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1.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(1): 101-121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653537

RESUMO

This article describes the technique of percutaneous pinning in dogs and cats. Only acute fractures evaluated within the first 48 hours after trauma are selected for percutaneous pinning. Reduction is performed with careful manipulation of the fracture to minimize the trauma to the growth plate. After ensuring the fracture is reduced anatomically, smooth pins of appropriate size are inserted through stab incisions or through large-gauge needles. Depending on the anatomic location, the pins are cut flush with the bone or bent over. The main advantages of this technique are the minimal surgical trauma and lower perioperative morbidity.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Gatos/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/lesões , Cães/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos
2.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(1): 67-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668598

RESUMO

Reviews of clinical outcomes led to the foundation of a new approach in fracture management known as biological osteosynthesis. As intramedullary rods featuring cannulations and locking devices at both extremities, interlocking nails are well suited for bridging osteosynthesis. Unique biological and mechanical benefits make them ideal for minimally invasive nail osteosynthesis and an attractive, effective alternative to plating, particularly in revisions of failed plate osteosynthesis. Thanks to a new angle-stable locking design, interlocking nailing indications have been expanded to osteosynthesis of epi-metaphyseal fractures, including those with articular involvement and angular deformities such as distal femoral varus and associated patellar luxations.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/veterinária , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos
3.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 441-450, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395324

RESUMO

Exotic animal orthopedics has not incorporated the most recent progress made in small animal surgery or human medicine. Although minimally invasive osteosynthesis has been incorporated as a routinely used alternative in small animals, its use in exotic animals is still in its infancy. This article compliments the reviews of orthopedics in small mammals, birds, and reptiles in the previous issue. It reviews relevant recent studies performed in laboratory animals about new orthopedic materials and techniques showing potential to become incorporated into the routine orthopedic treatment of exotic animals in the coming years.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Equipamentos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Ortopedia/veterinária , Animais , Aves , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Parafusos Ósseos/veterinária , Transplante Ósseo/veterinária , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/tendências , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/tendências , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/veterinária , Humanos , Mamíferos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/veterinária , Equipamentos Ortopédicos/tendências , Ortopedia/métodos , Próteses e Implantes/veterinária , Répteis
4.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(5): 351-361, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Targon Vet System (TVS) is a 2.5-mm interlocking nail that can be applied minimally invasively. The purpose of this study was to test if the TVS could be safely applied percutaneously to different feline long bones without fluoroscopic guidance. METHODS: A gap fracture was created in 96 feline humeri, femora and tibiae (n = 32/group). Paired bones were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1) TVS inserted percutaneously with fluoroscopy and (2) TVS inserted percutaneously without fluoroscopy. Intraoperative evaluation (complications, procedure time, attempts), radiographs (pre-/postoperative alignment, length) and anatomical dissection (neurovascular injury, rotational alignment) were compared between treatment groups. RESULTS: The use of fluoroscopy did not lead to significant differences in any of the outcome measures. Intraoperative complications predominantly occurred in the distal humerus (12/32) and the proximal femur (7/32). In total, 20/96 complications occurred with no complications for the tibia. Neurovascular structures were only damaged at the medial side of the distal humerus (10/32). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the TVS can be safely applied percutaneously to the tibia and with limitations to the femur in normal cadaveric cats without fluoroscopy. Despite the limitations of a cadaveric study, the high number of complications is leading us to consider the humerus not safe for the TVS. A learning curve has to be expected and technical recommendations should be respected to decrease complications.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Gatos/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Animais , Cadáver , Fêmur/cirurgia , Fluoroscopia/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Úmero/cirurgia , Radiografia/veterinária , Tíbia/cirurgia
5.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(5): 362-368, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if articulated joint distraction in the canine elbow can effectively maintain a distraction gap between the articular surfaces of the canine elbow under a weight-bearing load. STUDY DESIGN: An articulated external skeletal fixator with turnbuckles was applied to seven canine cadaveric elbow specimens. Specimens were potted and mechanically tested at 135° of flexion, while joint contact pressure was recorded at three locations within the elbow. Joint distraction was sequentially increased, and loads of 5 N, 90 N and 180 N were incrementally applied. This process was repeated until no pressure was recorded at each of the three locations within the elbow under 180 N of applied load. RESULTS: To achieve 0 N of joint contact force with 180 N of axial load, the average amount of distraction needed was 2.3 ± 0.71 mm (range, 1.8-3.6 mm) at the distal turnbuckles and 1.67 ± 1.10 mm (range, 1.8-2.7 mm) at the proximal turnbuckles. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that joint distraction can effectively decrease articular pressure within the canine elbow joint. A maximum of 3.6 mm of distraction between the fixator turnbuckles was necessary to eliminate joint contact for the construct tested. Clinical investigation is necessary to establish if articulated elbow joint distraction is a safe and effective for the treatment of canine elbow osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Artroplastia/veterinária , Cães/fisiologia , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Animais , Artroplastia/métodos , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Cadáver , Cães/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Articulações/fisiologia , Articulações/cirurgia , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Suporte de Carga
6.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 29-37, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124609

RESUMO

To compare the bending strength of a locking plate (LP), nonlocking plate (NLP), and an external skeletal fixator intramedullary pin (ESF-IM) tie-in fixation applied by a dorsal approach in an avian humerus fracture model, 5 left humeri obtained from pigeon (Columba livia) cadavers were randomly assigned to each repair technique (n = 15). The ESF-IM group was repaired with a 0.062-inch intramedullary pin tied-in with two 0.035-inch positive profile transfixation pins using acrylic filled plastic tubing. The LP group was repaired with a dorsally applied titanium 1.6-mm screw 7-hole locking plate (1 bicortical and 2 monocortical screws in each segment). The NLP group was repaired with a dorsally applied 6-hole stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate (all bicortical screws). All constructs were applied before complete ostectomy to allow perfect reconstruction. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively for 1000 cycles in four-point bending before being tested to failure. Outcome measures included stiffness, strength, and strain energy. All specimens cycled without failure. The ESF-IM specimens were significantly stiffer and stronger than the plated repair groups. Plated constructs had significantly higher strain energies than ESF-IM. LP and NLP were of equal stiffness, strength, and strain energies. This study demonstrated that bending biomechanical properties of the ESF-IM configuration were superior to those of the dorsal plate fixation. Exact properties of fixation required to facilitate avian fracture healing are largely unknown. Further study, including assessments of optimal plate position and configuration, and torsional and in vivo studies in avian species are warranted.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Columbidae/lesões , Columbidae/cirurgia , Fixação de Fratura/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Úmero/lesões , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Placas Ósseas/classificação , Placas Ósseas/normas , Cadáver , Fixação de Fratura/instrumentação , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Úmero/cirurgia , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(6): 857-862, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971621

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the treatment outcomes of tibial fracture using different configurations of transfixation pinning and casting (TPC) in eight cattle. After pins were inserted to stabilize the fracture site, cast material was placed from the level of the stifle to the hoof (full TPC) in six cases and from the stifle to the proximal metatarsus (partial TPC) in two cases. Five cattle (three full TPC and two partial TPC cases) underwent TPC removal 36-86 days after surgery and resumed productivity. The other three cattle which underwent full TPC suffered from irreversible orthopedic complications within 5 weeks of surgery, while a prolonged healing process was observed in the partial TPC cases. Although TPC is an effective method for treating bovine tibial fracture, full TPC may result in a guarded prognosis in some cattle. However, partial TPC can delay healing. Surgeons should choose the optimal TPC configuration while considering the various factors that affect the healing process.


Assuntos
Moldes Cirúrgicos/veterinária , Bovinos/lesões , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas da Tíbia/veterinária , Animais , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Feminino , Consolidação da Fratura , Masculino , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Vet Surg ; 48(S1): O34-O40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of comminuted humeral bicondylar (also known as T-Y) fractures in dogs and report outcome in 3 cases. STUDY DESIGN: Surgical technique description and case report. ANIMALS: Three consecutive dogs with traumatic comminuted humeral T-Y fractures. METHODS: Dogs that presented with a traumatic humeral T-Y fracture were prospectively included. The condylar component of the fractures was reduced first by using a combination of percutaneous forceps and K-wires. A transcondylar screw was applied, and epicondylar pins were preplaced medially and laterally. The metaphyseal component of the fracture was then reduced and stabilized with the pins. Finally, a bone plate was applied percutaneously along the medial humeral surface. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was used throughout surgery in all cases. Postoperative alignment in the frontal and sagittal planes was compared to the contralateral limbs. Time to clinical union, clinical outcome, and complications were recorded. RESULTS: Three dogs were included. Body weight ranged from 5.9 to 40 kg. Incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle was identified as the primary pathology leading to the fracture in 2 cases. All cases experienced uncomplicated healing with good to excellent functional recovery. CONCLUSION: The reported technique was associated with good outcomes without complications in 3 cases. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis represents an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation in the treatment of comminuted humeral T-Y fractures.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas do Úmero/veterinária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/veterinária , Animais , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Parafusos Ósseos/veterinária , Fios Ortopédicos/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Úmero/patologia , Úmero/cirurgia , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(3): 257-268, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation technique for the treatment of open fractures in calves and foals. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-eight calves and four foals (weighing 45-105 kg) with fractures distal to the stifle or elbow made the subject for the retrospective study. The pins (2.0-3.0-mm Kirschner wires, crossed at 60-90°) were fixed at least at two locations in both proximal and distal bone fragments as per the case situation. The pins in the same plane were bent (∼2 cm from the skin) towards the fracture site or joint and were joined using an adhesive tape (additional pins used when required) to make a temporary scaffold of connecting bars or rings. Thoroughly mixed epoxy putty was applied along the pin scaffold (the epoxy columns were 20-25 mm diameter) and allowed to set for 45 to 60 minutes. All animals were evaluated based on various clinical and radiographic observations made at regular intervals. RESULTS: The epoxy-pin fixation was easy to apply and provided stable fixation of bone as indicated by early weight bearing, and fracture healing within 45 to 60 days (17/32 cases). The functional recovery was good to very good in 14 animals and satisfactory in nine cases by 12 months after removal of the fixator. CONCLUSIONS: The multiplanar epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation provides stable fixation of unstable open fractures distal to the stifle or elbow joint; hence, it can be used to treat a variety of fractures in calves and foals weighing up to approximately 100 kg, especially open infected fractures of lower limb, which are difficult to treat by conventional techniques.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Bovinos/lesões , Compostos de Epóxi , Fixadores Externos/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Cavalos/lesões , Animais , Fios Ortopédicos/veterinária , Bovinos/cirurgia , Feminino , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Cavalos/cirurgia , Masculino , Radiografia/veterinária , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/cirurgia
10.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(3): 222-233, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate cyclic fatigue behaviour of a new pin with a thread run-out design in comparison with three other types of pins commonly used for equine transfixation pin casting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four pairs of equine cadaveric third metacarpal bones (MC3) equipped with one transfixation pin placed horizontally in the distal metaphysis were tested using a simplified model, mimicking the biomechanical situation of equine transfixation pin casting. A 6.3/8.0-mm Imex Duraface pin with thread run-out design (ITROP) was compared with a 6.1-mm smooth Steinmann pin (SSP), a Securos 6.2-mm, positive-profile pin (SPPP) and an Imex 6.3-mm, positive-profile pin (IPPP) under cyclic loading until failure in axial compression of MC3. RESULTS: All pins broke at clinically relevant load levels and cycle numbers. The SSP endured significantly (p = 0.0025) more cycles before failure (mean: 48685) than the ITROP (mean 25889). No significant differences in cycles to failure were observed comparing the SPPP versus ITROP, and the IPPP versus ITROP, respectively. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A thread run-out design does not necessarily lead to higher resistance against pin breakage under cyclic loading conditions. The SSP was most resistant against cyclic failure in these testing conditions, even though it was associated with more lateromedial displacement and cortical wear-out. This could outweigh reported disadvantages of the SSP such as reduced resistance to axial extraction and pin loosening.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Cavalos/cirurgia , Falha de Prótese , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pinos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Cadáver , Teste de Materiais
11.
Vet Surg ; 48(4): 597-606, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report tibial fracture repairs with I-Loc angle-stable interlocking nails (AS-ILN) in 2 calves. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical case reports. ANIMALS: One 5-day-old Holstein calf and one 3-month-old beefalo calf. METHODS: In a 50-kg Holstein calf, a proximal juxtametaphyseal comminuted tibial fracture with tibial tuberosity slab fracture was repaired with an 8-160-mm I-Loc nail and 2 cortical lag screws. In an 89-kg beefalo calf, a long oblique middiaphyseal tibial fracture was repaired with an 8-185-mm I-Loc nail and 5 double loop cerclage wires. In each case, an I-Loc AS-ILN was selected because unique biomechanical challenges precluded treatment with traditional osteosynthesis methods, such as external coaptation or plate fixation. RESULTS: No complications were diagnosed, and clinical union was documented 4 weeks after surgery in both cases. Axial growth continued in both calves, with no evidence of angular limb deformity at 7- and 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing the use of the I-Loc nail in a bovine species. This application led to uncomplicated healing of tibial fractures and continued growth in both young calves described here. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Interlocking nailing may provide an effective and safe alternative for osteosynthesis of tibial fractures in young calves. Insertion of the AS-ILN across the center of the proximal tibial physis of a rapidly growing calf does not seem to alter its growth potential.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Bovinos/lesões , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas da Tíbia/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Tíbia/cirurgia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
12.
Am J Vet Res ; 79(12): 1287-1297, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To compare strain at the bone-pin and cast-pin interfaces among 3 transfixation pin-cast constructs applied to equine forelimbs. ANIMALS 15 forelimbs from 15 adult horses. PROCEDURES Limbs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 constructs. Centrally threaded positive-profile pins were used for all constructs, and the most distal pin was placed just proximal to the epicondyles of the third metacarpal bone. Construct 1 consisted of two 6.3-mm-diameter pins spaced 4 cm apart at 30° to each other. Construct 2 was the same as construct 1 except the pins were placed 5 cm apart. Construct 3 consisted of four 4.8-mm-diameter pins spaced 2 cm apart and at 10° to one another. An osteotomy was created in the proximal phalanx. Strain gauges were attached to the cast and bone proximal to the pins and adjacent to the osteotomy. Limbs underwent compressive loading until failure. Simplified finite element models of constructs 1 and 3 were created to further evaluate strain and load transfer between the bone and cast. RESULTS Strain did not differ between constructs 1 and 2. Compared with the 2-pin constructs, construct 3 had less strain at the bone-pin interface and more strain at the cast-pin interface, which indicated a greater amount of load was transferred to the cast of the 4-pin construct than the cast of the 2-pin constructs. Finite element modeling supported those findings. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the 4-pin construct was more effective in unloading the fractured bone than either 2-pin construct.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Cavalos/cirurgia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Membro Anterior , Ossos Metacarpais/cirurgia , Osteotomia/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 54(6): e54605, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272474

RESUMO

An acetabular physeal fracture in a 13 wk old dog was treated with open fixation using Kirschner wire cross pins and a four-pin Type 1A external fixator, resulting in successful healing of the fracture. Three years following the surgery, marked osteoarthrosis of the affected hip was noted, although clinical function of the hip was good. The authors suggest this fixation method be considered a viable option for fixation of acetabular physeal fractures in dogs.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/lesões , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Fixadores Externos/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Animais , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 33(3): 63-64, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243360

RESUMO

This article presents a report of single-stage bilateral tibial tuberosity advancement for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in an English bulldog. The reconstruction was performed by a new surgical technique involving tibial tuberosity advancement and fixation with two cranially placed lag screws. The patient was able to ambulate normally at a walk without lameness four days postoperatively. Except for bruising of the surgical site, no complications were observed during a six-month follow-up period.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Tíbia/cirurgia , Animais , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cães/cirurgia , Coxeadura Animal , Masculino , Osteotomia/veterinária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária
15.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 31(5): 315-320, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess acetabular articular cartilage damage when an acetabular tunnel is drilled by passing the drill bit through the femoral tunnel. The second objective was to assess the success rate of passing the toggle through the femoral and acetabular tunnels in a single manoeuvre using a toggle delivery device. METHODS: Open bilateral coxofemoral luxations in 16 canine cadavers were repaired by toggle pin technique by a surgical resident (n = 8) and a diplomate surgeon (n = 8). In one hip of each cadaver, the acetabular tunnel was drilled through the femoral tunnel and the toggle was passed in a single manoeuvre using the delivery device. In the contralateral hip, the tunnels were drilled separately, and the toggle was passed through each tunnel separately (resident) or in a single manoeuvre (surgeon). Pelves were examined for acetabular cartilage damage and toggle placement. RESULTS: Cartilage damage did not occur with independent drilling of the acetabulum but occurred in 6/16 hips in which the acetabulum was drilled via the femoral tunnel. Successful deployment of the toggle was obtained in 24/24 hips in which the toggle was passed through the femoral and acetabular tunnels simultaneously using the delivery device, regardless of how the acetabular tunnel was drilled. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Drilling the acetabular tunnel through the femoral tunnel risks damaging the acetabular cartilage. Success was consistently obtained when passing the toggle through the femoral and acetabular tunnels simultaneously using the toggle delivery device.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Luxação do Quadril/veterinária , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Acetábulo/patologia , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Animais , Cães/cirurgia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Luxação do Quadril/patologia , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos
16.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 31(5): 373-378, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Study included surgical management of radius and ulna fracture in a 2-year-old, 220 kg crossbred heifer presented with a 2-day-old history of injury resulting in severe, non-weight bearing lameness of the left forelimb. METHODS: The condition was diagnosed clinically and confirmed radiographically as a middle third oblique comminuted fracture of the left radius and ulna. Static intramedullary interlocking nailing was performed for fracture fixation. An interlocking nail of 12-mm diameter and 26-cm length was introduced in a retrograde manner from the distal aspect of the radius. RESULTS: The animal was able to bear weight on the affected limb within 7 days post surgery. Good callus formation and complete weight bearing were observed by 35th day. Bending of the screws and osteophytic reaction were the major postoperative complications observed radiographically. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: From this case study, it was established that static intramedullary interlocking nailing can be used as an alternative technique for fracture repair of the radius and ulna in cattle where stable fracture fixation by bone plating is questionable.


Assuntos
Bovinos/lesões , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas do Rádio/veterinária , Fraturas da Ulna/veterinária , Animais , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Bovinos/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Radiografia/veterinária , Fraturas do Rádio/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Fraturas da Ulna/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Ulna/cirurgia
17.
Vet Surg ; 47(5): 634-639, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors contributing to tibial tuberosity fracture (TTF) after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 2490) with cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent 3000 TPLO surgeries. METHODS: Radiographs of 3000 stifles from dogs that underwent TPLO were reviewed for evidence of TTF. Two ratios were generated: (1) the height of the tuberosity over the width of the tibia at the most distal extent of the osteotomy (TW) and (2) the width of the narrowest point of the tuberosity over TW. RESULTS: Twenty-three (0.77%) cases of fracture were identified. Factors that correlated with increased odds of fracture were placement of antirotational pins distal to the insertion of the patellar ligament (PL), tuberosities with the narrowest point below the insertion of PL, placement of multiple pins distal to the PL, and bilateral simultaneous TPLO. Tuberosities that fractured were significantly taller and narrower than those that did not fracture. Rotation past the "safe point" and presence of a gap at the osteotomy were not correlated with fracture. CONCLUSION: Placement of multiple pins, pin placement distal to the insertion of the PL, location of the narrowest point of the tibial tuberosity distal to the insertion of the PL, and simultaneous bilateral TPLO were all associated with TTF in this study CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Preoperative planning and postoperative assessment of TPLO should take into consideration the predisposing factors identified in this study to prevent TTF.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Osteotomia/veterinária , Tíbia/cirurgia , Fraturas da Tíbia/veterinária , Animais , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Pinos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 119: 27-36, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of different fixation strategies of the intramedullary interlocking nail (IIN) on the mechanical behavior of a polymeric implant applied for femoral fracture fixation in calves, and to evaluate the performance of a glass fiber-reinforced polymer applied in a bovine femoral fracture reduction system, five Holstein male animals with a mean weight (±SD) of 62.8 ±â€¯20.4 kg and aged 74 ±â€¯15 were used to generate biomechanical parameters for this study. Twelve models of the fractured bovine femur, simulating a simple oblique fracture, were developed for use during the simulations. The models were divided into three groups, with each group of four models being associated with a different fixation strategy. Models were used to simulate the loading conditions corresponding to a calf in the transition (decubitus position to static position) condition. The maximum stresses found in each set (bone/implant) were compared with the reference stresses of each nail material. RESULTS: Maximum implant stresses were found in the screws and at the interface between the screw and the nail. The performance of implants was influenced by the material and fixation strategy, which can be confirmed by the stress values found in the set. The analysis indicated that the composite nail is able to withstand the loading demands in all fixation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The finite element analysis (FEA) demonstrated that all polymeric materials analyzed provided sufficient resistance to withstand the loading forces imposed to the femur when an adequate blocking strategy was applied.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Bovinos , Fraturas do Fêmur/veterinária , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Parafusos Ósseos , Bovinos/lesões , Bovinos/cirurgia , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Masculino
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 13(1): 306, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The physis is the weakest component of immature long bones, and physeal fractures constitute about 30% of fractures in growing dogs. Fractures of the proximal humeral physis typically have a Salter Harris type I or II configuration. These fractures require accurate reduction and adequate stabilization to allow for any potential continued longitudinal bone growth, in conjunction with physeal fracture healing. Conventional internal fixation of these fractures involves insertion of two parallel Kirschner wires, although other methods described include tension band wiring, Rush pinning, and lag screws. However these recommendations are based on anecdotal evidence, and information about the biomechanical stability of physeal fracture repair is sparse. The unique anatomical structure of the epiphyseal-metaphyseal complex makes the gripping of the epiphysis for ex vivo biomechanical testing of physeal fracture repair very challenging. The objective of our study was to biomechanically assess the optimal number (three, two or one) of implanted Kirschner wires in a porcine Salter Harris I proximal humeral physeal fracture model, using motion analysis tracking of peri-fragmental retro-reflective markers while constructs were subjected to a constant axial compression and a sinusoidal torque of +/- 2 Nm at 0.5 Hz for 250 cycles. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the three constructs (three, two or one Kirschner wire repair) for gross angular displacement (p < 0.001). The difference between three pins and two pins on toggle was not significant (p = 0.053), but both three-pin and two-pin fixation significantly reduced rotational toggle compared to one-pin fixation. Construct stiffness was not significantly different between any of the pin groups (p > 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Motion analysis tracking using peri-fragmental markers in this porcine model of physeal fracture repair found that the stability at the fracture site of one-pin fixation was significantly less than two-pin and three-pin fixation. Whether there was increased stabilization of these fractures with three-pin fixation compared to two-pin fixation was not conclusive in this porcine model.


Assuntos
Fios Ortopédicos/veterinária , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas do Úmero/veterinária , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Úmero/lesões , Suínos/lesões
20.
Vet Surg ; 46(8): 1166-1174, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and safety of pin placement for lateral vertebral stabilization to the reference dorsal stabilization. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized noninferiority trial. SAMPLE POPULATION: Twenty Greyhound cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-L6). METHODS: One hundred and fifty-nine lumbar vertebral pins placed in 80 vertebrae were assessed; these pins were distributed approximately equally between the dorsal and lateral approaches, and between 2 surgeons. Pin angle accuracy, bone purchase distance, and distances from pin to the spinal canal and the aorta were measured for each pin. RESULTS: The lateral approach was superior for pin angle accuracy and bone purchase. The mean angle of deviation was 15.3° with the dorsal approach and 7.0° with the lateral approach. The mean bone purchase was 16.7 mm with the dorsal approach and 22.2 mm with the lateral approach. Pins were placed at a mean of 2.3 mm from the spinal canal with the dorsal approach and 1.7 mm with the lateral approach. Pins were placed at a mean of 3.8 mm from the aorta with the dorsal approach and 8.0 mm with the lateral approach. The percentage of pins breaching the spinal canal was 14% with the dorsal approach and 19% with the lateral approach. Fourteen percent of pins placed via the dorsal approach breached the aorta, whereas no pins placed via the lateral approach breached the aorta. CONCLUSION: Relative to the dorsal approach, the lateral approach improves angle accuracy, bone purchase, and distance between pins, and the aorta and is noninferior with regards to the distance between pins and the spinal canal.


Assuntos
Cães/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/veterinária , Animais , Aorta , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pinos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Cadáver , Cães/lesões , Feminino , Individualidade , Fixadores Internos/veterinária , Masculino , Canal Vertebral , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
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