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1.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.11, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056089

RESUMO

A new species of Bessierus Thomas Orth, formerly a monotypic genus, is described from Amapá State, Brazil. The type species of the genus, B. doloris Thomas Orth, had only its nymphs described until recently, when its male imago was associated to nymphs mainly based on pigmentation pattern. Bessierus riobranco sp. n. here described has no significant difference on pigmentation pattern from B. doloris, thus the new species could be the male imago of B. doloris, and the putative imago of B. doloris a new species, or even both described imagoes could be new species. Still, a new male imago existence cannot be neglected and we opted to provide a properly description, diagnosis and illustration, hence contributing to the knowledge of mayfly neotropical diversity and future research on the genus. The generic concept of Bessierus and its type species diagnoses are altered to accommodate the new species, and a new record of B. doloris is provided.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Ninfa , Pigmentação
2.
Zootaxa ; 4816(3): zootaxa.4816.3.10, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055698

RESUMO

The term 'melanism' means the occurrence of variant(s) that is/are mostly or completely dark in pigmentation either as intraspecific polymorphisms or as fixed differences between closely related species. Melanism can refer to variation involving discrete melanic and non-melanic phenotypes (melanic and typical morphs) or to cases of continuously varying pigmentation (True 2003). Melanism of moths inhabiting areas with industrial pollution is a very well-known example involving melanic polymorphisms in insects. However, melanism is also known in other insect orders, e.g. Coleoptera and Diptera (Majerus 1998, True 2003).


Assuntos
Besouros , Heterópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Pigmentação
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201894, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900312

RESUMO

Some camouflaged animals hide colour signals and display them only transiently. These hidden colour signals are often conspicuous and are used as a secondary defence to warn or startle predators (deimatic displays) and/or to confuse them (flash displays). The hidden signals used in these displays frequently resemble typical aposematic signals, so it is possible that prey with hidden signals have evolved to employ colour patterns of a form that predators have previously learned to associate with unprofitability. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting two experiments that examined the effect of predator avoidance learning on the efficacy of deimatic and flash displays. We found that the survival benefits of both deimatic and flash displays were substantially higher against predators that had previously learned to associate the hidden colours with unprofitability than against naive predators. These findings help explain the phenological patterns we found in 1568 macro-lepidopteran species on three continents: species with hidden signals tend to occur later in the season than species without hidden signals.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Pigmentação , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estações do Ano
4.
Braz Dent J ; 31(4): 440-444, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901722

RESUMO

Posterior build-ups are auxiliary devices to orthodontic treatment which are made with resin-based or glass ionomer composites. Their removal requires care to protect the tooth surface, therefore, pigmented materials are preferred for a better visualization. This study proposed a pigmentation experimental technique of a regular composite resin, evaluating the microshear bond strength test (µ-SBT) of this experimental pigmented resin and comparing with a blue-colored polyacid-modified composite resin, used for posterior buildups. Forty-eight buccal and lingual surfaces of human teeth were used and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=12). The groups were divided into: C (control), regular composite resin; P, regular composite resin pigmented; UBL, Ultra Band Lok™; OB, Ortho Bite™. The composites were bonded using a matrix to obtain microcylinders and prepared for each experimental groups. The samples were then stored in distilled water for 24h at 37°C followed by a µ-SBT. The types of bond failures were evaluated using a stereoscopic magnifying glass (10×). The data were analyzed by ANOVA with Fisher post hoc and Dunnett´s test. Means of µ-SBT± standard deviation (MPa) were: C (39.98a±13.0), P (40.09a± 14.3); UBL (33.26ab±8.6); OB (28.70b±5.5). The most prevalent type of failure was adhesive (80.4%). Further, was not observed a statistically significant correlation between the bond strength values and failure patterns. The pigmentation of a commercially available resin did not alter the µ-SBT and exhibited similar adhesiveness as a polyacid-modified composite resin.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Colagem Dentária , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Pigmentação , Cimentos de Resina
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201687, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933448

RESUMO

Carotenoid pigments produce most red, orange and yellow colours in vertebrates. This coloration can serve as an honest signal of quality that mediates social and mating interactions, but our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control carotenoid signal production, including how different physiological pathways interact to shape and maintain these signals, remains incomplete. We investigated the role of testosterone in mediating gene expression associated with a red plumage sexual signal in red-backed fairywrens (Malurus melanocephalus). In this species, males within a single population can flexibly produce either red/black nuptial plumage or female-like brown plumage. Combining correlational analyses with a field-based testosterone implant experiment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we show that testosterone mediates expression of carotenoid-based plumage in part by regulating expression of CYP2J19, a ketolase gene associated with ketocarotenoid metabolism and pigmentation in birds. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that hormonal regulation of a specific genetic locus has been linked to carotenoid production in a natural context, revealing how endocrine mechanisms produce sexual signals that shape reproductive success.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Plumas/fisiologia , Passeriformes , Testosterona , Animais , Masculino , Pigmentação
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201456, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933449

RESUMO

To be effective, animal colour signals must attract attention-and therefore need to be conspicuous. To understand the signal function, it is useful to evaluate their conspicuousness to relevant viewers under various environmental conditions, including when visual scenes are cluttered by objects of varying colour. A widely used metric of colour difference (ΔS) is based on the receptor noise limited (RNL) model, which was originally proposed to determine when two similar colours appear different from one another, termed the discrimination threshold (or just noticeable difference). Estimates of the perceptual distances between colours that exceed this threshold-termed 'suprathreshold' colour differences-often assume that a colour's conspicuousness scales linearly with colour distance, and that this scale is independent of the direction in colour space. Currently, there is little behavioural evidence to support these assumptions. This study evaluated the relationship between ΔS and conspicuousness in suprathreshold colours using an Ishihara-style test with a coral reef fish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus. As our measure of conspicuousness, we tested whether fish, when presented with two colourful targets, preferred to peck at the one with a greater ΔS - from the average distractor colour. We found the relationship between ΔS and conspicuousness followed-- a sigmoidal function, with high ΔS colours perceived as equally conspicuous. We found that the relationship between ΔS and conspicuousness varied across colour space (i.e. for different hues). The sigmoidal detectability curve was little affected by colour variation in the background or when colour distance was calculated using a model that does not incorporate receptor noise. These results suggest that the RNL model may provide accurate estimates for perceptual distance for small suprathreshold distance colours, even in complex viewing environments, but must be used with caution with perceptual distances exceeding- -10 ΔS.


Assuntos
Escamas de Animais/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Percepção de Cores , Recifes de Corais , Pigmentação , Tetraodontiformes/fisiologia
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201688, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962546

RESUMO

Tarantulas paradoxically exhibit a diverse palette of vivid coloration despite their crepuscular to nocturnal habits. The evolutionary origin and maintenance of these colours remains mysterious. In this study, we reconstructed the ancestral states of both blue and green coloration in tarantula setae, and tested how these colours correlate with presence of stridulation, urtication and arboreality. Green coloration has probably evolved at least eight times, and blue coloration is probably an ancestral condition that appears to be lost more frequently than gained. While our results indicate that neither colour correlates with the presence of stridulation or urtication, the evolution of green coloration appears to depend upon the presence of arboreality, suggesting that it ptobably originated for and functions in crypsis through substrate matching among leaves. We also constructed a network of opsin homologues across tarantula transcriptomes. Despite their crepuscular tendencies, tarantulas express a considerable diversity of opsin genes-a finding that contradicts current consensus that tarantulas have poor colour vision on the basis of low opsin diversity. Overall, our findings raise the possibility that blue coloration could have ultimately evolved via sexual selection and perhaps proximately be used in mate choice or predation avoidance due to possible sex differences in mate-searching.


Assuntos
Opsinas , Pigmentação , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Cor , Evolução Molecular , Comportamento Predatório , Opsinas de Bastonetes , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881879

RESUMO

Pareiorhaphis hystrix is a widely distributed species, occurring in the upper and middle Uruguay River and in the Taquari River basin, Patos Lagoon system, southern Brazil. Morphological variation has been detected throughout the distribution of P. hystrix, and this work seeks to test the conspecific nature of populations in several occurrence areas. Specimens from six areas in the Uruguay River basin and three in the Taquari River basin were compared. Variance analysis (ANOVA) was performed for the meristic data, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were conducted for morphometric data. Molecular analyses used coI, cytb, 12S and 16S mitochondrial genes, examining nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity, genetic distance, and delimitation of possible multiple species through the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) method. Phylogenetic relationships of studied populations were also investigated through Bayesian inference. While PCA indicated a tendency of overlap between areas, ANOVA and LDA detected a subtle differentiation between populations from the two hydrographic basins. Yet, both latter analyses recovered the population from Pelotas River, a tributary to Uruguay River, as more similar to populations from Taquari River, which is congruent to morphological observations of anterior abdominal plates. The molecular data indicated a nucleotide diversity lower than the haplotypic diversity, suggestive of recent expansion. The concatenated haplotype network points to slight differentiation between areas, with each locality presenting unique and non-shared haplotypes, although with few mutational steps in general. The species delimitation by coalescence analysis suggested the presence of a variable number of OTUs depending on the inclusion or exclusion of an outgroup. In general, the morphological data suggest a subtle variation by river basin, while the genetic data indicates a weak population structuration by hydrographic areas, especially the Chapecó and Passo Fundo rivers. However, there is still not enough differentiation between the specimens to suggest multiple species. The iterative analyses indicate that Pareiorhaphis hystrix is composed of a single, although variable, species.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/anatomia & histologia , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Peixes-Gato/genética , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais , Geografia , Haplótipos/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Pigmentação , Análise de Componente Principal , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
S D Med ; 73(8): 360-365, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809295

RESUMO

A 71-year-old female presented to the ophthalmology clinic with bilateral brown to black pigmentary cysts in the lower palpebral conjunctiva following eight months of 100 mg twice daily oral minocycline therapy for long- standing pyoderma gangrenosum. Minocycline-induced pigmentation has been reported in skin, nails, teeth, mucosa, thyroid, bones, and sclera. To our knowledge, since 1981, only eight cases of minocycline-induced conjunctival pigmentation have been reported, all of which occurred after longer usage and higher cumulative doses of minocycline. The diagnosis could be verified by cobalt blue filter autofluorescence. Too few cases of this benign condition exist to establish management guidelines, risk stratification of minocycline dosage/length of therapy, or other contributing patient-demographic factors. In this case, minocycline discontinuation was recommended, and a two-month follow-up ophthalmologic exam revealed unchanged pigmentation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Túnica Conjuntiva , Minociclina , Transtornos da Pigmentação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Pigmentação , Transtornos da Pigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Pele
10.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(8): 1138-1147, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862260

RESUMO

To examine whether sexually selected traits are particularly sensitive bioindicators of environmental toxicants, we assessed the effects of exposure to environmentally relevant dietary concentrations of the pollutant methylmercury on pigment coloration in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). First, we tested whether effects of methylmercury on coloration were influenced by timing of exposure. Birds were either exposed developmentally (up to 114 days after hatching), as adults (after reaching sexual maturity), or for their entire life. Bill coloration, which is a carotenoid-based, sexually selected trait, was less red in males with lifetime exposure to methylmercury, compared to controls. Neither adult, nor developmental exposure influenced bill color in adult males, with the possible exception of early exposure of nestlings. Among females, where bill color is not under strong sexual selection, neither lifetime nor adult exposure to methylmercury affected bill color. For males and females, there was no effect of either lifetime or adult methylmercury exposure on coloration of back feathers, which is a non-sexually-dimorphic, melanin-based trait that is not likely the result of sexual selection. This study is a comprehensive experimental test of the proposal that sexually selected traits may be particularly useful bioindicators of the stress imposed by environmental toxins such as methylmercury.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Tentilhões , Pigmentação , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluentes Ambientais , Plumas , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201521, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811316

RESUMO

Of all hypotheses advanced for why zebras have stripes, avoidance of biting fly attack receives by far the most support, yet the mechanisms by which stripes thwart landings are not yet understood. A logical and popular hypothesis is that stripes interfere with optic flow patterns needed by flying insects to execute controlled landings. This could occur through disrupting the radial symmetry of optic flow via the aperture effect (i.e. generation of false motion cues by straight edges), or through spatio-temporal aliasing (i.e. misregistration of repeated features) of evenly spaced stripes. By recording and reconstructing tabanid fly behaviour around horses wearing differently patterned rugs, we could tease out these hypotheses using realistic target stimuli. We found that flies avoided landing on, flew faster near, and did not approach as close to striped and checked rugs compared to grey. Our observations that flies avoided checked patterns in a similar way to stripes refutes the hypothesis that stripes disrupt optic flow via the aperture effect, which critically demands parallel striped patterns. Our data narrow the menu of fly-equid visual interactions that form the basis for the extraordinary colouration of zebras.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Pigmentação , Animais , Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Voo Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735598

RESUMO

A new species of Parotocinclus from the upper Rio Paraguaçu, Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern, with irregular dark blotches resulting in a somewhat marble-spotted pattern on head and trunk of most specimens and dorsum of head with a conspicuous V-shaped light mark from tip of snout to nares. The new species is also distinguished from congeners by having the lower lip elongated posteriorly and reaching or surpassing the anterior margin of cleithrum on the pectoral girdle, the canal cheek plate on the ventral surface of the head reduced and with a slightly concave margin, and abdomen covered by small embedded platelets, without contact with each other and not arranged in a line between the pectoral-fin axilla and pelvic-fin origin. The presence of a thick and rough skin in the interradial membrane of pelvic fin exclusively in the females of P. nandae is reported by the first time to occurs in Siluriformes.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/anatomia & histologia , Pigmentação , Animais , Brasil , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Ecossistema , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764803

RESUMO

The egg stage is one of the most critical periods in the life history of silkworms, during which physiological processes such as sex determination, tissue organ formation and differentiation, diapause and pigmentation occur. In addition, egg color gradually emerges around 36h after oviposition. The red egg mutant rep-1, which was recently discovered in the C1(H) wild-type, C1(H) exhibits a brown egg color. In this study, the transcriptome of the eggs was analyzed 36h after oviposition. Between the rep-1 mutant and the C1(H) wild-type, 800 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 325 up-regulated genes and 475 down-regulated genes. These DEGs were mainly involved in biological processes (metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation and regulation of biological process and localization), cellular components (membrane, membrane part, cell, cell part and organelle) and molecular functions (binding, catalytic activity, transporter activity, structural molecule activity and molecular transducer activity). The pathway enrichment of these DEGs was performed based on the KEGG database, and the results indicated that these DEGs were mainly involved in pathways in the following categories: metabolic pathways, longevity-regulating pathway-multiple species, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome, carbon metabolism and purine metabolism. Further analysis showed that a large number of silkworm growth- and development-related genes and ommochrome synthesis- and metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed, most of which were up-regulated in the mutant. Our research findings provide new experimental evidence for research on ommochrome pigmentation and lay the foundation for further research on the mechanism of the rep-1 mutant.


Assuntos
Bombyx/genética , Ovos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Pigmentação , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bombyx/anatomia & histologia , Regulação para Baixo , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Oviposição , Regulação para Cima
14.
Science ; 369(6502): 460-466, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703880

RESUMO

The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here, we show that multiple linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema, we found that a megabase-size "supermutation" has deleted color loci in green morphs. Moreover, we found that balancing selection likely contributes more to maintaining this mutation than does introgression. Our results show how suppressed recombination and large-scale mutation can help to package gene complexes into discrete units of diversity such as morphs, ecotypes, or species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Mutação , Neópteros/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Pigmentação
15.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115139, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663677

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol F (BPF) are widely distributed in the environment and daily consumptions, leading to exposure toward human and environmental animals. The potential risk of bisphenol analogs on pigment and skin health is not well documented. In this study, we found that 0.05 mg/L BPF (tolerated daily intake (TDI) value of BPA) affected the particle size and color density of zebrafish melanin. While BPA caused less depigmentation effect toward zebrafish with effective concentration of 5.0 mg/L. The downregulation of melanin synthases induced by BPF is associated with the reduction in melanin. Molecular dynamics indicated that both BPF and BPA could act as ligands of zebrafish and human Tyr family proteins; however, these compounds have completely different energetics and spatial steric effects, potentially explaining their varying depigmentation effects. Additionally, an in vitro assay using A375 melanoma cells demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of BPF on human melanin production was primarily attributed to Tyr inhibition. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of BPF and BPA in melanin inhibition, and the results reflect the skin pigmentation interference risk of these compounds, which are ubiquitous in everyday personal products.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Sulfonas , Animais , Humanos , Fenóis , Pigmentação
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201267, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693728

RESUMO

Müllerian mimicry strongly exemplifies the power of natural selection. However, the exact measure of such adaptive phenotypic convergence and the possible causes of its imperfection often remain unidentified. Here, we first quantify wing colour pattern differences in the forewing region of 14 co-mimetic colour pattern morphs of the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene and measure the extent to which mimicking colour pattern morphs are not perfectly identical. Next, using gene-editing CRISPR/Cas9 KO experiments of the gene WntA, which has been mapped to colour pattern diversity in these butterflies, we explore the exact areas of the wings in which WntA affects colour pattern formation differently in H. erato and H. melpomene. We find that, while the relative size of the forewing pattern is generally nearly identical between co-mimics, the CRISPR/Cas9 KO results highlight divergent boundaries in the wing that prevent the co-mimics from achieving perfect mimicry. We suggest that this mismatch may be explained by divergence in the gene regulatory network that defines wing colour patterning in both species, thus constraining morphological evolution even between closely related species.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas/fisiologia , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Insetos , Pigmentação/genética , Seleção Genética , Asas de Animais
18.
Gene ; 757: 144925, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622991

RESUMO

Porphyrins, one of the most common shell pigments, are by-products of the haem pathway. 5-Aminolaevulinate synthase (ALAS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway and has been well studied in vertebrate species. However, the function of ALAS in shell colouration has been poorly studied in molluscs, which are renowned for their colourful shells. In the present study, an ALAS gene, named PyALAS, was identified through whole-genome scanning in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), an economically and evolutionarily important bivalve species in which the shell colour represents polymorphism. Two conserved domains were detected in the PyALAS protein sequence, including a Preseq-ALAS domain and a 5-ALAS domain, confirming the identification of PyALAS. Phylogenetic analysis of the ALAS proteins among various invertebrate and vertebrate species revealed a high consistency between the molecular evolution of ALAS and the species taxonomy. PyALAS was ubiquitously expressed in most adult tissues of the Yesso scallop. The left mantle expressed a significantly higher level of PyALAS than the right side in brown scallops, whereas there was no significant difference in white scallops. Significantly different expression levels of PyALAS was also detected between the two different shell colour strains. These data indicate that PyALAS plays an important role in shell colouration in Yesso scallops and the present study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of shell colouration in molluscs.


Assuntos
5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/genética , Bivalves/genética , Pigmentação , 5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/metabolismo , Exoesqueleto/metabolismo , Animais , Bivalves/classificação , Bivalves/metabolismo
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4691-4697, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697185

RESUMO

Strain MEBiC09520T, which was isolated from a tidal sediment in Incheon, Korea, is a pale yellow, rod-shaped bacterium, cells of which are 0.4-0.5 µm in width and 1.5-2 µm in length. Strain MEBiC09520T shared 95.17 and 92.57% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Emcibacter nanhaiensis and E. congregatus, respectively. It grew optimally at pH 6.0, at 55 °C and with 2.5-3.5% (w/v) NaCl. Its polar lipid components included phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), an unidentified phospholipid (PL), three unidentified aminolipids (ALs) and two unidentified lipids (L). The fatty acids C16:0, C19:0 cyclo ω8c, C14:0 2-OH and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c) were predominantly present in its cell wall. Strain MEBiC09520T was thermophilic, while E. nanhaiensis and E. congregatus were mesophilic. Although E. nanhaiensis showed no nitrate reduction activity, MEBiC09520T and E. congregatus showed a positive reaction. These strains differed in carbohydrate utilization. In particular, E. congregatus was able to thrive on various carbohydrate substrates as compared to the other strains. The average nucleotide identity value was 69.92% between strain MEBiC09520T and E. congregatus ZYLT, 70.38% between E. congregatus ZYLT and E. nanhaiensis HTCJW17T, and 72.83% between strain MEBiC09520 and E. nanhaiensis HTCJW17T. Considering these differences, strain MEBiC09520T (=KCCM 43320T=MCCC 1K03920T) is suggested to represent and novel species of a new genus, Luteithermobacter gelatinilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., and E. congregatus should be reclassified as Paremcibacter congregatus gen. nov., comb. nov.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4760-4766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697187

RESUMO

Strain HMF4947T, isolated from the bark of a ginkgo tree, was a pale-pink coloured, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium. The isolate grew optimally on Reasoner's 2A agar at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and with 0 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HMF4947T belonged to the genus Hymenobacter and was most closely related to Hymenobacter metalli A2-91T (96.9 % sequence similarity) and Hymenobacter pomorum 9-2-1-1T (96.5 %). The average nucleotide identity and estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HMF4947T and Hymenobacter arizonensis DSM 17870T were 74.3 and 20.5 %, respectively. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω5c. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminoglycolipid, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified aminolipids, two unidentified glycolipids and three unidentified polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 59.3 mol%. Thus, based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain HMF4947T represents a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter ginkgonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is strain HMF4947T (=KCTC 72780T=NBRC 114271T).


Assuntos
Cytophagaceae/classificação , Ginkgo biloba/microbiologia , Filogenia , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Cytophagaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
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