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1.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3 Suppl. 1): 19-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538446

RESUMO

Oral mucosa pigmentations belong to a heterogeneous variety of lesions, which are usually divided into two groups: exogenous or endogenous pigmentations. The pigmented lesions most frequently found in the oral mucosa are the amalgam tattoo, the melanotic macula and the nevus. All these lesions may affect every part of the oral mucosa, and they may represent a hard diagnostic challenge for the clinician; the clinical objective examination is not sufficient to make a correct diagnosis. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy provides a real-time microscopic evaluation of tissue layers, and is widely considered a useful auxiliary tool in monitoring skin and mucosa lesions. In this context, Reflectance Confocal Microscopy imaging is a valid aid in the management of oral mucosa pigmented lesions, to corroborate and support the diagnostic process.


Assuntos
Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia Confocal , Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico por imagem , Pigmentação , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3299-3304, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395107

RESUMO

A halophilic archaeaon, strain LT12T, was isolated from saline soil sampled at the Tarim Basin, PR China. The novel strain stained Gram-negative, cells were rod-shaped, and formed light red-pigmented colonies on agar plate. Strain LT12T grew optimally at 3.1 M NaCl, 0.05 M MgCl2, 37 °C and pH 7.5. The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 1.4 M. Based on the results of phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and rpoB' genes, strain LT12T was most closely related to Halostella salina CBA1114T(94.4-95.9  and 93.6 % similarities, respectively). The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LT12T and H. salina CBA1114T were 81.0 and 24.3 %, respectively. The major polar lipids of strain LT12T were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and three unidentified glycolipids. The DNA G+C content was 67.2 mol % (genome). Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain LT12T represents a novel species of the genus Halostella for which the name Halostellalimicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LT12T (=CGMCC 1.14941T=JCM 30667T).


Assuntos
Halobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Salinidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Arqueal/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Glicolipídeos/química , Halobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Ecol Lett ; 22(11): 1838-1849, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441210

RESUMO

Some birds undergo seasonal colour change by moulting twice each year, typically alternating between a cryptic, non-breeding plumage and a conspicuous, breeding plumage ('seasonal plumage colours'). We test for potential drivers of the evolution of seasonal plumage colours in all passerines (N = 5901 species, c. 60% of all birds). Seasonal plumage colours are uncommon, having appeared on multiple occasions but more frequently lost during evolution. The trait is more common in small, ground-foraging species with polygynous mating systems, no paternal care and strong sexual dichromatism, suggesting it evolved under strong sexual selection and high predation risk. Seasonal plumage colours are also more common in species predicted to have seasonal breeding schedules, such as migratory birds and those living in seasonal climates. We propose that seasonal plumage colours have evolved to resolve a trade-off between the effects of natural and sexual selection on colouration, especially in seasonal environments.


Assuntos
Plumas , Pigmentação , Animais , Cor , Muda , Estações do Ano
4.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2606-2611, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398078

RESUMO

Streaks lacking pigmentation have impacted red blush cultivars of peaches in many East Coast production areas, but the underlying cause is still unclear. Some evidence suggests that streaking may be caused by reactive agents in rainwater. Peach skin streaking was monitored over two consecutive years at a commercial farm with a history of streaking problems located near Ridge Spring, SC. Six cultivars (two early season, two midseason, and two late season) were evaluated, each in two locations (LocA and LocB). Among those 12 experimental block cultivars, streaking occurred only in 2017 in cv. Scarletprince of LocA with an incidence of 6%. That same year two nearby nonexperimental blocks with 'Scarletprince' revealed 11 and 25% streaking. Streaking was also monitored at the Musser Fruit Research Center (MFRC) in Seneca, SC. At that location, a high incidence of streaking was observed, with 50 and 64% in 'Julyprince' (2017) and 'Carored' (2018), respectively. Rainwater pH taken from each of the 12 experimental blocks ranged from 3.03 to 7.4, ozone (O3) levels ranged from <0.02 to 0.37 mg/liter, and chlorine (Cl2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) levels were either just above or under the detection limit of 0.01 mg/liter and 0.02 mg/liter, respectively. Although the electrical conductivity (EC) was below 100 µS/cm on average, we did measure EC values as high as 1,500 µS/cm. For all samples, the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) ranged from 90 to 302 mV, indicating oxidizing conditions. Fruit harvested 1 or 2 weeks prior to commercial maturity and treated with solutions of high (10) or low (3) pH, ozone >0.37 mg/liter, and EC values of up to 3,000 µS/cm did not produce symptoms. However, streaking was reproduced with collected rainwater, but the remaining sample volume did not allow further analyses. Using 0.05% ClO2 to induce streaking, we show that fruit of different cultivars varied in susceptibility when treated 1 week prior to commercial maturity, with 'Juneflame' being the most susceptible and 'August Lady' being the least susceptible. Our study shows that multiple factors determine the occurrence of streaking in peach orchards, including cultivar susceptibility, ripening stage, and the presence of rainwater with sufficient amounts of a yet unknown reactive agent or agent combination.


Assuntos
Frutas , Pigmentação , Prunus persica , Chuva , Animais , Estações do Ano
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 2966-2971, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418670

RESUMO

A novel actinobacterium, designated LHW52908T, was isolated from a marine sponge, Leucettachagosensis, collected in the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain LHW52908T was member of the family Geodermatophilaceae, with highest similarities to Geodermatophilus obscurus DSM 43160T (97.7 %), Geodermatophilus siccatus CF6T (97.6 %) and Geodermatophiluschilensis B12T (97.5 %). Multilocus sequence analysis confirmed that the strain should be a member of genus Geodermatophilus. Chemotaxonomic characteristics confirmed the genus-level affiliation of strain LHW52908T. Based on phylogenetic data, average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization results, strain LHW52908T could be distinguished from its closest neighbours, representing a novel species of the genus Geodermatophilus, for which the name Geodermatophilusmarinus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain LHW52908T (=DSM 106570T=CCTCC AA 2018014T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Poríferos/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Oceanos e Mares , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
Science ; 365(6452): 447-448, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371601
7.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 135(2): 121-125, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392964

RESUMO

Atypical pigmentation, which is rarely observed in the wild, may influence social interactions between animals and can be detrimental for survival. Hypopigmentation, which is the lack of pigment in a part or on the entire body, is a type of atypical pigmentation pattern that can be either acquired (e.g. vitiligo) or congenital resulting from the inheritance of mutations in pigment-related genes (e.g. albinism, leucism and piebaldism). This study documents atypical pigmentation in a fin whale Balaenoptera physalus off the northwestern coast of the Iberian Peninsula (Atlantic Ocean). Photographic and video data collected between 2016 and 2017 on 30 individual fin whales were examined. One fully-grown fin whale exhibited hypopigmentation. Several white patches of different shapes and sizes were present across the body of the fin whale including on the head, body, dorsal fin, flippers, and flukes. The position, shape, and lack of inflammation of the white patches on the whale observed, along with its body length and condition, might indicate that the depigmentation pattern is due to vitiligo. To our knowledge, this is the first case of atypical pigmentation pattern in fin whales described with photographs and video records. As these observations are rare, especially in highly migratory, long-lived, marine mammal species, this study provides valuable information to better understand the occurrence of this phenomenon. Further studies are needed to determine the ecological and physiological implications of atypical colourations, which might have a significant influence on the animal's survival.


Assuntos
Baleia Comum , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Pigmentação , Baleias
8.
Anim Genet ; 50(5): 423-429, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294880

RESUMO

A specific white spotting phenotype, termed finching or line-backed spotting, is known for all Pinzgauer cattle and occurs occasionally in Tux-Zillertaler cattle, two Austrian breeds. The so-called Pinzgauer spotting is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait. A genome-wide association study using 27 white spotted and 16 solid-coloured Tux-Zillertaler cattle, based on 777k SNP data, revealed a strong signal on chromosome 6 at the KIT locus. Haplotype analyses defined a critical interval of 122 kb downstream of the KIT coding region. Whole-genome sequencing of a Pinzgauer cattle and comparison to 338 control genomes revealed a complex structural variant consisting of a 9.4-kb deletion and an inversely inserted duplication of 1.5 kb fused to a 310-kb duplicated segment from chromosome 4. A diagnostic PCR was developed for straightforward genotyping of carriers for this structural variant (KITPINZ ) and confirmed that the variant allele was present in all Pinzgauer and most of the white spotted Tux-Zillertaler cattle. In addition, we detected the variant in all Slovenian Cika, British Gloucester and Spanish Berrenda en negro cattle with similar spotting patterns. Interestingly, the KITPINZ variant occurs in some white spotted animals of the Swiss breeds Evolèner and Eringer. The introgression of the KITPINZ variant confirms admixture and the reported historical relationship of these short-headed breeds with Austrian Tux-Zillertaler and suggests a mutation event, occurring before breed formation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos , Pigmentação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Duplicação Cromossômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Anim Genet ; 50(5): 493-500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297861

RESUMO

The alpaca classic grey phenotype is of particular interest to the industry. Until now, there were only indirect data suggesting that the KIT gene was involved in the classic grey phenotype. All exons of KIT in three black and three classic silvergrey alpacas were sequenced. Five non-synonymous SNPs were observed. There was only one SNP found that was present only in the silvergrey alpacas, and this was also the only SNP predicted to be damaging. This variant results in a change of a glycine (Gly) to an arginine (Arg) at amino acid position 126 (c.376G>A), occurring in the second Ig-like domain of the extracellular domain of KIT. Basic protein modelling predicted that this variant is likely destabilising. Therefore, an additional 488 alpacas were genotyped for this SNP using the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (Tetra-primer ARMS-PCR). All classic grey alpacas were observed to be heterozygous, and 99.3% of non-grey dark base colour alpacas were found to be homozygous for the wildtype allele in this position. These results confirm that the classic grey phenotype in alpacas is the result of a c.376G>A (p.Gly126Arg) SNP in exon 3 of KIT. These data also support the hypothesis that the grey phenotype is autosomal dominant and that the mutation is most likely homozygous lethal.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/fisiologia , Pigmentação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Éxons , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/química
10.
Anim Genet ; 50(5): 475-483, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305959

RESUMO

Ten indigenous chicken breeds were originally distributed in Jiangxi Province, China, and they define a critical component of Chinese chicken genetic resources. We have investigated the population genetics of seven Jiangxi chicken breeds using 600K chicken BeadChip SNP data. To provide a genome-wide perspective for the population structure of all 10 Jiangxi chicken breeds, we herein genotyped 78 additional individuals from the seven breeds and 63 chickens from three uninvestigated breeds-Yugan Black (YG), Nancheng Black (NC) and Wanzai Yellow using 55K chicken SNP arrays. We then explored merged data of 17 101 SNPs from 235 individuals to infer the population structure of the 10 breeds. We showed that NC and YG are two regional populations of the same breed, as individuals from the two populations clustered together to form a branch separate from the other breeds in the neighbor-joining tree, they always grouped together in multidimensional principal component analyses and they displayed an identical pattern of ancestral lineage composition. Hence, NC and YG should be considered a single breed in the state-supported conservation scheme. Moreover, we conducted a genome scan for signatures of selection for black plumage. bayescan and hapflk analyses of two contrasting groups (three black-feathered breeds vs. six non-black-feathered breeds) consistently detected 25 putative regions under selection. Nine pigmentation- associated genes (DCT, SLC24A5, SLC30A4, MYO5A, CYP19A1, NADK2, SLC45A2, GNAQ and DCP2) reside within these regions, and these genes are interesting candidates for black plumage and provide a starting point for further identification of causative mutations for black feathers in chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas/classificação , Galinhas/genética , Plumas/fisiologia , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , China , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pigmentação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3031-3040, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310190

RESUMO

Three novel actinobacterial strains, designated as TPS16T, TPS81 and TPS83, were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from Tioman Island, Malaysia. The strains formed abundant branched substrate mycelia without fragmentation along with production of blue spores and blue diffusible pigment on soybean meal agar. The strains could grow at pH ranging from pH 6 to 12 and in 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall hydrolysis showed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The strains were closely related to Marinactinospora thermotolerans SCSIO 00652T (97.60 %) and Marinactinospora endophytica YIM 690053T (96.87 %) based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Multilocus sequence analysis including gyrB, recA and rpoB genes further confirmed that strain TPS16T represented a distinct branch within the family Nocardiopsaceae. The predominant menaquinones were MK-11(H2), MK-10(H2), MK-11(H4) and MK-10(H4), while the major fatty acids were found to be iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. Genome sequencing revealed genome sizes of approximately 6 Mb and G+C contents of 73.8 mol%. A new genus, Marinitenerispora gen. nov., is proposed within the family Nocardiopsaceae based on polyphasic data and the type species is Marinitenerispora sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is TPS16T (=DSM 46825T=TBRC 5138T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Ilhas , Malásia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3080-3086, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329534

RESUMO

Six mycelium-forming actinomycete strains were isolated from forest soil near the Cisolok geysers in West Java, Indonesia. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains showed high similarity to members of genera in the family Pseudonocardiaceae with values less than 96.0 %, and most closely related to the genus Thermotunica, T. guangxiensis AG2-7T(94.6-95.2 % similarity). The type strain, designated SL3-2-4T, was aerobic, thermophilic, Gram-stain-positive that formed branched, non-fragmented substrate mycelia and unbranched aerial mycelia with long-chain, oval-shaped spores on International Streptomyces Project (ISP) 3 medium. It produced light-orange substrate mycelia and light-orange diffusible pigments on ISP 3 medium with 2 % gellan gum, grown at 30-55 °C, with optimum growth at 45 °C. The pH range for growth was 4.0-8.0, with optimum growth at pH 7.0. Strain SL3-2-4T was able to hydrolyze casein, esculin, gelatin, guanine, hypoxanthine, starch, L-tyrosine, and xanthine, but not adenine, carboxymethyl-cellulose, cellulose, chitin, Tween 20, or xylan. The major fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0, and the major menaquinone was MK-8 (H4). The detected polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine, unidentified aminophospholipids, unidentified glycolipids, and unidentified phospholipids. The cell wall hydrolysate of SL3-2-4T contained meso-2,4-diaminopimelic acid. The whole cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. The DNA G+C content was 71.6 mol%. Phenotypic features and phylogenetic data differentiated SL3-2-4T from members of the family Pseudonocardiaceae. Therefore, the strain SL3-2-4T is proposed as a representative of a novel species in a novel genus, Gandjariella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is SL3-2-4T (=UICC B-83T=NRRL B-67478T=InaCC A981T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Florestas , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Indonésia , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3224-3229, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343398

RESUMO

Strain HMF7854T, isolated from a ginkgo tree, was an orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, motile by means of a single flagellum, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. The isolate grew optimally on Reasoner's 2A agar at 30 °C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 0 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HMF7854T belonged to the genus Sphingomonas and was most closely related to Sphingomonasagri HKS-06T (96.8 % sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were C17 : 1 ω6c, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, two unidentified lipids and two unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.4 mol%. Thus, based on its phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain HMF7854T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonasginkgonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is strain HMF7854T (=KCTC 62461T=NBRC 113337T).


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/microbiologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Sphingomonas/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquinona/química
14.
Food Chem ; 299: 125140, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299520

RESUMO

Pigment-depletion in the fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) arises after periods of elevated water temperatures with voluntary starving. This study tested the effects of dietary pre-loading with different pigment carotenoids (astaxanthin and/or canthaxanthin) combined with two α-tocopherol levels (normal and high: 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) on pigment-depletion in vivo in Atlantic salmon after four weeks of challenge. We also tested whether oxidative stress manifested as an underlying depletion mechanism. Carotenoid levels in whole fillet homogenates were not decreased significantly post-challenge but fillet α-tocopherol concentrations were increased significantly in contrast to decreased oxidative stress indices. However, image analysis revealed localised fillet pigment-depletion following all dietary treatments. These data imply that localised pigment-depletion was not prevented by pre-loading of the fillet with different carotenoid-types/mixtures and increased of α-tocopherol levels from normal to high, respectively. Further, we suggest that oxidative stress might not facilitate pigment-depletion in vivo.


Assuntos
Cantaxantina/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Salmo salar/fisiologia , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Cantaxantina/análise , Dieta , Feminino , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Pigmentação , Inanição , Temperatura Ambiente , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 315, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abaxially anthocyanic leaves of deeply-shaded understorey plants play important ecological significance for the environmental adaption. In contrast to the transient pigmentation in other plants, anthocyanins are permanently presented in these abaxially red leaves, however, the mechanism for the pigment maintenance remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated phenolic metabolites that may affect pigment stability and degradation in Excoecaria cochinchinensis (a bush of permanently abaxial-red leaves), via a comparison with Osmanthus fragrans (a bush of transiently red leaves). RESULTS: High levels of galloylated anthocyanins were identified in the Excoecaria but not in the Osmanthus plants. The galloylated anthocyanin showed slightly higher stability than two non-galloylated anthocyanins, while all the 3 pigments were rapidly degraded by peroxidase (POD) in vitro. High levels of hydrolysable tannins [mainly galloylglucoses/ellagitannins (GGs/ETs)] were identified in Excoecaria but none in Osmanthus. GGs/ETs showed inhibition effect on POD, with IC50 ranged from 35.55 to 83.27 µM, correlated to the markedly lower POD activities detected in Excoecaria than in Osmanthus. Strong copigmentation was observed for GGs/ETs and anthocyanins, with more than 30% increase in the red intensity of non-galloylated anthocyanin solutions. In the leaf tissue, the hydrolysable tannins were observed to be co-localized with anthocyanins at the abaxial layer of the Excoecaria leaves, correlated to the low POD activity, more acidity and increased red intensity of the tissue. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the Excoecaria leaves accumulate a distinct group of phenolic metabolites, mainly GGs/ETs, at the abaxial layer, which prevent anthocyanin degradation and increase the pigment stability, and consequently lead to the permanent maintenance of the red leaves.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/metabolismo , Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/enzimologia , Oleaceae/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins, which are colored pigments, have long been used as food and pharmaceutical ingredients due to their potential health benefits, but the intermediate signals through which environmental or developmental cues regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis remains poorly understood. Fleshy fruits have become a good system for studying the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and exploring the mechanism underlying pigment metabolism is valuable for controlling fruit ripening. RESULTS: The present study revealed that ABA accumulated during Lycium fruit ripening, and this accumulation was positively correlated with the anthocyanin contents and the LbNCED1 transcript levels. The application of exogenous ABA and of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridon increased and decreased the content of anthocyanins in Lycium fruit, respectively. This is the first report to show that ABA promotes the accumulation of anthocyanins in Lycium fruits. The variations in the anthocyanin content were consistent with the variations in the expression of the genes encoding the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex or anthocyanin biosynthesis-related enzymes. Virus-induced LbNCED1 gene silencing significantly slowed fruit coloration and decreased both anthocyanin and ABA accumulation during Lycium fruit ripening. An qRT-PCR analysis showed that LbNCED1 gene silencing clearly reduced the transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, a model of ABA-mediated development-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration during Lycium fruit maturation was proposed. In this model, the developmental cues transcriptionally activates LbNCED1 and thus enhances accumulation of the phytohormone ABA, and the accumulated ABA stimulates transcription of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex to upregulate the expression of structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and thereby promoting anthocyanin production and fruit coloration. Our results provide a valuable strategy that could be used in practice to regulate the ripening and quality of fresh fruit in medicinal and edible plants by modifying the phytohormone ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Lycium/genética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Zool Res ; 40(4): 324-330, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310066

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 106 individuals of Oreocryptophis porphyraceus from mainland China were morphologically examined and recorded. Differences between populations were compared by combining data from this study and other published research. The skulls of three specimens representing three proposed subspecies (i.e., O. p. pulchra, O. p. vaillanti, and O. p. hainana) were examined by computed tomography (CT) scanning. Both external morphological characters and skull comparisons consistently showed significant differences between the studied populations. Based on these data, we suggest that at least four subspecies of O. porphyraceus should be recognized in mainland China: i.e., O. p. porphyraceus, O. p. pulchra, O. p. vaillanti, and O. p. hainana. However, the taxonomical arrangement of the central Chinese populations with intermediate morphology remain unresolved.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Colubridae/anatomia & histologia , Colubridae/classificação , Animais , China , Pigmentação , Crânio , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1822-1828, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342708

RESUMO

The flower of Hibiscus syriacus has good ornamental and edible-medicinal values.In this study,four samples of two varieties,namely white multiple petals flower and pink multiple petals flower,were selected as test materials.And the optimum extraction conditions,relative molecular weight,monosaccharide composition and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides in flower were investigated.Through single factor experiment and response surface,the optimal extract conditions of polysaccharide were designed as follows:extraction temperature at 96.8℃,ratio of material to liquid of 43.5∶1 m L·g~(-1),extraction time of 3.1 h.Polysaccharides of H.syriacus flowers were analyzed by high performance gel chromatography.The average molecular masses of the 4 polysaccharide samples were1.49×10~5,1.25×10~5,1.01×10~5,1.37×10~5,respectively.Polysaccharides of H.syriacus flowers were mainly composed of glucose,mannose,galactose,rhamnose and arabinose by pre-column derivatization HPLC.The ratio of galactose was the highest in five monosaccharide,and the ratio of galactose to glucose was 1.656-4.496.In addition,crude polysaccharides of H.syriacus flowers showed potential antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical(DPPH)assay,total reducing capacity assay and ABTS assay in vitro,and its antioxidant effect showed a good dose-effect relationship with the concentration of crude polysaccharides.Among the tested varieties,polysaccharides of pink multiple petals flower and white multiple petals flower had the same molecular masses and monosaccharides composition,but the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides of pink multiple petals flower was higher than that of the white flowers.The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the application of H.syriacus flower in the field of functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hibiscus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Flores/química , Monossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pigmentação , Polissacarídeos/química
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2739-2749, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259682

RESUMO

Three bacterial strains, 30S-ANTBAC, 103A-SOEBACH and 59G- WUEMPEL, were isolated from two small freshwater creeks and an intermittent pond near Salzburg, Austria. Phylogenetic reconstructions with 16S rRNA gene sequences and, genome based, with amino acid sequences obtained from 119 single copy genes showed that the three strains represent a new genus of the family Cytophagaceae within a clade formed by the genera Pseudarcicella, Arcicella and Flectobacillus. blast searches suggested that the new genus comprises widespread freshwater bacteria. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic traits were investigated. Cells were rod shaped and were able to glide on soft agar. All strains grew chemoorganotrophically and aerobically, were able to assimilate pectin and showed an intense red pigmentation putatively due to various carotenoids. Two strains possessed genes putatively encoding proteorhodopsin and retinal biosynthesis. Genome sequencing revealed genome sizes between 2.5 and 3.1 Mbp and G+C contents between 38.0 and 42.7 mol%. For the new genus we propose the name Aquirufa gen. nov. Pairwise-determined whole-genome average nucleotide identity values suggested that the three strains represent two new species within the new genus for which we propose the names Aquirufa antheringensis sp. nov. for strain 30S-ANTBACT (=JCM 32977T =LMG 31079T=DSM 108553T) as type species of the genus, to which also belongs strain 103A-SOEBACH (=DSM 108555=LMG 31082) and Aquirufa nivalisilvae sp. nov. for strain 59G-WUEMPELT (=LMG 31081T =DSM 108554T).


Assuntos
Cytophagaceae/classificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Filogenia , Áustria , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Cytophagaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2921-2927, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287394

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, pink-pigmented bacterium, designated NLT, was isolated from arsenic-contaminated farmland soil. Strain NLT showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with those of Hymenobacter jeollabukensis 1-3-3-8T (98.9 %), Hymenobacter gummosus ANT-18T (97.5 %), Hymenobacter paludis KBP-30T (97.4 %), Hymenobacter ocellatus Myx2105T (97.1 %) and Hymenobacter coalescens WW84T (96.4 %). The values of genomic orthoANI and dDDH between strain NLT and Hymenobacter jeollabukensis KCTC 52741T was 90.5 and 41.2 %, respectively, and those between strain NLT and Hymenobacter gummosus KCTC 52166T was 84.4 and 28.4 %, respectively. Strain NLT exhibited DNA-DNA hybridisation values of 41.3 and 44.1 % with Hymenobacter paludis KCTC 32237T and Hymenobacter ocellatus DSM 11117T, respectively. Strain NLT had major fatty acids (>10 %) of summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B), iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 and the predominant polyamine of homospermidine. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid, three unidentified lipids and two amino lipids. Strain NLT had a genome size of 6.04 Mb and the average G+C content of 65.6 %. Compared to the other Hymenobacter spp., strain NLT is different in polar lipid profile (without aminophospholipid) and leucine arylamidase activity. Based on the data of the polyphasic analysis, it is considered that strain NLT represented a novel species of genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter edaphisp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NLT (=KCTC 62521T=CCTCC AB 2018028T).


Assuntos
Arsênico , Cytophagaceae/classificação , Fazendas , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Cytophagaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
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