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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995599

RESUMO

Techno-biofunctional characteristics of nanoemulsion and (nano)emulgel loaded with mangostin extracts were elucidated. Crude mangostins from mangosteen peels recovered by virgin coconut oil (VCO), mixed VCO and propylene glycol (PG), and pure PG were used. The extracts were loaded in the dispersed phase in the presence of mixed surfactants (Tween20/Span20) with a varying hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) from 10.2 to 15.1. Results showed that globular and uniformly distributed droplets of the nanoemulsion were observed. The small particle sizes (typically 18-62 nm) with the zeta potential of -39 to -54.5 mV were obtained when mixed emulsifiers with HLB values of 12.6 and 15.1 were employed. With HLB values of 12.6 and 15.1, nanoemulsions loaded with mangostin extracts prepared with mixed VCO-PG and pure PG-based extracts showed approximately a 2 to 3-fold lower droplet size diameter when compared with the VCO-based extract. For the stability test, all nanoemulsions were stable over three freeze-thaw cycles with some changes in pH, zeta potential, and droplet size. The DPPH● scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, reducing power and antibacterial activities (E. coli and S. aureus) of the nanoemulsions were greater than their corresponding bulk extracts. Nanoemulgels produced by embedding the nanoemulsions in a hydrogel matrix was homogeneous and creamy yellow-white in appearance. The nanoemulgels had a higher mangostin release (87-92%) than their normal emulgels (74-78%). Therefore, this study presented the feasibility of nanoemulsions and nanoemulgels loaded with mangostin extracts as a promising delivery system for bioactive polyphenol in food supplements, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Xantonas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Óleo de Coco/química , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos/química , Picratos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Propilenoglicol/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Xantonas/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783509

RESUMO

In the present study, aqueous extracts of Salvia africana, Salvia officinalis 'Icterina' and Savia mexicana origin were screened for their phenolic composition and for antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. The three aqueous extracts contained distinct phenolic compounds, with S. africana presenting the highest total levels (231.6 ± 7.5 µg/mg). Rosmarinic acid was the dominant phenolic compound in all extracts, yet that of S. africana origin was characterized by the present of yunnaneic acid isomers, which overall accounted for about 40% of total phenolics. In turn, S. officinalis 'Icterina' extract presented glycosidic forms of apigenin, luteolin and scuttelarein, and the one obtained from S. mexicana contained several simple caffeic acid derivatives. S. africana aqueous extract exhibited high antioxidant potential in four methods, namely the DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging ability, iron-reducing power, inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching and of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), for which EC50 values were equal or only 1.3-3.1 higher than those of the standard compounds. Moreover, this extract was able to lower the levels of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (EC50 = 47.8 ± 2.1 µg/mL). In addition, the three sage aqueous extracts showed promising cytotoxic effect towards hepatocellular HepG2, cervical HeLa, and breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. Overall this study highlights the potential of three little-exploited Salvia species, with commercial value for applications in food or pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Salvia officinalis/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Cinamatos/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Depsídeos/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Picratos/química , Picratos/farmacologia , Salvia officinalis/metabolismo
3.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 1949-1956, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813857

RESUMO

The caryopses (seeds) of Echinochloa colona Link of family Poaceae are traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice. The methanolic extract of caryopses of Echinochloa colona (ECME) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol (3g/kg per oral) and ethanol (5g/kg per oral) intoxicated rats while its antihepatotoxic activity against D-galactosamine (400mg/kg body weight intra peritoneal). The activity of the extract was assessed on the basis of improvement in the altered level of various serum biochemical parameters and in the changes occurred in the histology of liver of the rats. The extract was also investigated for its antioxidant potential by employing different in vitro methods. The extract exhibited ferrous ion reducing power, 1,1 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The significant (p<0.001) hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities exhibited by the extract ECME, in different in vivo models and in vitro studies respectively may be attributed to the flavonoids and phenolic compounds present in the extract.


Assuntos
Echinochloa/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Galactosamina/farmacologia , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanol/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos , Superóxidos/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817887

RESUMO

Grape seed extract (GSE) displays strong antioxidant activity, but its instability creates barriers to its applications. Herein, three HP-ß-CD/GSE inclusion complexes with host-guest ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 were successfully prepared by co-precipitation method to improve stability. Successful embedding of GSE in the HP-ß-CD cavity was confirmed by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The Autodock Tools 1.5.6 was used to simulate the three-dimensional supramolecular structure of the inclusion complex of 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and grape seed extract (HP-ß-CD/GSE) by molecular docking. The MALDI-TOF-MS technology and chemical database Pubchem, and structural database PDB were combined to reconstitute the three-dimensional structure of target protein. The binding mode of the HP-ß-CD/GSE inclusion complex to target protein was studied at the molecular level, and the antioxidant ability of the resulting HP-ß-CD/GSE inclusion complexes was investigated by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. The effects of HP-ß-CD/GSE on myofibrillar protein from lamb tripe were also investigated under oxidative conditions. The positions and interactions of the binding sites of HP-ß-CD/GSE inclusion complexes and target protein receptors were simulated by molecular docking. The results showed that HP-ß-CD/GSE inclusion complexes were successfully prepared, optimally at a molar ratio of 1:2. At low (5 µmol/g) to medium (105 µmol/g) concentrations, HP-ß-CD/GSE inclusion complexes decreased the carbonyl content, hydrophobicity, and protein aggregation of myofibrillar protein from lamb tripe, and increased the sulphydryl content. Furthermore, high concentration (155 µmol/g) of HP-ß-CD/GSE inclusion complexes promoted protein oxidation.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Miofibrilas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Picratos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
5.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412565

RESUMO

Twenty commercially available oenological tannins (including hydrolysable and condensed) were assessed for their antiradical/reducing activity, comparing two analytical approaches: The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging spectrophotometric assay and the cyclic voltammetry (CV) electrochemical method. Electrochemical measurements were performed over a -200 mV-500 mV scan range, and integrated anodic currents to 500 mV were used to build a calibration graph with (+)-catechin as a reference standard (linear range: From 0.0078 to 1 mM, R2 = 0.9887). The CV results were compared with the DPPH• assay (expressed as % of radical scavenged in time), showing high correlation due to the similarity of the chemical mechanisms underlying both methods involving polyphenolic compounds as reductants. Improved correlation was observed by increasing the incubation time with DPPH• to 24 h (R2 = 0.925), demonstrating that the spectrophotometric method requires a long-term incubation to complete the scavenging reaction when high-molecular weight tannins are involved; this constraint has been overcome by using instant CV measurements. We concluded that the CV represents a valid alternative to the DPPH• colorimetric assay, taking advantage of fast analysis and control on the experimental conditions and, because of these properties, it can assist the quality control along the supply chain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Picratos/química , Taninos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314739

RESUMO

Background In this study, the hematological and antioxidant potential as well as the osmotic fragility effects of a Nigerian polyherbal formulation were evaluated. Materials and methods A total of 40 fats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as the control group, and the rest were assigned increasing daily oral administration of the extract for 28 days. At the end of treatment, blood was collected for hematological and osmotic fragility studies. The free radical scavenging effect of the extract was investigated via different in vitro models as well. Results Results showed that the nitric oxide scavenging and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activities of the extract were significant (p < 0.05) and compared favorably with that of vitamin C. At 200 and 400 µg/mL, the nitric oxide scavenging activities for Ajumbise Polyherbal Extract (APE) were 60.71 ± 0.25% and 59.49 ± 0.98%, respectively, whereas for the same concentrations of vitamin C, 74.60 ± 0.25% and 85.24 ± 0.14 scavenging activities were obtained. The (DPPH) activity at 100 µg/mL was 81.24 ± 0.02% for the extract and 96.22 ± 0.18% for vitamin C. However, at all concentrations, the extract had significantly lower Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity than vitamin C. Red blood cell counts (RBCC), hemoglobin and packed cell volume values (PCV) were significantly lowered only in groups treated with 400 and 800 mg/kg of the extract (p < 0.05), whereas other RBCC parameters and white blood cell counts (WBCC) were not significantly affected (p < 0.05). Platelet (PLT) count was also significantly lowered in all extract-treated groups. The extract also significantly reduced RBCC percentage hemolysis (p < 0.05). Conclusions Ajumbise polyherbal may be free of hematoxicity and may improve the integrity of the RBC membrane due to its appreciable antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fragilidade Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hematologia/métodos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Picratos/farmacologia , Ratos
7.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117291

RESUMO

Obcordata A (OA) is a polyoxypregnane glycoside derived from the Dai medicine Aspidopterys obcordata vines. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of OA on renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to calcium oxalate crystals. We incubated renal tubular cells with 28 µg·cm2 calcium oxalate crystals for 24 h with and without OA, GKT137831, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), and tocopherol. The MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, microscopic examination, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining revealed that calcium oxalate crystals decreased cell viability and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. OA, GKT137831, and tocopherol protected cells and decreased ROS levels. However, OA did not exhibit direct DPPH scavenging ability. In addition, immunoblotting illustrated that OA inhibited the NOX4 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases 4) expression and downregulated the protein expression in the NOX4/ROS/p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. The findings suggest that the cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of OA can be blocked by the NOX4 agonist PMA. In conclusion, OA could be used as a NOX4 inhibitor to prevent kidney stones.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Oxalato de Cálcio/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Cálculos Renais/genética , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Malpighiaceae/química , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres de Forbol/farmacologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Saponinas/química , Tocoferóis/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 128: 89-96, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946873

RESUMO

Defatted-sesame meal (DSM), a byproduct of sesame oil, has attracted considerable interest in the food industry because of its strong antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to measure the content and distribution of lignans in DSM and evaluate their antioxidant activity after thermal processing and in vitro digestion. The results showed that the sesame lignans (SL) content and antioxidant activity were significantly influenced by the temperature and time during thermal preparation, and the maximum antioxidant potency composite index (ACI) was obtained after roasting the samples at 240 °C for 20 min. As sesame seed was processed with longer time and higher temperature, more pinoresinol diglucoside (PD) and sesamol were measured in DSM. According to the correlation matrix under thermal preparation, a significant contribution to the antioxidant potency of DSM was discovered. After in vitro digestion, the release amount of lignans increased by 19.6%, and the values of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ACI gradually declined after digestion, with a 40% decrease in both the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the ACI from oral to intestinal phase. These results could be used to help improve the bioavailability of SL and obtaining high quality sesame byproducts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Sementes/metabolismo , Sesamum/embriologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Lignanas/metabolismo , Lignanas/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Picratos/farmacologia
9.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 164-170, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835044

RESUMO

Capsaicin is a spicy capsaicinoid, produced as secondary metabolite by Capsicum fruits. This alkaloid has been used for years in folk medicine for its analgesic and antinflammatory properties although most data is referred to the raw fruit. In this study, the antiradical activity of the pure capsaicin has been studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays as well as its antiproliferative activity, using MTT assay, against two human tumour cell lines, the colorectal Caco-2 and the oesophageal OE19 cells. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity observed on tumoral cells was compared with that of the human normal-like fibroblast cell line TelCOFS02MA. In addition, the apoptotic activity was evaluated using TUNEL assay. A higher radical scavenging activity was observed against ABTS radical cation than DPPH. Capsaicin showed also a higher cytotoxicity against cancer cells than normal-like cells with Selectivity index values greater than 2 at 72 h. Capsaicin induced apoptosis especially in OE19 cell line.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Capsicum/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Picratos/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
10.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591631

RESUMO

Cinnamomum yabunikkei H.Ohba leaf is known as a traditional medicinal material in Korea. However, no scientific identification of the components or efficacy of C.yabunikkei H.Ohba leaf has been reported. In the present study, we prepared various solvent extracts of C.yabunikkei H.Ohba leaf to understand its basic properties and evaluated the antioxidant, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and elastase inhibitory activities of hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water extracts for the first time. The antioxidant properties were evaluated based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and total phenolic contents. The hot water extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents, and the reducing power was the highest in the water extract. The hexane extract showed an excellent elastase inhibitory effect compared to control (phosphoramidone) and the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. These results present basic information for the possible uses of the hot water and hexane extracts from C. yabunikkei leaf for the treatment of diseases caused by oxidative imbalance. In the present study, individual extracts exhibited different effects. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the applicability of C. yabunikkei will depend on the extraction method and nature of the extract. The hot water and hexane extracts could be used as antioxidants, and as anti-gout and anti-wrinkle materials respectively. Several biologically active substances present in hexane extract of C. yabunikkei have been analyzed by GCMS and demonstrated to possess antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the chemical profiling and biological effects of various C. yabunikkei leaf extracts, suggesting their potential use in food therapy, cosmetics or alternative medicine.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591660

RESUMO

The effects of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa) as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents on shelf life extension of sardines (Sardina pilchardus) were evaluated over a period of 5 days at 7 ± 1 °C. Treatments consisted of the addition of 5% and 10% w/w pecan nut, 5% w/w roselle flower and a combination of 5% of each. Physicochemical (lipid oxidation, fatty acids, hexanal and biogenic amines), sensory and microbiological characteristics of fish samples were periodically analyzed. All treatments effectively improved physicochemical quality parameters, with 10% w/w pecan nut having the highest effectiveness. The presence of roselle flower reduced microbial growth. Our findings suggest that addition of a natural preservative combining pecan nut and roselle flower may extend the shelf life of fresh sardines during chilled storage while maintaining quality indexes.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carya/química , Peixes/fisiologia , Flores/química , Hibiscus/química , Nozes/química , Aldeídos , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/farmacologia , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 5201786, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581856

RESUMO

This study intended to improve physiological characteristics of Magnolia officinalis bark (MOB) extracts by Aspergillus niger fermentation. M. officinalis bark was extracted using distilled water, 95% ethanol, and methanol, and it was then fermented by A. niger. The physiological characteristics of the fermented extracts, namely, tyrosinase inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, and anti-skin-aging activity, were evaluated and compared with those of unfermented extracts. To determine the safety of the fermented extracts, their cytotoxicity was analyzed by measuring the cell viability of CCD-966SK and human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) after exposure. The fermented methanol extract exhibited the highest antityrosinase activity, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content of the extracts fermented by A. niger was 3.52 times greater than that of the unfermented extracts. The optimal IC50 values for tyrosinase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) removal by the A. niger-fermented extracts were 30 and 12 µg/mL, respectively. The fermented methanol extracts inhibited skin-aging-related enzymes such as collagenase, elastase, MMP-1, and MMP-2. Compared with the unfermented extracts, the fermented extracts also contained greater antibacterial activity against tested stains including MRSA. These results could be attributed to an increase in the concentration of original active compounds and the biosynthesis of new compounds during fermentation. In cytotoxicity assays, the A. niger-fermented extracts were nontoxic to CCD-966SK cells, even at 500 µg/mL. Hence, in general, methanol-extracted M. officinalis fermented by A. niger for 72 h has the most active antioxidant, skincare, or antiaging compounds for healthy food or cosmetics applications.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnolia/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Epidérmicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
13.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586899

RESUMO

Fructose and its polysaccharides are widely found in fruits and vegetables, with the Maillard reaction of fructose affecting food quality. This study aimed to investigate the Maillard reaction of fructose using a fructose⁻histidine model system. The reaction process was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. The effects of temperature, initial reactant concentration, initial fructose concentration, initial histidine concentration, and initial pH value on the different stages of the Maillard reaction were studied. Reactant reduction, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectra, acetic acid content, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) content, and browning intensity were evaluated. The results showed that increasing the temperature and reactant concentration promoted the condensation reaction of fructose and amino acid in the early stage, the formation of intermediate products with ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence in the intermediate stage, and the formation of pigment in the final stage. The 5-HMF concentration decreased with increasing histidine concentration and initial pH value. Changes in the shape of ultraviolet and fluorescence spectra showed that the initial pH value affected not only the reaction rate, but also the intermediate product types. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging rate of the Maillard reaction products increased with increasing temperature, reactant concentration, and initial pH value.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutose/química , Histidina/química , Reação de Maillard , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido Acético/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Picratos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Temperatura
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(4): 3887-3891, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517224

RESUMO

Chronic stress exposure commonly increases adrenals weight and changes their morphology. This study aimed to compare four methods to delimitate the cortical and medullary layers of adrenals glands in Nelore bulls. Fresh adrenals did not present differentiation between layers. Then, frozen adrenals were distributed in plastics bags with fixative Bouin (G1), 96ºGL ethylic alcohol (G2), 10% formaldehyde (G3), or 2.5% glutaraldehyde (G4). After 12 hours of fixation, the G1 adrenal glands did not show the entire cortical layer marked by Bouin's solution. For G2 and G3 there was a poor contrast, while for G4 there was a reasonable contrast. After 24 hours of fixation, G1 had an excellent contrast between layers, while G2 and G4 had a reasonable contrast and G3 a very bad contrast. After 48 hours it was difficult to differentiate cortical and medullar layers for G1; for Group 2 we get a reasonable contrast; and for G3 the contrast was bad. For G4 the contrast was not as sharp due to the medulla became dark. It was concluded that fixation of adrenals must be done in Bouin's solution for 24 hours to obtain an effective evaluation of the adrenals' morphometry.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Fixadores/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Glutaral/farmacologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos
15.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518166

RESUMO

Plum edible part was used to obtained extracts by during a 4 h maceration process using three different solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids, antioxidant capacity by (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hemolysis inhibition in human blood assays. Subsequently, phenolic compounds were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS). The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of plum fruit being a good source of phenolic (12⁻18 mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (2.3⁻2.5 mg QE/g FW) content in both varieties of plum. Also, the fruits proved a good source of antioxidants as measured by DPPH and ABTS; likewise, plum aqueous extracts showed the highest protective effect on human erythrocytes with 74.34 and 64.62% for yellow and red plum, respectively. A total of 23 bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-MS, including gallic acid, rutin, resorcinol, chlorogenic acid, catechin, and ellagic acid, and the antioxidant capacity can be attributed to these species. The edible part of plum contains compounds of biological interest, suggesting that this fruit has antioxidant potential that can be exploited for various technologies.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Compostos de Bifenilo , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis , Picratos , Prunus domestica/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Rutina/isolamento & purificação , Rutina/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
16.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586844

RESUMO

The present study examined the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Apple juice was fermented and examined of its antioxidant activity using chemical models and cellular antioxidant assay. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented apple juice was characterized by LC-MS/MS. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation showed an increase in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity as well as cellular antioxidant activity of apple juice. However, fermentation decreased the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis of the phenolic profile indicated that the content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), quercetin, and phloretin with strong antioxidant activity was increased significantly after fermentation. The modified phenolic composition may contribute to the increased antioxidant activity of fermented apple juice. Our findings showed that Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation may be an efficient way to enhance the bioavailability of phenolic compounds and to protect cells from oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fermentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Malus/química , Animais , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Frutose/análise , Glucose/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 28(7): 1052-1060, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913548

RESUMO

Numerous studies suggest that the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on oxidative stress in vivo are correlated with their antioxidative activities in vitro; however, the relationship is still unclear and contradictory. The antioxidative activities of 27 Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from fermented foods were determined in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide radical scavenging abilities, reducing activity, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, and ferrous chelating ability in vitro. Two fuzzy synthetic evaluation models, one with an analytic hierarchy process and one using entropy weight, were then used to evaluate the overall antioxidative abilities of these L. plantarum strains. Although there was some difference between the two models, the highest scoring strain (CCFM10), the middle scoring strain (CCFM242), and the lowest scoring strain (RS15-3) were obtained with both models. Examination of the antioxidative abilities of these three strains in D-galactose-induced oxidative stress mice demonstrated that their overall antioxidative abilities in vitro could reveal the abilities to alleviate oxidative stress in vivo. The current study suggests that assessment of overall antioxidative abilities with fuzzy synthetic models can guide the evaluation of probiotic antioxidants. It might be a more quick and effective method to evaluate the overall antioxidative abilities of LAB.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Quelantes/toxicidade , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Galactose , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Radical Hidroxila/farmacologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos/farmacologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 116: 409-416, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730002

RESUMO

Monascus purpureus is known to produce several coloured secondary metabolites. In this study, M. purpureus CFR 410-11 mutant fermented with rice was dried and extracted in hexane for purification of pigment. The purity of the isolated pigment was confirmed by different chromatography techniques. The spectroscopic analysis revealed its structural identity as rubropunctatin. The antioxidant potencies of isolated rubropunctatin were evaluated. Rubropunctatin scavenged 16% 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and inhibited 20% superoxide generation at 8 µg/ml concentration. The multiple antioxidant abilities of rubropunctatin were evidenced by its ferric reducing capacity also. The oxidative damage of BSA protein was induced by the metal catalyzed oxidation (MCO) by Fe2+/H2O2. The protective effects of rubropunctatin and M. purpureus (MTCC-410 and CFR 410-11) extracts were compared with glutathione and ascorbic acid. The M. purpureus extracts and rubropunctatin inhibited the formation of carbonyl content and protein oxidation assayed by SDS-PAGE. Rubropunctatin (42-169 µM) efficiently inhibited the protein oxidation compared to glutathione (48-195 µM) and ascorbic acid (85-340 µM) by scavenging the superoxide and hydroxyl radical generated in the system.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Metais/efeitos adversos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Monascus/química , Oryza/química , Oryza/microbiologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Superóxidos/metabolismo
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 116: 120-127, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730012

RESUMO

Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) possesses various health-promoting functions. However, the available information regarding biological activity of polysaccharides from FBT (FBTPS) is still limited. In this work, the chemical property, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of FBTPS were evaluated. It was found that FBTPSs were typical acidic heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of Man, Rha, GalA, Glc, Gal and Ara with little molar content of Rib and GlcA. FBTPS showed little toxicity to human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cell. FBTPS exhibited antioxidant activities, including limited scavenging activity on DPPH free radicals (ranged from 54.3 ±â€¯1.9 to 67.8 ±â€¯2.5%), noticeable scavenging activity on superoxide radicals (over 85%), superior scavenging activity on ABTS radicals (near 100%), and protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative injury in rat pheochromocytoma line 12 (PC12) cell. Moreover, FBTPS showed significant amelioration of high-fat diet-induced oxidative injury in mice. The results suggest that FBTPS, as natural safe antioxidants, may have potential application in functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
20.
Microb Pathog ; 118: 126-132, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550502

RESUMO

The desideratum aim of the present context was to isolate a promising antagonist probiotic bacterium from fermented food item as biocontrol agent against uropathogens. Among diversified isolates evaluated for antagonistic trait, Staphylococcus succinus strain AAS2 was found to be an auspicious candidate against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacterial pathogens, being the most active against Staphylococcus aureus with substantial activity of 352.5 ±â€¯5.4 AU/mL. Further, the in vitro probiotic attributes of strain AAS2 were assessed using systematic methodology. The isolate exhibited tolerance to acidic condition (up to pH 3.0) and simulated gastric juice (at pH 3.0) with fairly high survival logarithmic cell counts of 5.3 ±â€¯0.15 and 5.23 ±â€¯0.02 log cfu/mL, respectively. Additionally, strain AAS2 showed capability to resist 0.5% w/v bile salt too. It also revealed significant values of auto-aggregation (32.5 ±â€¯1.3-56.5 ±â€¯1.4%) and cell surface hydrophobicity (38.35 ±â€¯1.4%) properties. The isolate showed resistivity towards phenol (6.8 ±â€¯0.08 log cfu/mL) and lysozyme (58.6 ±â€¯1.6%). Further, the susceptibility trait of strain AAS2 to conventional antibiotics made this isolate a promising probiotic bacterium. Most importantly, the isolate depicted DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in a concentration dependent manner, thereby exhibiting its propitious antioxidative properties. In a nutshell, the outcomes of this investigation divulge the plausible use of S. succinus strain AAS2 as biocontrol agent against uropathogens, and recommended further applications in pharmaceutics due to its pronounced probiotic traits.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Probióticos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Suco Gástrico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Radical Hidroxila/farmacologia , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Muramidase/farmacologia , Fenol/farmacologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
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