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1.
Gene ; 806: 145929, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461150

RESUMO

The body color of Neocaridina denticulate sinensis is a compelling phenotypic trait, in which a cascade of carotenoid metabolic processes plays an important role. The study was conducted to compare the transcriptome of cephalothoraxes among three pigmentation phenotypes (red, blue, and chocolate) of N. denticulate sinensis. The purpose of this study was to explore the candidate genes associated with different colors of N. denticulate sinensis. Nine cDNA libraries in three groups were constructed from the cephalothoraxes of shrimps. After assembly, 75022 unigenes were obtained in total with an average length of 1026 bp and N50 length of 1876 bp. There were 45977, 25284, 23605, 21913 unigenes annotated in the Nr, Swissprot, KOG, and KEGG databases, respectively. Differential expression analysis revealed that there were 829, 554, and 3194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RD vs BL, RD vs CH, and BL vs CH, respectively. These DEGs may play roles in the absorption, transport, and metabolism of carotenoids. We also emphasized that electron transfer across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) was a key process in pigment metabolism. In addition, a total of 6328 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also detected in N. denticulate sinensis. The results laid a solid foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of integument pigmentation in the crustacean and contributed to developing more attractive aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Decápodes/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/classificação , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cor , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Decápodes/anatomia & histologia , Decápodes/metabolismo , Água Doce , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
2.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 607-611, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494533

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that dermal papilla cells(DPCs)act as the organizing center to induce the cyclic hair regeneration.On one hand,DPCs secrete cytokines or growth factors to regulate the differentiation,proliferation,and migration of epithelial stem cells(EpSCs)and melanocyte stem cells(MeSCs)residing in the bulge region.On the other hand,DPCs manipulate the microenvironment(also termed as niche)for both EpSCs and MeSCs,such as the size of dermal papilla,the distance between dermal papilla and the bulge region,and the lymphatic drainage and sympathetic nerve innervation surrounding the bulge region,thereby orchestrating the cycling hair growth.Recent studies have demonstrated at least four subpopulations existing in dermal papillae,which induce the unilineage transit-amplifying epithelial cells to form the concentric multilayers of hair shafts and sheaths.In addition,emerging study has indicated that sustained psychological stress potentially leads to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nerves that innervate the bulge region.The large amount of norepinephrine released by the nerve endings forces MeSCs to rapidly and abnormally proliferate,resultantly causing the depletion of MeSC pool and the loss of hair pigment.Understanding the molecular regulation of hair growth and pigmentation by DPCs holds substantial promise for the future use of cultured DPCs in vitro to treat hair loss.


Assuntos
Derme , Folículo Piloso , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Pigmentação
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5127, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493721

RESUMO

Intricate color patterns are a defining aspect of morphological diversity in the Felidae. We applied morphological and single-cell gene expression analysis to fetal skin of domestic cats to identify when, where, and how, during fetal development, felid color patterns are established. Early in development, we identify stripe-like alterations in epidermal thickness preceded by a gene expression pre-pattern. The secreted Wnt inhibitor encoded by Dickkopf 4 plays a central role in this process, and is mutated in cats with the Ticked pattern type. Our results bring molecular understanding to how the leopard got its spots, suggest that similar mechanisms underlie periodic color pattern and periodic hair follicle spacing, and identify targets for diverse pattern variation in other mammals.


Assuntos
Gatos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Gatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/metabolismo , Genótipo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499597

RESUMO

A Gram-reaction-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-spore-forming rod, aerobic, motile bacterium, designated SJY3T, was isolated from soil samples collected from a Pu-erh tea cellar in Bolian Pu-erh tea estate Co. Ltd. in Pu'er city, Yunnan, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Massilia. The closest phylogenetic relative was Massilia arenae CICC 24458T (99.5 %), followed by M. timonae CCUG45783T (97.9 %), M. oculi CCUG43427AT (97.8 %), and M. aurea DSM 18055T (97.8 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-8 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 5.97 M bp and a G+C content of 65.4 mol%. Pairwise determined whole genome average nucleotide identity (gANI) values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values were all below the threshold. Although the 16S rRNA gene similarity of stain SJY3T and Massilia arenae CICC 24458T was more than 99 %, the gANI, dDDH values and genomic tree clearly indicated that they were not of the same species. In summary, strain SJY3T represents a new species, for which we propose the name Massilia puerhi sp. nov. with the type strain SJY3T (=CGMCC 1.17158T=KCTC 82193T).


Assuntos
Oxalobacteraceae/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Oxalobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Chá , Ubiquinona/química
5.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(181): 20210252, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343456

RESUMO

The diverse colours of bird feathers are produced by both pigments and nanostructures, and can have substantial thermal consequences. This is because reflectance, transmittance and absorption of differently coloured tissues affect the heat loads acquired from solar radiation. Using reflectance measurements and heating experiments on sunbird museum specimens, we tested the hypothesis that colour and their colour producing mechanisms affect feather surface heating and the heat transferred to skin level. As predicted, we found that surface temperatures were strongly correlated with plumage reflectivity when exposed to a radiative heat source and, likewise, temperatures reached at skin level decreased with increasing reflectivity. Indeed, nanostructured melanin-based iridescent feathers (green, purple, blue) reflected less light and heated more than unstructured melanin-based colours (grey, brown, black), as well as olives, carotenoid-based colours (yellow, orange, red) and non-pigmented whites. We used optical and heat modelling to test if differences in nanostructuring of melanin, or the bulk melanin content itself, better explains the differences between melanin-based feathers. These models showed that the greater melanin content and, to a lesser extent, the shape of the melanosomes explain the greater photothermal absorption in iridescent feathers. Our results suggest that iridescence can increase heat loads, and potentially alter birds' thermal balance.


Assuntos
Plumas , Passeriformes , Animais , Cor , Iridescência , Pigmentação
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 151, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crypsis by background-matching is a critical form of anti-predator defence for animals exposed to visual predators, but achieving effective camouflage in patchy and variable natural environments is not straightforward. To cope with heterogeneous backgrounds, animals could either specialise on particular microhabitat patches, appearing cryptic in some areas but mismatching others, or adopt a compromise strategy, providing partial matching across different patch types. Existing studies have tested the effectiveness of compromise strategies in only a limited set of circumstances, primarily with small targets varying in pattern, and usually in screen-based tasks. Here, we measured the detection risk associated with different background-matching strategies for relatively large targets, with human observers searching for them in natural scenes, and focusing on colour. Model prey were designed to either 'specialise' on the colour of common microhabitat patches, or 'generalise' by matching the average colour of the whole visual scenes. RESULTS: In both the field and an equivalent online computer-based search task, targets adopting the generalist strategy were more successful in evading detection than those matching microhabitat patches. This advantage occurred because, across all possible locations in these experiments, targets were typically viewed against a patchwork of different microhabitat areas; the putatively generalist targets were thus more similar on average to their various immediate surroundings than were the specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Demonstrating close agreement between the results of field and online search experiments provides useful validation of online citizen science methods commonly used to test principles of camouflage, at least for human observers. In finding a survival benefit to matching the average colour of the visual scenes in our chosen environment, our results highlight the importance of relative scales in determining optimal camouflage strategies, and suggest how compromise coloration can succeed in nature.


Assuntos
Pigmentação , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Especialização , Percepção Visual
7.
Ecol Lett ; 24(10): 2207-2218, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350679

RESUMO

Carotenoids are important pigments producing integument colouration; however, their dietary availability may be limited in some environments. Many species produce yellow to red hues using a combination of carotenoids and self-synthesised pteridine pigments. A compelling hypothesis is that pteridines replace carotenoids in environments where carotenoid availability is limited. To test this hypothesis, we quantified concentrations of five carotenoid and six pteridine pigments in multiple skin colours and individuals from 27 species of agamid lizards. We show that environmental gradients predict the ratio of carotenoids to pteridines; carotenoid concentrations are lower and pteridine concentrations higher in arid environments with low vegetation productivity. Both carotenoid and pteridine pigments were present in all species, but only pteridine concentrations explained colour variation among species and there were no correlations between carotenoid and pteridine pigments with a similar hue. These results suggest that in arid environments, where carotenoids are likely limited, species may compensate by synthesising more pteridines but do not necessarily replace carotenoids with pteridines of similar hue.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Lagartos , Animais , Humanos , Pigmentação , Pteridinas , Pigmentação da Pele
8.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210221, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403644

RESUMO

Pterins are one of the major sources of bright coloration in animals. They are produced endogenously, participate in vital physiological processes and serve a variety of signalling functions. Despite their ubiquity in nature, pterin-based pigmentation has received little attention when compared to other major pigment classes. Here, we summarize major aspects relating to pterin pigmentation in animals, from its long history of research to recent genomic studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying its evolution. We argue that pterins have intermediate characteristics (endogenously produced, typically bright) between two well-studied pigment types, melanins (endogenously produced, typically cryptic) and carotenoids (dietary uptake, typically bright), providing unique opportunities to address general questions about the biology of coloration, from the mechanisms that determine how different types of pigmentation evolve to discussions on honest signalling hypotheses. Crucial gaps persist in our knowledge on the molecular basis underlying the production and deposition of pterins. We thus highlight the need for functional studies on systems amenable for laboratory manipulation, but also on systems that exhibit natural variation in pterin pigmentation. The wealth of potential model species, coupled with recent technological and analytical advances, make this a promising time to advance research on pterin-based pigmentation in animals.


Assuntos
Pigmentação , Pterinas , Animais , Carotenoides
9.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 614-619, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402607

RESUMO

Butterflies are diverse in virtually all aspects of their ontogeny, including morphology, life history, and behavior. However, the developmental regulatory mechanisms underlying the important phenotypic traits of butterflies at different developmental stages remain unknown. Here, we investigated the developmental regulatory profiles of butterflies based on transposase accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) at three developmental stages in two representative species ( Papilio xuthus and Kallima inachus). Results indicated that 15%-47% of open chromatin peaks appeared in associated genes located 3 kb upstream (i.e., promoter region) of their transcription start site (TSS). Comparative analysis of the different developmental stages indicated that chromatin accessibility is a dynamic process and associated genes with differentially accessible (DA) peaks show functions corresponding to their phenotypic traits. Interestingly, the black color pattern in P. xuthus 4th instar larvae may be attributed to promoter peak-related genes involved in the melanogenesis pathway. Furthermore, many longevity genes in 5th instar larvae and pupae showed open peaks 3 kb upstream of their TSS, which may contribute to the overwintering diapause observed in K. inachus adults. Combined with RNA-seq analysis, our data demonstrated that several genes enriched in the melanogenesis and longevity pathways also exhibit higher expression, confirming that the expression of genes may be closely related to their phenotypic traits. This study offers new insights into larval cuticle color and adult longevity in butterflies and provides a resource for investigating the developmental regulatory mechanisms underlying butterfly ontogeny.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338627

RESUMO

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium belfantii, Corynebacterium rouxii, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Corynebacterium silvaticum are the only taxa from among ~121 Corynebacterium species deemed potentially able to harbour diphtheria tox genes. Subsequently tox-gene bearing species may potentially produce diphtheria toxin, which is linked to fatal respiratory distress if a pharyngeal pseudomembrane is formed or toxaemia develops in those unimmunized or under-immunized. Detection of diphtheria toxin-producing species may also invoke a public health response and contact tracing. Recovery of such species from the respiratory tract or other contaminated sources such as non-healing ulcerative wounds are expedited by use of differential and selective media such as modified Tinsdale medium (MTM). This medium is supplemented with potassium tellurite, which supresses most normal flora present in contaminated specimens, as well as l-cystine and thiosulphate. Most diphtheria-tox-gene bearing species grow well on MTM, producing black colonies with a black halo around each colony. This is due to an ability to produce cystinase in the presence of tellurite, cystine and thiosulphate, resulting in black tellurium deposits being observed in the agar. Other Corynebacterium species may/may not be able to grow at all in the presence of tellurite but if able to grow, will have small beige or brownish colonies which do not exhibit black halos. We describe here an unusual non-tox-gene-bearing isolate, NML 93-0612T, recovered from a human wrist granuloma, which produced black colonies with black halos on MTM agar but was otherwise distinguishable from Corynebacterium species which can bear tox genes. Distinctive features included its unusual colony morphology on MTM and sheep blood agar, by proteomic, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties and by molecular methods. Its genome contained 2 680 694 bytes, a G+C content of 60.65 mol% with features consistent with the genus Corynebacterium and so represents a new species for which we propose the name Corynebacterium hindlerae sp. nov.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium/classificação , Granuloma/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Canadá , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Pigmentação , Proteômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342562

RESUMO

Three novel corynebacterial species were isolated from soil sampled at a paddock in Vilsendorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The strains were coccoid or irregular rod-shaped, catalase-positive and pale white to yellow-orange in colour. By whole genome sequencing and comparison of the 16S rRNA genes as well as the whole genome structure, it was shown that all three strains represent novel species of the family Corynebacteriaceae, order Corynebacteriales, class Actinobacteria. This project describes the isolation, identification, sequencing, and phenotypic characterization of the three novel Corynebacterium species. We propose the names Corynebacterium kalinowskii sp. nov. (DSM 110639T=LMG 31801T), Corynebacterium comes sp. nov. (DSM 110640T=LMG 31802T), and Corynebacterium occultum sp. nov. (DSM 110642T=LMG 31803T).


Assuntos
Corynebacterium , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Corynebacterium/classificação , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fazendas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Alemanha , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410902

RESUMO

A novel, aerobic nitrogen-fixing methylotrophic bacterium, strain 29kT, was enriched and isolated from sludge generated during wastewater treatment at a paper mill in Baikal, Russian Federation. Cells were Gram-stain-variable. The cell wall was of the negative Gram-type. Cells were curved oval rod-shaped, 0.5-0.7×1.7-3.4 µm and formed yellow-coloured colonies. Cells tended to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of methyl alcohol as the sole carbon source. Cells were non-motile, non-spore-forming and contained retractile (polyphosphate) and lipid (poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate) bodies. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were C18:1 ω7, C19:0 cyclo and C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 67.95 mol%. Strain 29kT was able to grow at 4-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.0) and at salinities of 0-0.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0% NaCl). Catalase and oxidase were positive. Strain 29kT could grow chemolithoautotrophically in mineral media under an atmosphere of H2, O2 and CO2 as well as chemoorganoheterotrophically on methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol and various organic acids. The carbohydrate utilization spectrum is limited by glucose and raffinose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the newly isolated strain was a member of the genus Xanthobacter with Xanthobacter autotrophicus 7cT (99.9% similarity) and Xanthobacter viscosus 7dT (99.4 % similarity) as closest relatives among species with validly published names. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of 92.7 and 44.9%, respectively, of the 29kT to the genome of the most closely related species, X. autotrophicus 7cT, were below the species cutoffs. Based on genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Xanthobacter oligotrophicus sp. nov. The type strain is 29kT (=KCTC 72777T=VKM B-3453T).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Esgotos , Xanthobacter , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Federação Russa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esgotos/microbiologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química , Xanthobacter/classificação , Xanthobacter/isolamento & purificação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428132

RESUMO

A novel bacterial strain, designated as HN-E44T, was isolated from marine sponge collected from Yangpu Bay, Hainan, PR China. Strain HN-E44T was Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented. Growth occurred at 4-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), at pH 6-8 (pH 7) and in 0.5-14 % (w/v) NaCl (3-5 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HN-E44T formed an independent cluster with Marixanthomonas ophiurae JCM 14121T within the family Flavobacteriaceae and had the highest sequence similarity of 93.6 % to the closest type strain M. ophiurae JCM 14121T. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c) and iso-C15 : 1 G. The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingolipid, four unidentified phospholipids, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The respiratory quinone was identified as MK-6. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 40.6 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and average amino acid identity (AAI) values between strain HN-E44T and closest type strain M. ophiurae JCM 14121T were, respectively, 79.6 and 85.2 %, both of which were below thresholds for species delineation (95-96 % ANI and 95-96 % AAI), but were over thresholds for genus delineation (73.98 % ANI and 70-76 % AAI). The combined genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness demonstrated that strain HN-E44T could be differentiated from closely related genera. Therefore, it is proposed that strain HN-E44T represents a novel species of the genus Marixanthomonas, for which the name Marixanthomonas spongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain HN-E44T (=MCCC 1K03332T=LMG 30459T).


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae , Filogenia , Poríferos , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , Poríferos/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435946

RESUMO

Species belonging to the genus Sphingomonas have been isolated from environments such as soil, water and plant tissues. Many strains are known for their capability of degrading aromatic molecules and producing extracellular polymers. A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, red-pigmented, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, rod-shaped strain, designated DH-S5T, has been isolated from pork steak packed under CO2-enriched modified atmosphere. Cell diameters were 1.5×0.9 µm. Growth optima were at 30 °C and at pH 6.0. Phylogenetic analyses based on both complete 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-genome sequence data revealed that strain DH-S5T belongs to the genus Sphingomonas, being closely related to Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537T (97.4 % gene sequence similarity), followed by Sphingomonas qilianensis X1T (97.4 %) and Sphingomonas hylomeconis GZJT-2T (97.3 %). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization value between the isolate strain and S. alpina DSM 22537T was 21.0 % with an average nucleotide identity value of 77.03 %. Strain DH-S5T contained Q-10 as the ubiquinone and major fatty acids were C18 : 1 cis 11 (39.3 %) and C16 : 1 cis 9 (12.5 %), as well as C16 : 0 (12.1 %) and C14 : 0 2-OH (11.4 %). As for polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine and sphingoglycolipid could be detected, alongside traces of monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine. Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain DH-S5T (=DSM 110829T=LMG 31606T) is classified as a representative of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas aliaeris sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Carne de Porco , Sphingomonas , Animais , Atmosfera , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alemanha , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sphingomonas/classificação , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26567, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397796

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To report the changes of trabecular meshwork (TM) pigmentation and clinical outcomes of patients with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) after resolution of reverse pupillary block.Twenty one eyes of 11 PDS patients were followed up periodically for 15 years after resolution of reverse pupillary block with either Nd: YAG laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) or trabeculectomy. Visual acuity (VA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP), Humphrey visual field analysis (VFA), gonioscopy and stereoscopic funduscopy were performed on admission and every 6 months postoperatively. TM pigmentation was quantitatively evaluated and graded every 5 years after the treatment, in which the circumference of anterior chamber angle was divided into 4 quadrants: superior, inferior, nasal and temporal. Postoperative IOP, VA, BCVA, VFA, TM pigmentation and adjunctive anti-glaucoma medications were main outcome measurements and compared with baseline.Eleven patients (9 males, 2 females) were identified as PDS according to the diagnostic criteria, with average age of 38.25 ±â€Š6.93 years (range, 31-55 years) at initial diagnosis. The mean IOP level was 33.1 ±â€Š9.8 mmHg (range, 22-56 mmHg) at diagnosis. Ten PDS eyes received LPI, and the other eleven eyes underwent uneventful trabeculectomy. The median TM pigmentation score of the 21 PDS eyes was 16 (interquartile range [IQR], 15-16) on admission, which changed to 14 (IQR, 13-15), 13 (IQR, 12-14), 12(IQR, 10.5-12) at 5-, 10-, 15-year follow-up visits respectively. The decrease rate of TM pigmentation was 37% in inferior quadrant, while in nasal, temporal, and superior quadrant the reduction rate was 28%, 23%, and 18%, respectively, at the last follow-up visit. Majority of these enrolled eyes (19/21) had stable VA and BCVA with average endpoint IOP of 15.1 ±â€Š3.4 mmHg.TM pigmentation in PDS patients attenuates with time after reverse pupillary block was resolved, in which the inferior quadrant seems faster than the other quadrants.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Pigmentação , Malha Trabecular/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/cirurgia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Iris , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular , Trabeculectomia , Ultrassonografia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361014

RESUMO

A link between the scent and color of Narcissus tazetta flowers can be anticipated due to their biochemical origin, as well as their similar biological role. Despite the obvious aesthetic and ecological significance of these colorful and fragrant components of the flowers and the molecular profiles of their pigments, fragrant formation has addressed in some cases. However, the regulatory mechanism of the correlation of fragrant components and color patterns is less clear. We simultaneously used one way to address how floral color and fragrant formation in different tissues are generated during the development of an individual plant by transcriptome-based weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). A spatiotemporal pattern variation of flavonols/carotenoids/chlorophyll pigmentation and benzenoid/phenylpropanoid/ monoterpene fragrant components between the tepal and corona in the flower tissues of Narcissus tazetta, was exhibited. Several candidate transcription factors: MYB12, MYB1, AP2-ERF, bZIP, NAC, MYB, C2C2, C2H2 and GRAS are shown to be associated with metabolite flux, the phenylpropanoid pathway to the production of flavonols/anthocyanin, as well as related to one branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway to the benzenoid/phenylpropanoid component in the tepal and the metabolite flux between the monoterpene and carotenoids biosynthesis pathway in coronas. It indicates that potential competition exists between floral pigment and floral fragrance during Narcissus tazetta individual plant development and evolutionary development.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Narcissus/genética , Pigmentação , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonóis/genética , Flores/genética , Narcissus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361067

RESUMO

Carotenoids and phenylpropanoids play a dual role of limiting and countering photooxidative stress. We hypothesize that their "antioxidant" function is prominent in plants exposed to summer drought, when climatic conditions exacerbate the light stress. To test this, we conducted a field study on Phillyrea latifolia, a Mediterranean evergreen shrub, carrying out daily physiological and biochemical analyses in spring and summer. We also investigated the functional role of the major phenylpropanoids in different leaf tissues. Summer leaves underwent the most severe drought stress concomitantly with a reduction in radiation use efficiency upon being exposed to intense photooxidative stress, particularly during the central hours of the day. In parallel, a significant daily variation in both carotenoids and phenylpropanoids was observed. Our data suggest that the morning-to-midday increase in zeaxanthin derived from the hydroxylation of ß-carotene to sustain non-photochemical quenching and limit lipid peroxidation in thylakoid membranes. We observed substantial spring-to-summer and morning-to-midday increases in quercetin and luteolin derivatives, mostly in the leaf mesophyll. These findings highlight their importance as antioxidants, countering the drought-induced photooxidative stress. We concluded that seasonal and daily changes in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments may allow P. latifolia leaves to avoid irreversible photodamage and to cope successfully with the Mediterranean harsh climate.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Oleaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Estações do Ano , Estresse Fisiológico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Secas , Luz , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oleaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oleaceae/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214028

RESUMO

Sporobolomyces lactosus is a pink yeast-like fungus that is not congeneric with other members of Sporobolomyces (Basidiomycota, Microbotryomycetes, Sporidiobolales). During our ongoing studies of pink yeasts we determined that S. lactosus was most closely related to Pseudeurotium zonatum (Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, Thelebolales). A molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences of the ITS region and the small and large subunit (SSU, LSU) rRNA genes, indicated that four isolates of S. lactosus, including three ex-type isolates, were placed in Thelebolales with maximum support. A new genus is proposed to accommodate S. lactosus, Inopinatum. This is the first pink yeast reported in Leotiomycetes.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/classificação , Filogenia , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , Pigmentação , Polônia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252019

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped novel bacterial strain, designated MAH-29T, was isolated from rhizospheric soil of a persimmon tree. The colonies were light pink coloured, smooth, spherical and 0.1-0.8 mm in diameter when grown on Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar for 2 days. Strain MAH-29T was able to grow at 20-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.5 and at 0-2.0 % NaCl. Cell growth occurred on nutrient agar and R2A agar. The strain was positive in both oxidase and catalase tests. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Niastella and was closely related to Niastella vici DJ57T (97.7 % similarity), Niastella koreensis GR20-10T (97.1 %) and Niastella yeongjuensis GR20-13T (97.0 %). Strain MAH-29T has a draft genome size of 8 876 333 bp (31 contigs), annotated with 6920 protein-coding genes, 61 tRNA and four rRNA genes. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain MAH-29T and three closely related type strains were in the range of 78.2-83.2 % and 22.1-27.0 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3OH. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization results, genotypic analysis and chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain MAH-29T represents a novel species within the genus Niastella, for which the name Niastella soli sp. nov. is proposed, with MAH-29T (=KACC 19969T=CGMCC 1.16606T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Diospyros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Árvores/microbiologia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
20.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(1): e21797, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272770

RESUMO

Cold temperatures are one of the factors influencing color polymorphisms in Acyrthosiphon pisum, resulting in a change from a red to greenish color. Here we characterized gene expression profiles of A. pisum under different low temperatures (1°C, 4°C, 8°C, and 14°C) and durations (3, 6, 12, and 24 h). The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) increased as temperatures decreased and time increased, but only a small number of significant DEGs were identified. Genes involved in pigment metabolism were downregulated. An interaction network analysis for 506 common DEGs in comparisons among aphids exposed to 1°C for four durations indicated that a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP, LOC112935894) significantly downregulated may interact with a carotenoid metabolism gene (LOC100574964), similar to other genes encoding CYP, lycopene dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase. We proposed that the body color shift in A. pisum responding to low temperatures may be regulated by CYPs.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Temperatura Baixa , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Genoma de Inseto , RNA-Seq/métodos , Transcriptoma
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