≥ 85 years of age, and the majority of such individuals are able to perform the test in a satisfactory manner, despite their advanced age. However, a cognitive deficit could have a negative effect on the quality of spirometry.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Espirometria/normas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Doenças Respiratórias/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Espirometria/métodos , Espirometria/psicologia , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 148, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygen toxicity is one potential side effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Previous small studies showed mild reductions in pulmonary functions reflecting reductions in small airway conductance after repetitive hyperbaric oxygen sessions. However, there are no updated data with well performed pulmonary tests that address the pulmonary effect of the currently used HBOT protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBOT on pulmonary functions of patients receiving the currently used HBOT protocol. METHODS: Prospective analysis included patients, 18 years or older, scheduled for 60 daily HBOT sessions between 2016 and 2018. Each session was 90 min of 100% oxygen at 2 ATA with 5 min air breaks every 20 min, 5 days per week. Pulmonary functions, measured at baseline and after HBOT, included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF). RESULTS: The mean age was 60.36 ± 15.43 and 62.5% (55/88) were males. Most of the patients (83/88, 94.3%) did not have any pulmonary disease prior to inclusion and 30.7% (27/88) had a history of smoking. Compared to baseline values, at the completion of 60 HBOT sessions, there were no significant changes in FEV1 (0.163), FEV1/FVC ratio (0.953) and FEF25-75% (0.423). There was a statistically significant increase though not clinically relevant increase in FVC (0.1 ± 0.38 l) and PEF (0.5 ± 1.4 l) with a 0.014 and 0.001 respectively. CONCLUSION: Regarding pulmonary functions, repeated hyperbaric oxygen exposure based on the currently used HBOT protocol is safe. Surprisingly, there was a modest non clinically significant though statistically significant improvement in PEF and FVC in the current cohort of patients who were without chronic lung diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, trial ID: NCT03754985 , (Nov 2018) Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Pulmão/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Estudos Prospectivos , Capacidade Vital
14.
Egypt J Immunol ; 26(1): 79-89, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332998

RESUMO

Omega-3 fatty acids and sublingual immunotherapy have a considerable interest in the potential therapeutic value in asthmatic patients. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids and sublingual immunotherapy in treating patients with bronchial asthma and evaluate the value of IL17A as a marker for effective treatment. The effect on asthma control test (ACT), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and serum interleukin 17A (IL17A) in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma were measured. A total of 48 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups. Group A included 24 patients treated with sublingual immunotherapy for 6 months and group B, 24 patients given omega-3 fatty acids for 3 months. Serum level of IL17A was measured by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A statistically significant difference was demonstrated in each parameter between before and after treatment (p < 001, for each). Comparison between omega-3 fatty acids and sublingual immunotherapy as regards ACT, PEFR, and FEV1and IL17A showed that omega-3 fatty acids treatment was better than sublingual immunotherapy in decreasing IL17A, but both were effective in decreasing PEFR, FEV1 and ACT. In conclusion, administration of omega-3 fatty acids and sublingual immunotherapy are promising in management of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Humanos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório
15.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 85: 103913, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To correlate peak expiratory flow (PEF) with the incidence of frailty, deaths and falls among nursing home residents. METHODS: This is a 1-year longitudinal analysis performed on the clinical data of the SENIOR cohort. PEF, measured by peak flow meter, was considered as "low" when the observed value was ≤80% of the theoretical value. Physical capacity was evaluated using Short Physical Performance Battery, balance and gait using Tinetti test and muscle strength using a dynamometer. The incidence of frailty was defined as the transition from a "robust" or "prefrail" status to a "frail" status following Fried's criteria. Deaths and falls were also collected. RESULTS: Among 646 subjects included at baseline (83.2 ± 9 years and 72.1% women), 297 (45.7%) displayed a low PEF. In this subgroup, physical capacity (p-values from 0.01 to <0.001), muscle strength (p < 0.001), balance and gait score (p < 0.001) were significantly lower compared to subjects displaying normal PEF. Subjects who became frail after one year displayed a lower % of the theoretical PEF value compared to those that did not (88.52 ± 45.06 vs 102.78 ± 50.29, respectively, p = 0.03). After adjustment for potential confounding variables (calf circumference, Tinetti test, SPPB test and handgrip strength), PEF was no longer associated with the occurrence of frailty. There was no association between PEF and mortality and falls. CONCLUSION: In a nursing home setting, PEF is not an independent factor associated with the incidence of frailty, deaths and falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mortalidade
16.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 69(5): 329-335, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based reviews have found that evidence for the efficacy of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) in the management of occupational asthma (OA) is lacking. AIMS: To quantify the effectiveness of air-fed RPE in workers with sensitizer-induced OA exposed to metal-working fluid aerosols in a car engine and transmission manufacturing facility. METHODS: All workers from an outbreak of metal-working fluid-induced OA who had continuing peak expiratory flow (PEF) evidence of sensitizer-induced OA after steam cleaning and replacement of all metal-working fluid were included. Workers kept 2-hourly PEF measurements at home and work, before and after a strictly enforced programme of RPE with air-fed respirators with charcoal filters. The area-between-curve (ABC) score from the Oasys plotter was used to assess the effectiveness of the RPE. RESULTS: Twenty workers met the inclusion criteria. Records were kept for a mean of 24.6 day shifts and rest days before and 24.7 after the institution of RPE. The ABC score improved from 26.6 (SD 16.2) to 17.7 (SD 25.4) l/min/h (P > 0.05) post-RPE; however, work-related decline was <15 l/min/h in only 12 of 20 workers, despite increased asthma treatment in 5 workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serial PEF measurements assessed with the ABC score from the Oasys system allowed quantification of the effect of RPE in sensitized workers. The RPE reduced falls in PEF associated with work exposure, but this was rarely complete. This study suggests that RPE use cannot be relied on to replace source control in workers with OA, and that monitoring post-RPE introduction is needed.


Assuntos
Asma Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Adulto , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Automóveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório
17.
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 134, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of asthma rehabilitation at high altitude (3100 m, HA) compared to low altitude (760 m, LA). METHODS: For this randomized parallel-group trial insufficiently controlled asthmatics (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) > 0.75) were randomly assigned to 3-week in-hospital rehabilitation comprising education, physical-&breathing-exercises at LA or HA. Co-primary outcomes assessed at 760 m were between group changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF)-variability, and ACQ) from baseline to end-rehabilitation and 3 months thereafter. RESULTS: 50 asthmatics were randomized [median (quartiles) LA: ACQ 2.7(1.7;3.2), PEF-variability 19%(14;33); HA: ACQ 2.0(1.6;3.0), PEF-variability 17%(12;32)]. The LA-group improved PEF-variability by median(95%CI) -7%(- 14 to 0, p = 0.033), ACQ - 1.4(- 2.2 to - 0.9, p < 0.001), and after 3 months by - 3%(- 18 to 2, p = 0.103) and - 0.9(- 1.3 to - 0.3, p = 0.002). The HA-group improved PEF-variability by - 10%(- 21 to - 3, p = 0.004), ACQ - 1.1(- 1.3 to - 0.7, p < 0.001), and after 3 months by - 9%(- 10 to - 3, p = 0.003) and - 0.2(- 0.9 to 0.4, p = 0.177). The additive effect of HA vs. LA directly after the rehabilitation on PEF-variability was - 6%(- 14 to 2), on ACQ 0.3(- 0.4 to 1.1) and after 3 months - 5%(- 14 to 5) respectively 0.4(- 0.4 to 1.1), all p = NS. CONCLUSION: Asthma rehabilitation is highly effective in improving asthma control in terms of PEF-variability and symptoms, both at LA and HA similarly. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02741583, Registered April 18, 2016.


Assuntos
Altitude , Asma/reabilitação , Adulto , Exercícios Respiratórios , Treino Aeróbico , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Treinamento de Resistência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
19.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 159, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary lung function endpoint in clinical trials in adolescent and adult patients with asthma is usually forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The objective of our analysis was to assess whether peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a suitable alternative primary lung function endpoint. METHODS: For this assessment, we calculated post hoc the correlation between pre-dose FEV1 and pre-dose PEF measured under supervision in the clinic and, for both lung function parameters, the correlations between supervised clinic and unsupervised home measurements, using the results from the 8 Phase III parallel-group trials of the global clinical development programme with tiotropium Respimat® in patients with asthma aged 12 to 75 years. RESULTS: Across all 8 trials included in this analysis, changes in lung function from baseline correlated well between pre-dose FEV1 and pre-dose PEF when both were measured under supervision in the clinic. Correlation between supervised in-clinic and unsupervised home measurements was stronger for pre-dose PEF than for pre-dose FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-dose PEF measured at home could be an alternative primary lung function endpoint for trials in adolescent and adult patients with asthma. Using home-measured PEF could facilitate trial conduct and improve the convenience for patients by relocating scheduled assessments from the clinic to the patient's home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Adolescents aged 12 to 17 years: RubaTinA-asthma® ( NCT01257230 ), PensieTinA-asthma® ( NCT01277523 ). Adults aged 18 to 75 years: GraziaTinA-asthma® ( NCT01316380 ), MezzoTinA-asthma® ( NCT01172808 / NCT01172821 ), CadenTinA-asthma® ( NCT01340209 ), PrimoTinA-asthma® ( NCT00772538 / NCT00776984 ). All from Clinicaltrials.gov ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ).


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/métodos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 43(5): 270-280, jun.-jul. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183239

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir las variables relacionadas con la capacidad tusígena efectiva y el estado de la conciencia medidas previo a la decanulación y comparar sus valores medidos entre los diferentes ámbitos de atención como la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), sala general y centros de desvinculación de la ventilación mecánica y rehabilitación (CDVMR). Secundariamente analizar la evolución de los pacientes una vez decanulados. Diseño: Serie de casos, longitudinal y prospectiva. Ámbito: Multicéntrico 31 UCI (polivalentes) y en 5 CDVMR. Pacientes: Adultos traqueostomizados previos a la decanulación. Mediciones: Presión espiratoria máxima, pico flujo espiratorio tosido (PFET), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Resultados: Doscientos siete pacientes decanulados, 124 (60%) en UCI, 59 (28%) en sala general y 24 (12%) en CDVMR. El PFET presentó diferencias entre los pacientes (UCI 110 - 190 l/min versus CDVMR 167,5 - 232,5 l/min; p<0,01). El GCS fue diferente entre la sala general (9 -15) versus UCI (10- 15) y CDVMR (12 - 15); p<0,01 y p<0,01, respectivamente. Hubo diferencias en los días de internación (p<0,01), los días con traqueostomía (<0,01) y la cantidad de pacientes derivados a domicilio (p=0,02) entre los distintos escenarios. Conclusión: Existen diferencias en los valores medidos de PFET y GCS entre los diferentes ámbitos. Una considerable cantidad de pacientes son decanulados con valores de PFET y presión espiratoria máxima por debajo de los puntos de corte sugeridos como predictores de falla en la literatura. Ningún paciente de nuestra serie fue decanulado con un SCG <8 puntos, esto refleja la importancia que le otorga el equipo tratante al estado de conciencia al momento de la decanulación


Objective: To describe the variables related to effective cough capacity and the state of consciousness measured prior to decannulation and compare their measured values between the different areas of care such as the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), General ward and Mechanical Ventilation Weaning and Rehabilitation Centers (MVWRC). Secondarily analyze the evolution of patients once decannulated. Design: Case series, longitudinal and prospective. Scope: Multicentric 31 ICUs (polyvalent) and 5 MVWRC. Patients: Tracheostomized adults prior to decannulation. Measurements: Maximum expiratory pressure, peak expiratory flow coughed (PEFC), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Results: Two hundred and seven decannulated patients, 124 (60%) in ICU, 59 (28%) General ward and 24 (12%) in MVWRC. The PEFC presented differences between the patients (ICU 110 - 190 l/min versus MVWRC 167.5 - 232.5 l/min, p <.01). The GCS was different between General ward (9 -15) versus ICU (10-15) and MVWRC (12-15); p <.01 and p <.01, respectively. There were differences in the days of hospitalization (p <.01), days with tracheostomy (<0.01) and the number of patients referred at home (p =.02) between the different scenarios. Conclusion: There are differences in the values of PEFC and GCS observed when decannulating between different areas. A considerable number of patients are decannulated with values of PEFC and maximum expiratory pressure below the suggested cut-off points as predictors of failure in the literature. No patient in our series was decanulated with an GCS <8, this reflects the importance that the treating team gives to the state of consciousness prior to decannulation


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Força Muscular , Estado de Consciência , Estudos Longitudinais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas/métodos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Estudos Prospectivos , Cateterismo/instrumentação , Coma/diagnóstico
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