Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.712
Filtrar
1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 138, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451937

RESUMO

Monascus azaphilone pigments, including red, orange, and yellow, are world-famous food colorants. However, the pigments produced by different Monascus species vary in yields and compositions. The underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, four wild-type Monascus strains, namely M. anka M7, M. purpureus M9, M. ruber C100, and M. aurantiacus M15, were selected as research objects according to the diversification of their pigments fermented in the same mediums and conditions. Twenty-three 3 kbp segments (300 bp overlap with adjacent segments) of the pigment gene cluster were amplified, sequenced, and assembled into the DNA sequences of the clusters. The DNA sequences of pigment biosynthetic gene clusters of the four strains showed 99.94% similarity according to the results of multiple alignment. The expression levels of 17 pigment biosynthetic genes of four strains were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. The transcriptional regulation contributed more than the DNA sequence variation in Monascus pigments metabolism. Our result gives insight into the study of Monascus pigment biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Monascus/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cor , DNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Monascus/química , Monascus/classificação , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 287, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars display orange or yellow background skin, whereas some cultivars are particularly preferred by consumers because of their red blushed skin on the background. RESULTS: In this study, two blushed ('Jianali' and 'Hongyu') and two nonblushed ('Baixing' and 'Luntaixiaobaixing') cultivars were used to investigate the formation mechanism of blushed skin in apricots. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the blushed cultivars accumulated higher cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and peonidin-3-O-rutinoside levels during fruit ripening than the nonblushed cultivars. Based on coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), a putative anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB, PaMYB10, and seven structural genes were identified from transcriptome data. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaMYB10 clustered in the anthocyanin-related MYB clade. Sequence alignments revealed that PaMYB10 contained a bHLH-interaction motif ([DE]Lx2[RK]x3Lx6Lx3R) and an ANDV motif. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PaMYB10 was a nuclear protein. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and seven genes responsible for anthocyanin synthesis were significantly higher in blushed than in nonblushed apricots, which was consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin. In addition, bagging significantly inhibited the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and the structural genes in 'Jianali' and blocked the red coloration and anthocyanin accumulation. Transient PaMYB10 overexpression in 'Luntaixiaobaixing' fruits resulted in the red blushed skin at the maturation stage. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data reveal that three anthocyanins are responsible for the blushed skin of apricots, identify PaMYB10 as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in apricots, and demonstrate that blush formation depends on light.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glucosídeos/genética , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 5979-6000, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128867

RESUMO

Some gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas spp., can grow at refrigeration temperatures and cause flavor, odor, and texture defects in fluid milk. Historical and modern cases exist of gray and blue color defects in fluid milk due to Pseudomonas, and several recent reports have detailed fresh cheese spoilage associated with blue-pigment-forming Pseudomonas. Our goal was to investigate the genomes of pigmented Pseudomonas isolates responsible for historical and modern pigmented spoilage of dairy products in the United States to determine the genetic basis of pigment-forming phenotypes. We performed whole genome sequencing of 9 Pseudomonas isolates: 3 from recent incidents of gray-pigmented fluid milk (Pseudomonas fluorescens group), 1 from blue-pigmented cheese (P. fluorescens group), 2 from a historical blue milk spoilage incident (Pseudomonas putida group), and 3 with no evidence for blue or gray pigment formation (2 from P. fluorescens group and 1 from Pseudomonas chlororaphis group). All 6 isolates collected from products with a gray or blue pigment defect were confirmed to produce pigment using potato dextrose agar or pasteurized milk. A subset of 2 isolates was selected for inoculation into milk and onto the surface of a model cheese for subsequent color measurement. These isolates produced different colors on potato dextrose agar, but produced nearly identical color defects in milk and on model cheese. For the same subset of 2 isolates, the gray color defect in milk was produced only in containers with ample headspace and not in full containers, suggesting that oxygen is vital for pigment formation. This work also demonstrated that a Pseudomonas isolate from cheese can produce a pigment defect in milk, and vice versa. Comparative genomics identified an accessory locus encoding tryptophan biosynthesis genes that was present in all isolates that produced gray or blue pigment under laboratory conditions and was only previously reported in 2 P. fluorescens isolates responsible for blue mozzarella in Italy. Because this locus was found in genetically distant isolates belonging to different Pseudomonas species groups, it may have been acquired via horizontal gene transfer. These data suggest that several past and present gray- or blue-pigmented dairy spoilage events share a common genetic etiology that transcends species-level identification and merits further investigation to determine mechanistic details and modes of prevention.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Genoma Bacteriano/fisiologia , Leite/química , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genética , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Cor , Loci Gênicos/fisiologia , Genômica , Itália , Leite/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Pigmentação , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(12): 4889-4897, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037381

RESUMO

Conidia are asexual spores and play a crucial role in fungal dissemination. Conidial pigmentation is important for tolerance against UV radiation and contributes to survival of fungi. The molecular basis of conidial pigmentation has been studied in several fungal species. In spite of sharing the initial common step of polyketide formation, other steps for pigment biosynthesis appear to be species-dependent. In this study, we isolated an Aspergillus flavus spontaneous mutant that produced yellow conidia. The underlying genetic defect, a three-nucleotide in-frame deletion in the gene, AFLA_051390, that encodes a copper-transporting ATPase, was identified by a comparative genomics approach. This genetic association was confirmed by disruption of the wild-type gene. When yellow mutants were grown on medium supplemented with copper ions or chloride ions, green conidial color was partially and nearly completely restored, respectively. Further disruption of AFLA_045660, an orthologue of Aspergillus nidulans yA (yellow pigment) that encodes a multicopper oxidase, in wild type and a derived strain producing dark green conidia showed that it yielded mutants that produced gold conidia. The results placed formation of the gold pigment after that of the yellow pigment and before that of the dark green pigment. Using reported inhibitors of DHN-melanin (tricyclazole and phthalide) and DOPA-melanin (tropolone and kojic acid) pathways on a set of conidial color mutants, we investigated the involvement of melanin biosynthesis in A. flavus conidial pigment formation. Results imply that both pathways have no bearing on conidial pigment biosynthesis of A. flavus.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/enzimologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Esporos Fúngicos/enzimologia , Aspergillus flavus/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Genômica , Melaninas/biossíntese , Mutação , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/genética
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 138: 130-139, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870763

RESUMO

The flower color of Paeonia 'Coral Sunset' and 'Pink Hawaiian Coral' changes from coral to pink to pale yellow during flowering, which confers high ornamental value to these two cultivars. However, the molecular mechanism underlying flower color change is still unclear. In this study, flavonoids in petals of Paeonia 'Coral Sunset' and 'Pink Hawaiian Coral' at seven flowering stages were analyzed to explore the effects of the flavonoid component on changes in flower color. In addition, four cDNA libraries of 'Coral Sunset' during the critical blooming stages were constructed and the transcriptome was sequenced to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying changes to flower color. Two anthocyanins (cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside and peonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside) were detected in both cultivars. Total anthocyanin content in both cultivars accumulated continuously from stages 1-3 and then decreased sharply. Correlation analysis showed that the change in flower color from coral to pink to pale yellow is due to a significant decrease in anthocyanin content. A total of 91,583 Unigenes were obtained in 'Coral Sunset', 33,962 (37.08%) of which were annotated to major databases. Based on the enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes, eight structural genes (CHS, F3H, F3'H, FLS, DRF, ANS, ANR and UFGT) and 13 transcription factors (five MYB, three bHLH, one WD40, one HY5, one PIF3, one COP1 and two PHY) related to flavonoid biosynthesis were screened. The qRT-PCR results were generally consistent with the high-throughput sequencing results. This research will provide a foundation to clarify the mechanisms underlying changes in flower color of herbaceous peony.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Flores , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Paeonia , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Paeonia/genética , Paeonia/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207755, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532218

RESUMO

The present study underlines a statistically optimized, low cost, effective approach for efficient co-valorization of two non-efficiently utilized, highly accumulated, raw agro-industrial wastes: corn cob and glycerol for co-production of natural biopigments: monascus orange and red pigments by the aid of Monascus purpureus strain ATCC 16436. A three step sequential, statistical modeling approach: one variable at a time (OVAT), Plackett-Burman design (PBD), and central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the production of monascus pigments using co-solid state fermentation of the two raw agro-industrial wastes. Corn cob among other carbon sources (e.g., rice grains, sugarcane bagasse, and potato peel) was the most appropriate substrate triggering co-production of orange and red monascus pigments; deduced from OVAT. Glycerol and inoculum size proved to impose significant consequences (P<0.05) on the production of monascus pigments as inferred from PBD. The optimal levels of inoculum size (12 x 1011 spores/mL) and glycerol (2.17 M) did achieve a maximal color value of 133.77 and 108.02 color value units/mL of orange and red pigments, respectively at 30 oC after 10 days; concluded from CCD with an agitation speed of 150 rpm. Present data would underpin the large scale production of monascus pigments using the present approach for efficient exploitation of such biopigments in food, pharmaceutical and textile industries.


Assuntos
Glicerol/metabolismo , Química Verde/métodos , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Zea mays/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Cor , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fermentação , Química Verde/economia , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Oryza/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Saccharum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 23(7)2018 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037113

RESUMO

In this study, the co-culture of Nigrospora oryzae and Beauveria bassiana, the endophytes in the seeds of Dendrobium officinale, were examined for metabolite diversity. Five new azaphilones were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectral analysis. In terms of azaphilones, compound 2 had an unprecedented skeleton, with a bicyclic oxygen bridge. The antifungal selectivities of the metabolite produced by N. oryzae against its co-culture fungus, B. bassiana, and common pathogens exhibited competitive interaction in this mix-culture. Compounds 1 and 2 showed obvious nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity with ratios of 37%, and 39%, respectively, at a concentration of 50 µM.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Antibiose , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/química , Benzopiranos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Cocultura , Endófitos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Meat Sci ; 143: 60-68, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715661

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 µg vitamin D3/kg of feed; (2)50 µg of 25-hydroxvitamin D3/kg of feed (25-OH-D3); (3)50 µg vitamin D2/kg of feed; (4)50 µg vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D2). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D3 diet exhibited the highest (P < 0.001) serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity. Mushroom D2 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms improved (P < 0.05) pig performance, carcass weight and LT colour. In conclusion, 25-OH-D3 is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/análise , Calcifediol/sangue , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/análise , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/análise , Ergocalciferóis/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa , Ganho de Peso
9.
Meat Sci ; 143: 81-86, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715664

RESUMO

The purine contents of animal foods are becoming widely concerned because excess intake of purine increases the risk of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, we investigated the impacts of breed, tissue and sex on pork purine content and its correlations with multiple meat quality traits. Among six pig breeds, the average value of total purine contents (TP) in longissimus lumborum muscle was lowest in Chinese Laiwu pigs (114.2 mg/100 g) while highest in Chinese Bamaxiang mini pigs (139.3 mg/100 g). Considerable variations in TP were observed within most breeds, as well as among twelve pork organs with the range from 7 to 245 mg/100 g. However, no significant differences in TP were found between barrows and gilts. Intriguingly, lower purine content in meat was significantly associated with higher ultimate pH, better meat color and more abundant intramuscular fat content and marbling. The results thus suggest that the selection of low-purine pig species is available, which may simultaneously improve other meat quality traits.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Purinas/análise , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Porco Miniatura/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Endogâmicos , China , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Gota/dietoterapia , Gota/etiologia , Gota/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Porco Miniatura/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(16): 4129-4138, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633617

RESUMO

Monascus pigments (Mps) have been used as food colorants for several centuries in Asian countries. MptriA is a putative acetyltransferase gene involved in the MPs biosynthesis. To analyze the function of MptriA, an MptriA disruption strain (Δ MptriA) and a complementation strain (Δ MptriA:: MptriA) were successfully obtained In addition to the loss of color, the disruption of MptriA had little effect on the phenotypes during growth on four different media. The Δ MptriA strain showed decreased pigment and citrinin production during the liquid-fermentation process. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of several genes involved in the synthesis of pigments and citrinin was down-regulated in Δ MptriA. These results demonstrated that the role of MptriA was to transfer an acyl group to the pyranoquinone structure of the polyketide chromophore during Monascus pigment biosynthesis and to influence the citrinin biosynthesis pathway. This study contributes to the exploration of pigment biosynthesis in M. purpureus.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Monascus/enzimologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Acetiltransferases/genética , Citrinina/biossíntese , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Monascus/genética , Monascus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monascus/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(3)2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494547

RESUMO

Plants of the genus Calathea possess many leaf colors, and they are economically important because they are widely used as ornamentals for interior landscaping. Physiological performances and photosynthetic capacities of C. insignis and C. makoyana were investigated. The photosynthetic efficiencies of C. insignis and C. makoyana were significantly increased when the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 0 to 600 µmol photons·m-2·s-1 and became saturated with a further increase in the PPFD. The two Calathea species had lower values of both the light saturation point and maximal photosynthetic rate, which indicated that they are shade plants. No significant differences in predawn Fv/Fm values (close to 0.8) were observed between dark-green (DG) and light-green (LG) leaf sectors in all tested leaves. However, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II largely decreased as the PPFD increased. An increase in the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate was observed in both species to a maximum at 600 µmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD, following by a decrease to 1500 µmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD. Compared to LG leaf extracts, DG leaf extracts contained higher levels of chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, Chls a + b, carotenoids (Cars), anthocyanins (Ants), flavonoids (Flas), and polyphenols (PPs) in all plants, except for the Ant, Fla and PP contents of C. insignis plants. Calathea insignis also contained significantly higher levels of total protein than did C. makoyana. The adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), red-green, and flavonol index (FlavI) were significantly correlated to leaf Chls a + b, Cars, Ants, and Flas in C. makoyana, respectively, and can be used as indicators to characterize the physiology of these plants.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Marantaceae/química , Marantaceae/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Clorofila/metabolismo , Luz , Fótons , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 125: 116-125, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438896

RESUMO

Although peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important edible oil crops globally, pigments present in the testa influence both the processing efficiency and the quality of the oil. In peanut, polymeric phenolic compounds are present in the episperm rather than in the endothelium and their levels increase during ripening; therefore, to better understand testa development, and especially the accumulation of pigments, RNA-Seq was applied to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of peanut testae at three different developmental stages (i.e., at 20 days after flowering - 20DAF - and at 40DAF and 60DAF). A total of 5452 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were obtained encompassing these three stages; comparative results showed that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction comprised the principal KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways expressed during peanut testa development. Further studies revealed that the expression patterns of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes PAL, C4H, CHS, and CHI (early biosynthetic genes - EBGs) were consistent with the accumulation of testa pigments. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate that EBGs, as well as the homologs of AtMYB111 (i.e., c35101_g4 and c37398_g2), are likely the principal regulators of testa pigment accumulation; the gene database assembled here is therefore a sequencing resource for future research and provides a foundation for understanding the regulation of pink testa pigmentation in peanuts.


Assuntos
Arachis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Arachis/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 371, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321610

RESUMO

Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation due to global change can affect plant growth and metabolism. Here, we evaluated the capacity of quinoa to resist under short acute UVB irradiation. Quinoa was daily exposed for 30 or 60 min to 1.69 W m-2 UVB. The results showed that 30 min exposure in 9 d-course did not cause severe alterations on photosynthetic pigments and flavonoids, but a significant increase of antioxidant capacity was observed. Otherwise, 60 min UVB in 5 d-course reduced almost all these parameters except for an increase in the de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and led to the death of the plants. Further studies of gas exchange and fluorescence measurements showed that 30 min UVB dramatically decrease stomatal conductance, probably associated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was also observed, which could be a response to reduce ROS. Otherwise, irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was found with 60 min UVB probably due to severe ROS overproduction that decompensates the redox balance inducing UVB non-specific signaling. Moreover, 60 min UVB compromised Rubisco carboxylase activity and photosynthetic electron transport. Overall, these data suggest that quinoa modulates different response mechanisms depending on the UVB irradiation dosage.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/fisiologia , Chenopodium quinoa/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese
14.
Molecules ; 23(1)2018 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301350

RESUMO

The production of Monascus pigments and related byproducts, via microbial fermentation, has been broadly utilized as coloring by traditional food industries and as a natural textile dye. In addition to these traditional purposes, Monascus pigments have been recently favored for a variety of commercial and academic purposes. Pigments and derivatives formed during Monascus fermentation have pharmaceutical and clinical properties that can counteract common diseases, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. Various research attempts have investigated the optimum conditions for this derived compound synthesis, as well as the still-unknown bio-functional effects. Recently, several studies were conducted using Monascus sp. KCCM 10093 and its derivatives. These experimental outcomes potentially reflect the bio-functional features of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093. However, no publication to date provides an overview of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093's unique metabolite products, functionalities, or biological pathways. In order to develop profitable commercial applications of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093, it is necessary not only to conduct continuous research, but also to systematically organize previous Monascus studies. The goals of this review are to investigate the current derivatives of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093 pigments-some of which have demonstrated newly-identified functionality-and the relevant uses of these molecules for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical purposes.


Assuntos
Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Corantes de Alimentos/metabolismo , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Humanos , Metabolismo Secundário
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(4): 918-925, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313328

RESUMO

Because of the increasing demand for healthy and safe food, Monascus spp. have gained much attention as a sustainable source of natural food colorant. In this study, a novel integrated fermentation system consisting of surfactant and in situ extractant was established for efficiently producing yellow pigments by M. purpureus sjs-6. The maximum production of Monascus yellow pigment (669.2 U/mL) was obtained when 40% soybean oil (as extractant) was supplied at the beginning and 5 g/L Span-80 (as surfactant) was supplied at the 72nd h, which resulted in production 27.8-times of that of the control. Critical factors such as alleviating the product inhibition, increasing the membrane permeability, changing the hyphal morphology, and influencing the cell activity have been suggested as the underlying mechanisms. This system is of great significance for the bioprocess, which suffers product inhibition, and it can serve as a promising step for enhancing the yield of hydrophobic metabolites.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hexoses , Microscopia Acústica , Monascus/fisiologia , Monascus/ultraestrutura , Óleo de Soja , Tensoativos
16.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 69(2): 144-154, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659066

RESUMO

This study compared the rate of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by different probiotic combinations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to determine any synergistic effects. Six different fibre fractions were fermented with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and 48 h. SCFAs were quantified by gas chromatography. Inter-genus combinations of bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus that yielded the lowest SCFA production. Acetate was the most abundant, while propionate and butyrate were the most utilised. The SCFA formation was as acetate > propionate > butyrate and the total dietary fibre produced most of the SCFA. Most combinations utilised 60-80% of the fibre; BB + BL + LR digested the fibre completely. The quantity, pattern and the time of release of SCFA depends on the genus, but the combination of pre and probiotics is of great importance for the outcome.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium breve/fisiologia , Bifidobacterium longum/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Lactobacillus acidophilus/fisiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/fisiologia , Probióticos , Bifidobacterium breve/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium longum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Cinética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose , Simbióticos
17.
Food Chem ; 245: 786-791, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287441

RESUMO

Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate could be an interesting source for red pigment production by Monascus ruber Tieghem IOC 2225. The influence of different wavelength of light-emitting diode (LED) at 250 µmol.m-2.s-1 of photon flux density on red pigment production by M. ruber in glucose-based medium was evaluated. Then, SCB hydrolysate was used as carbon source under the previously selected light incidence conditions. In glucose-based medium, the highest pigment production was achieved in fermentation assisted with orange LED light (8.28 UA490nm), white light (8.26 UA490nm) and under dark condition (7.45 UA490nm). By using SCB hydrolysate-based medium, the highest red pigment production (18.71 AU490nm) was achieved under dark condition and the glucose and cellobiose present in the hydrolysate were metabolized. SCB enzymatic hydrolysate was demonstrated to be a promising carbon source for high thermal stability red pigment production (activation energy of 10.5 kcal.mol-1), turning an interesting alternative for implementation in biorefineries.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Carbono/metabolismo , Celobiose/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Isoquinolinas/metabolismo , Iluminação , Saccharum/química
18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(1): 206-210, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643477

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have suggested that polyphenols extracted from red wine (RWPs) favourably affect insulin sensitivity, but there is controversy over whether RWPs exert similar effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether RWPs improve insulin sensitivity in obese volunteers. Obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2 ) volunteers were randomly allocated to RWPs 600 mg/d (n = 14) or matched placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind parallel-arm study for 8 weeks. The participants were investigated at baseline and at the end of the study. Insulin sensitivity was determined using a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (M-value), a mixed-meal test (Matsuda index), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RWPs elicited no significant changes in M-value (RWP group: median [interquartile range; IQR] baseline 3.0 [2.4; 3.6]; end of study 3.3 [2.4; 4.8] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 3.4 [2.8; 4.4]; end of study 2.9 [2.8; 5.9] mg/kg/min; P = .65), in Matsuda index (RWP group: median [IQR] baseline 3.3 [2.2; 4.8]; end of study 3.6 [2.4; 4.8] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 4.0 [3.0; 6.0]; end of study 4.0 [3.0; 5.2]; P = .88), or in HOMA-IR. This study showed that 8 weeks of RWP supplementation did not improve insulin sensitivity in 29 obese volunteers. Our findings were not consistent with the hypothesis that RWPs ameliorate insulin resistance in human obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Vinho/análise , Adulto , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Período Pós-Prandial , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 109: 950-954, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162465

RESUMO

Monacolin K, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, is a secondary metabolite synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKS) from Monascus ruber. The mokH gene encoding Zn(II)2Cys6 binding protein and mokA gene encoding polyketide synthase are presumed to activate monacolin K production. In this study, linoleic acid could be a quorum sensing signaling molecule to increase monacolin K production in the cyclic AMP(cAMP)-protein kinase A(PKA) signaling pathway. Analysis of the PKA activity and the cAMP concentration shows that linoleic acid could increase cAMP concentration and activate PKA. Analysis of the RT-qPCR products demonstrates that 256µM and 512µM linoleic acid can up-regulate mokH and mokA gene transcript levels. Especially with 512µM linoleic acid addition, linoleic acid increase 1.35 folds of monacolin K production, but 64µM linoleic acid increase 1.94 folds of red pigment production in Monascus ruber. These results show the cAMP-PkA pathway activity can up-regulate mokA and mokH gene, which enhance the yield of Monacolin K.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Lovastatina/biossíntese , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática , Percepção de Quorum
20.
Med Mycol ; 56(6): 735-745, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228272

RESUMO

The pathogenic dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei is known to cause a fatal systemic mycosis in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV patients in Southeast Asia. The basic leucine-zipper (bZip) transcription factor gene, yapA, has been identified in T. marneffei. A prior study described that yapA was involved in the oxidative and nitrosative stress response in T. marneffei. Interestingly, an essential role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1p in the oxidative stress response is the activation of the transcription of its target genes. To identify the target genes of yapA in T. marneffei, the qRT-PCR method were used in this study. Investigation into the expression of genes which are probably regulated by yapA revealed that yapA controlled the expression of cat1 (catalase), cpeA (catalase-peroxidase), sodA (copper, zinc superoxide dismutase), gcs1 (glutamate-cysteine ligase), glr1 (glutathione oxidoreductase), trr1/trr2 (thioredoxin reductase), and trxA (thioredoxin) during stress conditions in all forms of conidium, mycelium, and yeast phase. An exception to this was the expression of cat1 under conditions of oxidative stress in the mould phase with a similar relative expression level in all of the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains. These genes are involved in response against oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in this fungus. The data showed that they could be regulated by the yapA gene during stress conditions. Moreover, the yapA gene is also known to control red pigment production by inhibiting the regulation of the five polyketide synthase (pks) genes, pks3 (polyketide synthase), rp1 (transcription activator), rp2 (ß-subunit fatty acid synthase), rp3 (α-subunit fatty acid synthase), and rp4 (oxidoreductase) in the mould phase. In addition, it also regulates transcription in the laccase gene cluster including lac (extracellular dihydrogeodin oxidase/laccase), and multicopper oxidase encoding genes (PMAA_050860, PMAA_072680, PMAA_085520, PMAA_082010, and PMAA_082060) in all stages of the T. marneffei lifecycle (conidia, mould, and yeast phase). This study suggests the importance of the role of the yapA gene in the stress response and virulence of T. marneffei.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/fisiologia , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Talaromyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Talaromyces/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Lacase/genética , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Estresse Nitrosativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA